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Kansas Historical 

NYLE H. MILLER, Managing Editor 

JAMES C. MALIN, Associate Editor 

Volume XXIV 

(Kansas Historical Collections) 


Published by 

The Kansas State Historical Society 
Topeka, Kansas 



Contents of Volume XXIV 

Number 1 Spring, 1958 


With photographs of Pike's Peak emigrants at St. Joseph, Mo., and Wolf 
river ford, Doniphan county (1859), frontispiece. 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part One, 

1857 Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 6 

With portraits of Daniel Anthony of Rochester, N. Y., and Daniel Read 
Anthony of Leavenworth, facing p. 16, and a map of eastern Kansas in 
1857 showing the Indian lands, facing p. 17. 


AN ARMY HOSPITAL: From Horses to Helicopters 

Fort Riley, 1904-1957 Concluded George E. Omer, Jr., 57 

With photographs of the medical officers' training camp and temporary 
barracks for nurses, World War I; Fort Riley hospitals, 1918, 1926 
and 1953; operating room scene and Irwin Army Hospital, 1957, and 
portraits of Daniel B. Leininger, William N. Bispham, Leonard Wood 
and Edward R. Schreiner, between pp. 64, 65. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Address of the President, 
SITES, by Ray H. Mattison; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the 

Society 79 




Number 2 Summer, 1958 PAGE 

WAR AND POLITICS: The Price Raid of 1864 Albert Castel, 129 

With three water colors, by Samuel J. Reader, illustrating incidents of the 
Price Raid, frontispiece. 



CAPPER PUBLICATIONS Homer E. Socolofsky, 151 

With an illustration of an 1878 printed letter from Arthur Capper, facing 
p. 160, and photographs of Arthur Capper and the Capper building, 
facing p. 161. 


EDWARD SCHILLER James C. Malin, 168 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part Two, 

1858-1861 Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 198 


Compiled by Alberta Pantle, Librarian, 227 





Number 3 Autumn, 1958 



1859-1861 Edited by Louise Barry, 257 

With map showing the travels of the First U. S. cavalry, facing p. 272, 
and portraits of Thomas J. Wood and Eugene A. Carr, facing p. 273. 

THE MUDGE RANCH, HODGEMAN COUNTY Margaret Evans Caldwell, 285 

With photograph of the Mudge ranch house, facing p. 288, and plan of 
the ranch house and the Mudge cattle brand, facing p. 289. 


SALINE COUNTY /. Neale Carman, 305 

"CREATIVE EVOLUTION": The Philosophy of Elisha Wesley McComas, 

Fort Scott James C. Malin, 314 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part Three, October 1, 

1861-June 7, 1862. . .Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 351 




Number 4 Winter, 1958 



Allison Chandler, 385 

With photographs of cars in downtown Cotton wood Falls, and sketch of 
the route of the Consolidated Street Railway, frontispiece. 



1859-1861 Concluded Edited by Louise Barry, 399 

With sketches of Forts Washita and Arbuckle, facing p. 400, and por- 
traits of William H. Emory and Samuel D. Sturgis, facing p. 401. 

One James C. Malin, 426 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862 Concluded: Part Four, 

June 20-September 14, 1862 Edited by Edgar Langsdorf 

and R. W. Richmond, 458 

With map showing portions of Tennessee and Mississippi where Colonel 
Anthony was stationed, facing p. 464, and portraits of Charles R. Jenni- 
son, and James H. Lane, facing p. 465. 









Spring 1958 


Kansas State Historical Society 



Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 



With photographs of Pike's Peak emigrants at St. Joseph, Mo., and Wolf 
river ford, Doniphan county (1859), frontispiece. 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part One, 

1857 Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 6 

With portraits of Daniel Anthony of Rochester, N. Y., and Daniel Read 
Anthony of Leavenworth, facing p. 16, and a map of eastern Kansas in 
1857 showing the Indian lands, facing p. 17. 


AN ARMY HOSPITAL: From Horses to Helicopters 

Fort Riley, 1904-1957 Concluded George E. Omer, Jr., 57 

With photographs of the medical officers' training camp and temporary 
barracks for nurses, World War I; Fort Riley hospitals, 1918, 1926 
and 1953; operating room scene and Irwin Army Hospital, 1957, and 
portraits of Daniel B. Leinineer, William N. Bispham, Leonard Wood 
and Edward R. Schreiner, between pp. 64, 65. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING: Containing Reports of the Secretary, Treasurer, 
Executive and Nominating Committees; Address of the President, 
SITES, by Ray H. Mattison; Election of Officers; List of Directors of the 
Society 79 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth, Topeka, Kan., and is distributed free to 
members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be sent to the manag- 
ing editor at the Historical Society. The Society assumes no responsibility for 
statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


A rare photograph taken in the spring of 1859 
by Albert Bierstadt showing emigrant wagons in the 
bustling town of Bellemont, Doniphan county. It 
was located on the Missouri river, 1/2 miles north of 
Wathena. Bellemont failed to survive, and the 
townsite was officially abandoned in 1876. 

Pike's Peak emigrants preparing to shove off from St. Joseph, Mo., in the spring 

of 1859. This is another of the rare Bierstadt photographs recently acquired 

by the Kansas State Historical Society (see pp. 1-5). 

Bierstadt labelled this scene, "Wolf River Ford, Kansas/' It was an Oregon trail 
crossing of the Wolf river in northwest Doniphan county in 1859. 


Volume XXIV Spring, 1958 Number 1 

Some Rare Western Photographs by Albert Bier- 
stadt Now in the Historical Society Collections 


ECENTLY the Kansas State Historical Society acquired five rare 
photographs of the West which have been lost to the public for 
nearly 100 years. They are part of a large group of stereoscopic 
views which Albert Bierstadt, the noted artist, made in the spring 
and summer of 1859. Three of these pictures are featured in this 
issue of the Quarterly and are being published probably for the 
first time anywhere. 

The scene on the cover of the Quarterly was taken by Bierstadt 
in the now extinct town of Bellemont, Doniphan county, probably 
in early May, 1859. At that time Bellemont was one of the major 
outfitting points for emigrants to Pike's Peak and the West. One 
writer said that Bellemont was the busiest town in Doniphan 
county during the Pike's Peak gold rush. 1 Today the town does not 
exist, but this photograph provides excellent physical evidence of 
its appearance during its heyday. 2 Also reprinted are two other 
photographs taken about the same time. One shows a group of 
Pike's Peak emigrants waiting on the banks of the Missouri at St. 
Joseph for the steam ferry which would carry them across the river, 
perhaps to Bellemont. The third picture is a view of a ford on 
Wolf river in northwest Doniphan county, but the exact location 
has not been determined conclusively. 3 

JOSEPH W. SNELL is a member of the staff of the Kansas State Historical Society. 

1. Historical flit Book of Doniphan County, Kansas (Chicago, 1882), pp. 43, 44. 

2. Bellemont had its beginnings in 1852 with the establishment of a trading post on 
the west shore of the Missouri river in present Kansas by John H. and James R. White- 
head. For many years the place was known as both Whitehead and Bellemont. In the 
spring of 1855 the Whitehead Town Company was organized, land was purchased and 
settlement began. In 1855 the territorial legislature authorized James R. Whitehead to 
operate a ferry across the Missouri. This act was repealed in 1859 and a new ferry com- 
pany was organized. This company obtained a steam ferry boat and the trip from Belle- 
mont to St. Joseph was made twice daily. This ferry was discontinued after two years of 
service. The town of Bellemont was incorporated on February 18, 1860, and the White- 
head Town Company changed its name to the Bellemont Town Company a few days later 
In 1876 the townsite was officially abandoned by an act of the state legislature. Bellemont 
was located in the SWJ4, Sec. 15, T 3 S, R 22 E, or on the Missouri river 1% miles north 
of Wathena. Ibid.; The Statutes of the Territory of Kansas, 1855, pp. 773, 853; Private 
Laws of the Territory of Kansas . . ., 1859, pp. 97-99; ibid., 1860, pp. 76-78, 224, 
225; The Session Laws of 1876 . . ., Kansas, p. 326; St. Joseph (Mo.) Weekly West, 
June 12, 1859. 

3. The two photographs which are not reprinted are pictures of a Shoshone warrior in 
Nebraska and an Indian pony somewhere in Kansas. 


The date of these pictures suggests that they may be the earliest 
photographs extant which show this Kansas branch of the Oregon 
trail. Kansans will be interested in the fact that the only other 
Kansas photograph excluding portraits in the collections of the 
Historical Society which predates these is a daguerreotype of a 
Free-State cannon and its crew taken in Topeka in 1856. In fact, 
the Society in all of its over 33,000 pictures, has only three other 
photographic scenes of territorial Kansas. One of these, the Doy 
rescue party, was portrayed on ambrotypes 4 by A. G. DaLee of 
Lawrence in July, 1859, and another, a Manhattan street scene of 
1860, was made by a photographer, now unidentified. The third 
scene shows the office of the Neosho Valley Register, Burlington, 
probably late in 1859. (Three photographs of street scenes in 
Atchison are borderline cases but they have not yet been positively 
identified as dating from the territorial period.) So these new 
Bierstadt photographs are important to the history of Kansas in 
two respects they are "firsts" of the northern branch of the Kansas 
portion of the Oregon trail and they add to the meager number of 
Kansas territorial views. 5 

Albert Bierstadt, widely known today for his huge canvasses of 
Western Americana, is less well known as a photographer. At the 
time of his first trip west he was a young man just home from art 
study in Europe. The object of his journey was to make sketches 
and photograph scenery for later paintings. Bierstadt took a great 
many pictures on the trip, a fact which is remarkable in itself when 
one considers the bulky equipment and the technical difficulties 
inherent in photography in those days. He may have taken as 
many as 100 photographs though only 51 have been listed. Bier- 
stadt wrote "we have taken many stereoscopic views, but not so 
many of mountain scenery as I could wish, owing to various 
obstacles attached to the process, but still a goodly number/' 6 The 
artist photographed many Indians for he realized that the race was 
disappearing and he felt it his duty to record as much of the van- 
ishing culture as possible. 7 

4. The daguerreotype and ambrotype are considered photographs since they fall within 
the definition of photography: the production of an image on a sensitized surface by the 
action of light or other form of radiant energy. 

5. The Bierstadt photographs were obtained through the generous assistance of Mrs. 
Byron Dexter 9f South Woodstock, Vt., who for years has been interested in photographs 
and stereoscopic views of the American scene. Mrs. Dexter also sent a list of Bierstadt 
stereos from an 1860 catalogue. 

6. E. S. Wallace, "Albert Bierstadt, Artist," The Westerners-New York Posse Brand 
Book, New York, v. 2 (1955), no. 1, p. 20, from The Crayon, New York, September, 
1859, p. 287. 

7. Ibid. 


Bierstadt did not travel west alone. At St. Joseph he and several 
other Eastern artists joined the surveying expedition of Col. Fred- 
erick West Lander. Colonel Lander was then superintendent of 
the Fort Kearny, South Pass and Honey Lake (California) wagon 
road and the trip was designed to relocate certain portions of the 
emigrant route as well as to survey the road. Bierstadt and the 
other artists traveled with the train only for protection; they paid 
their own expenses and were not officially connected with the ex- 
pedition. 8 

The Lander train left St. Joseph during the first week of May, 
1859, 9 traveling through the northern tier of Kansas counties to the 
upper crossing of the Big Blue and then northwest toward Fort 
Kearny and the Platte emigrant route. Bierstadt took pictures all 
along the way. Several other photos were made of St. Joseph and 
Bellemont as well as views of Troy and the fords of the Little and Big 
Blue rivers. He also photographed a ferry on the Big Blue but 
failed to indicate its identity. If this were Francis J. Marshall's 
ferry at Marysville, which was used by thousands of travelers on 
the Oregon trail, then this picture, too, would be of unusual his- 
torical interest. Unfortunately it is among the many Bierstadt 
photographs which have disappeared. 10 In Nebraska territory 
Bierstadt photographed natural landmarks, Sioux and Shoshone 
Indians, and the Lander expedition's train. At South Pass he and 
two companions turned back. The artist returned to his home in 
New Bedford, Mass., where a few months later, in 1860, a company 
consisting of his two brothers, who were stereographic photogra- 
phers, placed copies of his Western views on the market. Their 
catalogue stated that "these views were procured at great expense, 
and as far as we know are the only views on the market giving a 
true representation of Western Life and Western Scenery." 

Today, 99 years later, only five of the Bierstadt stereos those 
purchased by the Historical Society have been located. What 
became of the others has long been a mystery. Leading depositories 
of historical photographs have no information of their whereabouts. 
Should anyone find others, the Society will be interested in hearing 
about them. 

8. "Maps and Reports of the Fort Kearney, South Pass, and Honey Lake Wagon Road," 
House Ex. Doc. No. 64, 36th Cong., 2d Sess. (1860-1861), p. 5. 

9. St. Joseph (Mo.) Weekly West, May 8, 1859. 

10. For information on the ferries operated by Marshall on the Big Blue see George 
A. Root, "Ferries in Kansas: Part III -Blue River," in The Kansas Historical OuarterTv 
v. 3 (1934), pp. 137-142. 


The following list of Bierstadt's 51 Western pictures is taken 

from the 1860 catalogue. Asterisks indicate the five photographs 
purchased by the Society. Missing numbers between 50 and 150 

were blank, so it is not known if they were Western photos or scenes 
in other areas. 

53. Oglala Sioux, Fort Laramie, Nebraska. 

54. Colonel Lander's train. 

56. Emigrant team, St. Joseph, Mo. 

58. Cheyenne Village, Platte river, Nebraska. 

63. Bellemont ferry-boat, Kansas. 

64. Devil's Gate from above, Nebraska. 

65. Market place, St. Joseph, Mo. 

* 66. Shoshone warrior. 
67. St. Joseph, Mo. 
69. Salt river valley. 

72. Sioux village near Fort Laramie, Nebraska. 

73. Study of horses, Missouri. 

75. Devil's Gate, passage of the Sweet Water river, Nebraska. 

77. Part of Colonel Lander's men. 

81. Emigrants waiting for the ferry, St. Joseph, Mo. 

82. Shanty in Bellemont, Kan. 

83. Ford of the Big Blue, Kansas. 

* 84. Bellemont, Kan. 

85. Unpacking Indian goods, Nebraska. 

86. Waiting for the ferry, St. Joseph, Mo. 

87. Bellemont, Missouri river, Kansas. 

88. Emigrant train on the Big Sandy river, Oregon. 

89. Near Troy, Kan. 

90. Shoshone children, Nebraska. 

91. Ferry on the Big Blue, Kansas. 

92. Ford of the Little Blue, Kansas. 

93. Log cabin, Kansas. 

94. Oglala Sioux, Horse creek, Nebraska. 

* 95. Indian pony, Kansas. 

* 96. Wolf river ford, Kansas. 

97. Shoshone Indians, Nebraska. 

98. Oglala Sioux village, North fork of the Platte, Nebraska. 

99. Sioux lodge, Nebraska. 

101. Shoshone family, Nebraska. 

102. Sioux Indians, Nebraska. 

103. Warrior. 

106. U. S. train in camp, Nebraska. 

107. Shoshone warriors, mounted, Nebraska. 
116. Shoshone guide, Nebraska. 

118. Indian interpreter, Nebraska. 

119. Emigrants traveling on the plains, Nebraska. 
122. Oglala Sioux, the Indian Queen, Nebraska. 


123. Colonel Lander's ambulance on the plains, Nebraska. 

124. Culinary art on the plains, Nebraska. 

125. Cottonwood trees, near Boiling Springs, Nebraska. 

126. Cottonwood Springs, Platte river, Nebraska. 

128. Colonel Lander's men among the Rocky Mountains. 

131. Shoshone village, Nebraska. 

132. Lander's train camping on the Colorado. 
134. Pike's Peak emigrants, St. Joseph, Mo. 
138. Rocky Mountain trapper. 

Letters of Daniel R. Anthony, 1857-1862 


PART ONE, 1857 

IN June, 1957, D. R. Anthony, III, of Leavenworth lent to the 
State Historical Society 122 manuscripts of his grandfather, the 
first Daniel Read Anthony, most of them dated from 1857 through 
1862. With a few exceptions, these papers are letters written by 
Anthony to his father, Daniel; to his sister, Susan B., who later 
became nationally prominent as a leader of the woman suffrage 
movement; to his sister, Mary; and to Aaron McLean, husband of 
his eldest sister, Guelma. Because of their general interest, and 
particularly for their description of business activities in early Leav- 
enworth, selected letters will be printed in this and the Summer 
numbers of the Quarterly. Other letters, dealing with Anthony's 
military service during the Civil War, will appear in the Autumn 
and Winter numbers. 

Born August 22, 1824, at South Adams, Mass., the first son of 
Daniel and Lucy Read Anthony, young Daniel was one of seven 
children. He had one brother, Jacob Merritt, the youngest of the 
family, and five sisters, of whom only Susan and Mary figure in this 
correspondence. Daniel attended common school at Battenville, 
N. Y., and completed his formal education with a six-month term 
at the academy in Union Village, N. Y. His father was a partner in 
the cotton manufacturing firm of Anthony, McLean & Co., and 
Daniel worked for some time with him. When the business failed, 
like many others, during the panic of 1837 "which condition of 
things," Anthony wrote many years later, "was brought about by 
Democratic rule and free trade" 1 he worked at various jobs until 
he moved to Rochester in 1847. There he taught a country school 
for two winters before going into the insurance business. 2 

In 1854, having become interested in Kansas, he joined the Emi- 
grant Aid Company's pioneer party. This group reached Kansas 

EDGAR LANGSDORF is assistant secretary and ROBERT W. RICHMOND is the state archivist 
of the Kansas State Historical Society. 

1. Kansas City Tribune, August 27, 1897. 

2. There are many chronological and factual conflicts in accounts of Anthony's early 
life. Dates and events given here are those which seem to follow most logically. 



City on July 28 and on August 1 encamped on present Mount Oread. 
Thus Anthony may be numbered among the founders of Lawrence, 
even though he left the territory within a short time. Returning to 
Rochester, he engaged in the insurance business for three years 
before deciding to go west again. 

Arriving at Leavenworth in June, 1857, Anthony went into busi- 
ness there and made that city his home for the rest of his long life. 
He played a leading role in local affairs both business and political, 
as well as in the larger field of state politics. He was nominated 
seven times for the office of mayor and elected three times, nomi- 
nated twice for the state legislature and elected once, served as a 
delegate to innumerable Republican state conventions and several 
times as chairman of the state central committee, and was three 
times a presidential elector. He was appointed postmaster of Leav- 
enworth five times, holding the position nearly 16 years. The prize 
which he desired most, the governorship, eluded him, although he 
was twice a candidate for the Republican nomination, in 1870 and 
again in 1888. His brief, though interesting, career as a lieutenant 
colonel of Kansas volunteers in the Civil War will be discussed in 
later installments. 

Anthony is best known in his role of newspaper publisher. He 
established the Leavenworth Conservative, a daily, with D. W. 
Wilder as editor, and published the first issue on January 28, 1861. 
Next day the Conservative printed an extra containing the most 
glorious "scoop" in Kansas newspaper history, the news of the ter- 
ritory's admission to the union. A legend of Kansas journalism is 
that Anthony himself carried copies of the paper on horseback from 
Leavenworth to Lawrence to bring the news to the legislature which 
was in session there. 

His career as an editor and publisher was interrupted by the Civil 
War and later by other business interests. In November, 1861, he 
sold the Conservative to D. W. Wilder, and with the exception of 
a period from September, 1864, to August, 1865, when he published 
the Leavenworth Bulletin, he did not enter the newspaper business 
again for nearly ten years. In May, 1871, he purchased the Leav- 
enworth Times, which meantime had absorbed both the Conserva- 
tive and the Bulletin. The Times today has the distinction of being 
the oldest newspaper in Kansas still published under its original 
name. Other Leavenworth newspapers were later acquired and 
also merged with the Times, until Anthony had obtained a monopoly 
in the Leavenworth daily newspaper field. 


Throughout his life Anthony was a fighter, a man of strong opin- 
ions who never hesitated to speak his mind and one who took de- 
light in any contest of strength and wits. A fellow journalist, Mil- 
ton W. Reynolds, who knew Anthony well, wrote that his work 
showed a personality and individuality of character possessed by 
no other man in the state except Jim Lane, who was a person of 
"weird, unique and peculiar nature." Anthony's blood "boiled 
on a minute's notice/' said Reynolds. He had "the most powerful 
enemies of any man in the state. He has always had them; he 
always will." 3 

His outspokenness and his violent temper caused him to be in- 
volved in at least nine reported physical encounters. The first is 
said to have occurred immediately upon his arrival in Leavenworth 
in 1857, when he made such a radical speech at a "Free Soil" meet- 
ing that he was shot at by Rorder Ruffians three times that night. 
In 1861 he killed R. C. Satterlee, a printer, and later exchanged 
shots with Charles R. Jennison, the notorious Jayhawker who fig- 
ures prominently in the last two installments of these letters. In 
other incidents he beat former Sen. E. G. Ross with a cane, and in 
turn was reportedly spit at, shot at on two occasions, beaten with an 
umbrella, and finally horse-whipped, the latter fracas taking place 
when he was 67 years old. A majority of these affrays were with 
printers or editors, or in one way or another were results of An- 
thony's journalistic activities, and in his case may therefore be 
classed as occupational hazards. 

Anthony was married January 21, 1864, to Anna E. Osborn of 
Edgarton, Mass. Four daughters and a son were born to them, 
but only Maude, the oldest child, and Daniel R. Anthony, Jr., sur- 
vived their father. Colonel Anthony died November 12, 1904, in 
his 80th year. His wife, who lived to be 86, died October 20, 1930. 


Boat F H Aubry 4 
Friday 6 P. M. 

June 5, 1857 

I reached here this day at 3 P M leave at 8& P. M. by this boat for 
Leavenworth will reach there at about Monday noon if we 

3. Article by "Kicking Bird," in Kansas City (Mo.) Times, October 18, 1886. 

4. The F. X. Aubrey, a Missouri river steamboat, was in service during the years 
1853-1860 and called regularly at Kansas ports during the latter 1850's. The boat was 
named in honor of Francis X. Aubrey, who gained fame as the result of a daring horseback 
ride over the Santa Fe trail. 


[don't] run on too many sand bars It now looks as though the 
boat would be crowded nearly full now and the St. Louis Express 
has not yet arrived Most of the passengers are Kansas bound 
very few are going to Nebraska A Leavenworth man on board 
says Leavenworth now has a population of nearly 5,000 Suppose 
he enlarges some upon the fact he says there are already four or 
five Banking offices there 

The general opinion seems to be that it will be the largest town 
in Kansas I have no doubt I can make a good thing out of the 
money operation I talked of Drafts were selling at 1% discount 
only four weeks ago but this cannot last long 

My Pas[s] was good to this point. It costs me $10. from here 
to L[eaven worth] The Baggage man at Chicago weighed my 
Packing Trunk filled with Stationary & Insurance paper it weighed 
215 pounds he was going to charge me one dollar extra to St 
Louis but concluded on my showing my ticket to let it pass with- 
out extra charge. 

I have this afternoon visited the Capitol Penitentiary and Jeffer- 
son City generally it has only 3000 people and looks like a 
very slow town 

Tea is nearly ready 

Yours & 


June 10 1857 


Here I am in the land of Border Ruffians. Arrived here Monday 
morning June 8th at 10 Oclock Safe & Sound Stop at the Planters 
House, a good 5 Story brick building. 5 Sleep 4 to 8 in a room 
board $2.00 per day at that Am going out to Squat with A. C. 
Wilder & Scott J Anthony an old resident of this city. 6 Am going 

5. The Planters' House, opened in 1856 and intended originally to serve only Pro- 
slavery patrons, was once one of the most popular and elegant hostelries of the West. It 
stood until 1958 at the northeast corner of Shawnee and Main streets. 

6. Abel Carter Wilder, 1828-1875, came to Kansas in March, 1857, engaging in the 
land business at Leavenworth. He was a supporter of the Free-State cause and was one 
of the organizers of the Republican party in Kansas. He served as a member of the 
Kansas delegation in the 38th congress but left the state to return to Rochester, N. Y., in 
the fall of 1865. 

Scott J. Anthony, a cousin of D. R. Anthony, was a native of New York. He came 
to Leavenworth in 1854, where he became a member of the merchandising firm of Bailey, 
Anthony & Co., and an active Free-State partisan. In 1860, following the announcement 
of rich gold strikes at Leadville, he went to Colorado, where he won success as a soldier 
and businessman. 


for the Sovereignty principle. 7 Am well satisfied Leavenworth 
City is the most enterprising city in all Kansas but lots are high, 
high, high, wouldn't touch them at half what is asked for them 
Lots as far from the center of business as Adams Street & Chatham 
Street in Rochester they here ask $30. per foot front 140 feet deep- 
Every body is a land agent and most every body owns land I 
won't touch anything but lands at first prices or nearly so 

This town is very much like St Paul Minnesota T[erritory] It 
has from 3,000 to 5,000 people mostly young men and fast 
men they call me an old "fogy" already Scott J. Anthony 
is a first rate man O. K. and said to be perfectly reliable in all re- 
spects Wilder has been making some money since he has been 
here If I had invested $1,000 here six months ago it would have 
been worth $10,000 now but that time is past I think city 
property will decline this winter and in the spring before the emi- 
gration commences. I think a good speculation can be made 
money is worth from 3 to 5 per cent a month but it can be used 
to much better profit buying lands at least so I think 

If Aaron wants to invest that $400. in the Union Savings Bank 
let him send on the Gold at once so that it will reach here by the 
10th of July the sales are on the 15th July 

Sell that $1400. & the $600. mortgage if you possibly can I 
think the money could be doubled in less than one year. I shall 
not do any thing at loaning Money but if I had it would buy drafts 
on New York, and could make enough to more than pay express 
charges The charge for expressing currency to Leavenworth 
city is $3.50 per $1,000 and less when you contract Gold costs 
more Gold is worth more than currency 

I have seen Gen Harney at Fort Leavenworth s Saw "Sheriff 
Saml J Jones" the man who was shot he is very docile now in- 
deed many of the Border Ruffians now say Kansas must be a Free 
State 9 When it was announced that Adams "Free State" was 
elected Mayor of this city they said property rose 25 per cent 

Judge Lecompte is holding court here Charles Fugett is on 
trial for the murder of Hopps They have been at work two 
days and got only six jurrors over 60 had formed an opinion and 
many were challenged by Fugetts council They (the counsell) 

7. The principle of "Squatter Sovereignty," as stated in the Kansas-Nebraska act of 
1854, provided that the actual settlers should decide by majority vote whether or not slavery 
would be permitted in the territory. 

8. Maj. Gen. William S. Harney, 1800-1889, gained fame as an officer in the Mexican 
War and on the Indian frontier. During 1857-1858 he was in Kansas to help quiet the 
difficulties between Proslavery and Free-State partisans. 

9. Samuel J. Jones, Proslavery sheriff of Douglas county, 1855-1857, was wounded by 
Free-Staters at Lawrence in April, 1856. 


accept none but "B [order ] . R [uffian] .s" full blooded Lecompte, 
Marshall & District Atty have thus far acted fairly in this trial 
But Lecompte is a thick headed Jack ass and acts as though he was 
afraid of his own shadow he is a coward almost yes every 
man says Fugett murdered and then scalped Hopps in cold blood 
one young man said to me that he would be cleared as he had only 
killed a damned abolitionist 10 The Free State men speak right 
out plain. They will not vote at this election Scott J Anthony 
was driven out of town last summer for his Free state principles, 
and this spring the Deputy Marshall gave his Revolver to Scott 
and wanted him to assist in arresting Fugett Scott laid hold of 
him first this shows a change 

I shall go and see Merritt next Monday and stay there two weeks 
and attend the "Wea Trust Land Sales" u Scott has gone this day 
Wilder goes with me Monday Tell Mary to send her money 
also and I will buy her 160 acres which will cost about $300. to 
$325. These lands are priced at 1.50 to 2.50 per acre Insurance 
is going to be a good business here many good buildings are 
already built & being built. 

I shall want to get that note discounted for 2000 or 3000 
$1,0002 or $10,000 even is small to operate in city Lots The 
Planters House was sold for $50,000 a few weeks ago They are 
making money fast I don't think trade is very good If you 
can get the agency of the Aetna for Lawrence you might move 
out I write this on my knee in the Hotel office we now have 
a daily mail from & too this city 

Yours &c 


#35 Miles west of LEAVENWORTH 
Delaware Trust Lands K. T. Near 
the South East Corner of the Kickapoo 

DANIEL ANTHONY 5 P. M. Thursday June 11, 1857 

These lands are comeing into ma[r]ket July 15th Send on the 

$800, or 1,000 in the Union Savings Bank for the Empire Co or 

10. On August 19, 1856, Charles Fugit murdered a settler named Hoppe on the out- 
skirts of Leavenworth. He was not brought to trial until June, 1857, and was acquitted 
June 23. Samuel D. Lecompte, who had been appointed chief justice of the territorial 
supreme court in 1854, was the presiding judge. The trial and acquittal were bitterly 
criticized by the Free-State faction in Kansas. 

11. Anthony's young brother, Jacob Merritt Anthony, had come to Kansas in 1856, 
when he was 22 years old, and settled at Osawatomie. The public sale of the Wea Indian 
lands began at Paola on June 24, 1857. 


get $1,000 discounted on the strength of it for three months Send 
gold or send their notes if they much prefer to do so. 

There is money in these lands Speculation among the Squat- 
ters rages high I shall go down to the Wea lands near where 
Merritt is about next Monday the 15th those lands come into 
market at that time I have made a small investment and expect 
to make a claim good The whole land is overrun with Squatters 
They are the greatest speculators in the country The lands here 
are as good as any in the county Claims are selling from 50 to 
$2000 each and nothing but a Squatters right at that. 

Make a note payable as Mr. Erickson may direct for $2,000 
and express his Bank notes to me at Leavenworth K. T. v[i]a Amer- 
ican Express to St Louis thence by Ritchardsons Mo Express to 
Leavenworth Money will have a good circulation here I am 
fully convinced that money is made here in buying Lands at first 
prices I enclose a blank note which you can fill out. 

Mr. Erickson said he would want your name & Aarons on the 
note I can get a note discounted at the Canajoharie Bank to pay 
if not the Lands can be sold any day to I wish to dispose of 
them Money loans at 5 per cent a month but I am fully Sat- 
isfied that a larger per cent can be made in these trust lands and be 
perfectly safe I am now engaged in securing claims and will 
want the money to pay for them by the 10th July I know you 
are not posted in regard to these land speculations, but I am pretty 
well acquainted already 

This note is written in a log shanty with rived shingle roof 
cracks all open Hay for flooring one small Box for furniture & 
Blankets for Bedding I am writing on my memorandum Book 
which rests on my knee while I am sitting flat on the ground 
Wilder is sitting on the Door Sill (no door) making a memoran- 
dum in his book he takes this letter to Leavenworth city on 
Friday & returns on Monday when I go with him & Scott J. 
Anthony to the Wea Lands I hope you wont fail of sending me 

Missourians, Border Ruffians, Virginians, Indianans and three 
New Yorkers are stoping in this hut We live on crackers, Ham 
Tea Sugar Molasses & "whiskey" the latter the only staple 
article of living. It is said no Squatter can have his claim unless 
he has Flour & whiskey in his cabin I am on the Grasshopper 


creek bank (East bank) about 11 miles north of Grasshopper Falls 
town 12 I wrote you once from Leavenworth 

Yours &c 


I have this P M arrived here from Ossawottamie & Paoli the 
latter place the Wea Trust lands are now selling and have been 
since the 25th June Webb Wilder a brother of A. C. Wilder & 
a Mr Achilles are here from Rochester, all well 13 

Wilder, his brother Webb, Achilles & myself go to the Delaware 
Lands to morrow to attend to our claims. I have as yet made no 
money but have done enough to pay my expenses since my arrival 
here I am so busy that I cannot tell you fully all I have been 
doing and what I intend doing but shall buy some of the Delaware 

Lands at Paoli sold mostly to settlers, (bogus) at the apprisal 
which was from $1.50 $1.75, $2.00 $2.25 for the best and at 
least one half was afterwards sold by the Settlers to Speculators at 
prices rangeing from $2.00 to 5.00 per acre and some few very 
choice lots more I cannot now explain the "Modus operand?' 
nor give you the definition of "Settler" "Squatter' and Speculator 
You will call on Mr Mann of Wilder Case &Co and he will explain 
or rather post you up in what we are doing 

I am engaged with Wilder, not in partnership. I think I shall 
make something this month Susans & Marys money is reed to- 
gether with two letters from you & one from Susan 

You entirely misapprehend the manner in which I want to you 
use the funds. If I had had $100,000 at Paoli I could have made 
from 1 to $2,000 in ten days with it and could do the same thing at 
the Osaukee Land Sale of the Delaware trust lands but it is now 
to late You cannot understand how matters stand here I 
shall attend to other matters when the sales are over 

I know (and others think with me) that speculation runs high 

12. Grasshopper creek is now called the Delaware river. Grasshopper Falls is present 
Valley Falls in Jefferson county. 

13. "Webb" Wilder was Daniel W. Wilder, 1832-1911, who became prominent as 
a Kansas newspaperman, author, and public official. Achilles has not been identified. 


LEAVENWORTH K. T. July 13, 1857 

Your letter of the 29th Ult was reed by me this day It probably 
reached this city some days ago. I have just returned from the 
Grasshopper River where I went one week ago. I leave again to 
night for Osaukee 30 miles west from Leavenworth with Mr. 
Wilder The Land sales commence on the 15th Inst 14 I shall 
go to Topeka on Tuesday to attend the convention of the Free State 
Party having been delegated by the people of Atchinson Co where 
for the present I hail from 15 

My land will not be sold before the 20th to the 25th July there 
is from 300,000 to 400,000 acres to be sold. 160 acres will cost from 
$300 to $3,000. Lands here are very high and city property enor- 
mously high the latter so high that I would not touch it at any price 
for which it could be had I think many people coming here will 
make money and many more will loose I think it almost impos- 
sible for one to write a statement plain enough to give eastern 
people a correct idea of the political and speculation condition of 
this Territory. 

I shall return to this city about August 1st when I shall be sta- 
tionary for a while at least I have made arrangements to have 
my letters sent to me at Osaukee. I have one or two chances to 
invest your $300, but cannot yet decide will see at Osaukee what 
is best I shall probably see Merritt at Osaukee I have heard 
from him since I left the Wea Lands he'd bid off his land and so has 
made the $125. out of it I think his chances for making more 
than his expenses at Osaukee are very small but I will assist him all 
I can 

I shall endeavor not to loan anything, and from present appear- 
ances shall not when I close up, can most likely tell more about 
it The more I see of the West the more I am convinced it is 
the place for me. Although I cannot say that the life I have led 
the last 5 weeks has been the pleasentest. that I have the most 
cream in my coffee and slept in the best of beds Yet my living 
temporarily on Bread Coffee & Ham fried by some of our boys 
Sleeping on the Ground in the waggon many times and but once 
in a good bed and not once in a clean bed I have now hired 
a room with A C Wilder and hereafter when in the city shall have 
a good room and bed better that the Planter Hotel can afford 

14. The reference is to the sale of the Delaware trust lands, which took place at 

15. This convention, held July 15 and 16, was for the purpose of nominating officers 
under the Free-State Topeka constitution. 


My new cousin Scott J Anthony I like very much he is highly 
esteemed here, although quite young Our party from here to 
Osaukee consists of A. C. Wilder, D W Wilder, C P Achilles, Brown 
& Coman and myself 


August 7th 1857 

Your letter of the 20th Ult I found on my table here yesterday 
I have been to the Osaukee Sale of the Delaware Trust Lands 
found Merritt there. Staid there until the 30th then went [to] 
Grasshopper Falls, then to my claim then to visit the piece of 
Land which I bought for you (the recpt is in your name the Gov- 
ernment would not have two names in the assignment) the 86 
acres I bought for you is on the Delaware trust Lands adjoin [in] g 
the Kickapoo Preemption Lands I have made arrangements to 
buy the fractional quarter east of it 33 acres for Mary (expect it 
was bid in for her yesterday at Osaukee) 

Merritt and I have built cabins on the two fractional quarters on 
the Kickapoo preemption lands so that you or some one else can 
preempt them at $1.25 per acre or buy a 120 and an 80 acre 
warrant and get it for about $1.00 per acre besides expenses of 
preemption I paid $3.00 per acre for your 86 acres and am to pay 
the same for the 33 acres for Mary It is A no 1 Prairie Land But 
if you do not like the investment I will take it off your hands at 
any time Merritt says the Land is the best kind We have 
built on the Kickapoo side two good firm cabins which will pre- 
vent any one from taking them at present I send you a diagram 
of your Land also a copy of the recpt which I hold I do not 
send the recpt itself as I may need it. 

I bought the Land from Mr. Willis at $3.00 per acre An the 
cabin which he had on it I have removed on the fraction of same 
quarter right north 

I have just seen Wilder who has just come from Osaukee and he 
gives me M S. Anthony recpt I managed to have Marys bid of 
in her name She is a Settler, Bona fide She is now undoubtedly 
tilling her 40 acres of Land I had to pay $30. to the man who 
built the cabin on her claim & which will make her 39 acres cost 
$78.70 and she will have 121 4/100 acres to preempt at $1.25 
You will see by the diagram the two claims join each other 
Wilder owns the claim west of Susans 

It would be impossible for me to explain the manner in which 


all this business is done These Delaware Lands are sold by 
Gov for the Indians they are appraised at from $1.25 to $4.50 per 
acre none are sold below the appraisal and Actual settlers can 
have them at that price but most every one manages to evade the 
Law of the commissioner of sales The cost of putting up cabins 
for you and Mary on the Kickpoo claims is about $50. I think 
you can send me $80, which will answer until your preem[p]tion 
Land wants to be paid for which will be in November next or later 
S B & M S Credit By cash $300. 


To Express charges $ 2.00 

To S B A 86 73/100 Land at $3. 260.19 

To Cost of putting up two cabins f or S B A 

& M S A on the Kickapoo Land Say 39.11 
To M S A Land recpt 38 96/100 acre at 1.25 48.70 
To paid Mr Osborn for putting cabin & for 

his interest in the claim 30.00 

Balance due 80. 

$380.00 $380. 

Merritt & I throw in our time & labor putting up cabins and I 
have drawn one of my cabins on to your Kickapo claim 


August 8, 1857 

Yours of the 29th come to hand this day . . . You speak 
of coming to Kansas It may be ( if the Land office opens in Octo- 
ber or November ) best for you to come out and buy your own land 
on the preemption tract You will understand that the dividing 
line between the Kickapoo & preemption Lands and the Delaware 
Trust Lands runs diagonally through about the center of your 160 
acres and through the South part of Marys . . . 

So you will see that on the south of the diagonal line you have 
a title from Government for 86 73/100 acres and will have to pre- 
empt or buy from Gov. the balance of 73 23/100 acres when the 
land office opens which will be in Oct or Nov they say Mary 
has a title to 38 96/100 acres and will have to buy the 121 04/100 
of Gov same as you do providing you wish to buy it You are 
not obliged to buy it And in order to hold it I have had to build 
two good firm matched lumber cabins & will have some plowing 




-- . 

<D <-K 

St Joseph 

A' ; .\ D & S = A ^ 

ansai f U 


A reproduction of a portion of a map accompanying the 

Annual Report of the Surveyor General (1857). 


done on both of themit is better to have the whole 160 acres 
then you & Mary will have 160 each 

LEAVENWORTH Aug. 17, 1857 

Can you negociate one of those bonds & mortgages I may want 
4 Land Warrants in October or November I wish you would 
write me what has been done. I have written once or twice but 
you forget to answer 

I think something could be raised from them without looseing 
much. I would give 10 pr cent off to get them cashed Mary 
need not sent the $80. now unless she wishes if She sends it- 
send draft on New York or your check Drafts are par checks 
would cost %% to collect I don't know as the Doniphan Land 
office will be open before November I want to enter the 4 
quarters on the Kickapoo lands as soon as the office opens and 
allow us to preempt when they do open I may want two or 
three of you to make Kansas a visit Merritt has gone to Ossa- 
wottomie I may go down there again in a week or two He 
will come up again to our Kickapoo claims in 4 or 6 weeks It 
will depend on the time the Land office opens The Land office 
at Lecompton has not opened yet Merritt will have to enter his 
Ossawottomie Land there I think if three or four were to go 
into Ossawottomie Money could be made there I hardly think 
further troubles need be apprehended here Walker dont know 
what to do he has surrendered himself almost entirely to the 
Pro Slavery Party. 16 

Yours of Aug 3rd is reed. 

Yours Truly 


LEAVENWORTH K. T. Aug 17 1857 

Monday 12 Oclock 

I returned on Sunday at 13* P. M. from a exploration trip A. C. 
Wilder Glenny & myself left Leavenworth on Monday August 10th 
at 1 P. M. in a good Rockaway carriage with a good span of Black 
Horses traveled west that night about 20 miles on the Fort Riley 
road stopped & got a good chicken supper, then went on 10 

16. Robert J. Walker, although a Democratic appointee to the office of territorial 
governor, suffered criticism from both Proslavery and Free-State elements, as did other 
members of the territorial administration. Walker was especially criticized by Free-Staters 
because he sent troops to Lawrence in July, 1857, after that town had set up an inde- 
pendent city government, an act which he considered illegal. 



miles further, turned our horses loose on the Praries, laid our blan- 
kets on the Ground, pulled off our boots wrapped a blanket 
around each of us and went to sleep Slept quite sound in the 
morning woke up nearly wet through with the dew harnassed up 
and drove 9 miles to Osaukee. 8 A. M. got a 50 cent breakfast of 
nothing eatable Staid at the sales until 2PM then went north 
to Grasshopper Falls, thence north 10 miles to our claims 
thence west 1M miles to Kapioma city 17 Got stuck in the mud 
crossing the Grasshopper, left our waggon. Went up to Godwins 
house (Brother of Parke Godwin) had Bacon and biscuit for 
Tea. Slept on a matrass on the floor with our blankets over us 
enormous ground bugs were crawling over us all night the log 
house was full of them 

In the morning had Mackerel, Soda Crackers & Tea & vilanous 
coffee for breakfast Godwin is not the housekeeper just now 
he had but just arrived Then hauled our Waggon out of the 
creek, harnessed up and travelled over rolling Praries & across 
creeks for ten or fifteen [miles] west to Eureka, Pleasent View 
&c 18 got back to Kapioma City about 5 P. M. but concluded 
to come 10 miles further East to Monrovia, got there about 9 
P. M. ordered a good Supper had chicken, milk Toast &cc all 
O. K. they live in a tent have about 20 boarders live the best 
of any place or hotel yet Slept on a matrass on the floor, 
wrapped up in our blankets good breakfast in the morning bill 
$1.00 per head traveled east 4 miles to the Great Fort Leaven- 
worth & Fort Larimie Military Road thence north 6 miles to my 
claims. 19 found Merritt had finished the cabins and gone to Ossa- 
wottomie via Leavenworth, so I shall miss him this trip took 
in a cabin built on a claim of 160 acres bought by A. W. McLean 
of John Gray I have been asked who & where McLean is "I 
gues he is in Leavenworth now or there or there" 20 

After feeding men & horses traveled north over an unknown 
Prarie without compas or guide a very comfortable feeling when 
you dont know whether you go right or wrong A man cant 
travel in this country with a carriage unless he knows where "ford- 
ing places" are After 6 miles travel we come to the St Joseph 

17. Kapioma City was located at the mouth of Straight creek in western Atchison 
county, south of present Muscotah. 

18. Eureka (present Jackson county), which changed its location and its name before 
its death in the 1870's, was 32 miles west of Atchison when Anthony visited it. Pleasant 
View has not been located. 

19. This route, another of the many branches of the Oregon or California trail, was 
also known as the Fort Leavenworth-Fort Kearny road. 

20. The mysterious McLean was Aaron McLean, of Rochester, N. Y., Anthony's brother- 
in-law, to whom this letter presumably was addressed. 


& Kennekuk road 21 took that east and after traveling 10 miles 
found water 10 miles further brought us to the house of Mr 
Mathews a proSlavery man a first rate fellow who believes 
Slavery is a divine institution and that it will yet be established 
in Kansas He has an A no 1 Black cook gave us good coffee 
Tea Chicken Ham Biscuit & Butter for Tea & Same with corn 
cakes for Breakfast also Christian Bed's Bill $1.00 per 
head traveled over the best country I have yet seen in Kansas 
from the time we struck the Military Road so up along between 
the sources on [of] the Grasshopper on the west and the sources 
of Independence Creek on the East and Wolf river on the north 
a high divide all the way 

Left Mathews at 7 a. m. with blessings on the beloved institution 
of Black cooks and reached Elwood City at 9 a.m. (10 miles) A 
new town of 40 houses great chances for Speculation Humbug 
all over bought a Subdivision Share of the city ten Lots for 
$3.50 and left at 6 P M Same day disgusted with the city (we 
crossed over to St Joseph it is one of the largest of the towns 
(8000) on the Missouri River) but like all of them has a dilapi- 
dated look The Hannibal and St. Joseph will help it and Elwood 
also 22 that night reached Palermo ten miles south 23 "Wilder 
swearing that it was all damn foolishness to drive in the dark over 
the damn precipices that we would get into Missouri &c but 
we come around at the Palermo Hotel safe and sound at 9 P. m 
poor bed poor breakfast rained all night until 11 a.m. 

After hunting a long time found our horses got wet through 
got our carriage mended and started south over hills and down 
precipices The River Roads are almost impassible particularly 
after a rain passed Geary City in 10 miles 40 houses 24 10 
miles further passed Doniphan 60 or 70 houses two Sawmills 
&c. has a Pro Slavery look this is the town bought by Jim 
Lane we called on the General but he was not a[t] home He 
is just the man for the times. The Free State Boys love him The 
National Democrats hate him and the Missourians & Border Ruf- 
fians generally fear him thence 5 miles south to Atchison of 
100 or 200 houses and 20 Stores will make a town some time 

21. Three years later the Pony Express followed this road across Doniphan and 
southeastern Brown counties. 

22. The Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad, which reached St. Joseph February 23, 1859, 
gave Elwood a rail connection with the East, although no railroad was to bridge the Mis- 
souri for several years. 

23. Palermo, in Doniphan county, was on the Missouri river, two miles southwest of 

24. Geary City, in Doniphan county, was on the Missouri river, ten miles south of Troy. 


then we went 8 miles out on the Military road again a few miles 
below South of where we crossed it on the Thursday before 
Stayed all night with a Missourian 8 or ten men 3 women slept 
side by side on the floor in our room in an old log hut had a nasty 
breakfast rained in the morning got away at 8 a m and 
reached Leaven worth on Sunday at 13 P. M. whole expense for 
the 6 days about $50 this is an excellent place to spend money 

You have above a hasty account of life in Kansas I am now 
well I nearly starved my self on the trip, and it had a good 
affect upon my digestive organs. On the whole I am pleased with 
Kansas life thus far I am fully convinced it is the place to make 
money no man can help making money here providing he is 
willing to "rough" it and is economical and will not expend to 
much time in looking about the country many people come 
here who travel all over the country and after all cannot make up 
their minds which is the best point and loose all the best chances 

For myself I made up my mind to pitch in a little here and a little 
there and come out some where but I have no fear of the result 
A man could hardly go amiss Any business will pay here except 
doing nothing That will not pay except to dead politicians like 
Shannon &c who offer their influence in the market for a considera- 
tion 25 

Most of Buchanans office holders here are hard drinkers and 
Gamblers The Free State Party in refusing to vote last year 
did the very best thing The National Democracy and the Pro 
Slavery Party and Gov Walker are ah 1 one Walker attempted 
to deceive and cajole the people he failed in that then he tried 
to intimidate them, he failed in that The people laugh at 
him He is mad with himself and with every body except Brown 
of the Herald of Freedom and Cory correspondent of the New 
York Times 26 Little Walker is dead his influence here is gone 
forever his intrigues to make Kansas a National Democratic 
State did not work The people despise him for his trickery it 
was unworthy of any man 

The two men hung here two weeks ago were National Demo- 
crats the two in Prison are National Democrats ** There is 

25. Wilson Shannon, a Democrat and Proslavery sympathizer, was the second governor 
of Kansas territory. 

26. George W. Brown, editor of the Lawrence Herald of Freedom was not as criti- 
cal of Governor Walker as most of his fellow Free-State newspapermen. The New York 
Times also was less critical than other Eastern papers. No information has been found on 

27. On July 31, 1857, James Stevens was murdered by John C. Quarles and \V. M. 
Bays. The two were hanged by citizens of Leaven worth on August 1. William Knighten 
and Bfll Woods, arrested as accomplices in the murder, were jailed in Delaware City. 


something about an honest Pro Slavery man I like he is frank 
and honest with you but a National Democrat will lie will do 
anything mean Little Walker has nothing to do the bogus 
laws are now not enforced (in general I mean) indeed all the 
government officials are supernumerarys unless it is the Land 
offices and Post Masters 

I dont know whether any more difficulties will occur here or not 
but if they do come it will be a fight such as has never occured 
here before Men of property do not regard money at all in 
respect to this continually infringing upon their God given rights 
Time will tell the story and Kansas will be Free The Pro 
Slavery still cling to idea of making it a Slave State 

Write me all the Rochester and Washington county news 

Yours truly 



October 1, 1857 

I have written home several times but have heard nothing from 
any of you in two or three weeks. Merritt wrote me on the 27th 
Ultimo saying he had heard nothing in some time. 

I see by the papers you are having a great panic in money mat- 
ters with all care on your part you can Shun the Shoals give no 
credit to any man who is doubtful, in any case or for any reason, 
demand prompt payment, better loose some business than to run 
any hazard. Always make them pay up before the month is up 

I had one case of 37.50 premium the man wanted me to wait 
a few days I told him I could not & canceled his policy instanter 
I shall do a good business for one or two months this fall In 
the month of September 1 issued 15 policies premiums $792.45 
profits on same 10 per cent & policies & Surveys making about $100. 
pretty well for the first month I write $10,000. in one risk one 
premium which I took amounted to $225. one 162.50 one 73.50 
one 52.50 one 60. and lesser ones 

I wrote you very urgently for funds but if you cannot get them 
why I must do without, but now is the time [to] buy here say 
about January or February next 

I have made arrangements here so that I can get Land Warrants 
to enter 4 quarters this fall I loaned $300. last week 90 days 5 
per cent per month and took a deed of 160 acres of land and a good 
note into the bargain. I could loan any amount almost at same 


Merritt expects to come up again after election. The Charter 
Oak Co offer me their agency I have written the Home Co all 
I have got to do is to stick to my business here I am the agent 
and command the best business in town I have the power to 
appoint Surveyors in all the towns (except Lawrence) in die Terri- 
tory for the Aetna. I hope you will write me fully about the busi- 
ness. I don't like to be in the dark My office is nearly finished. 
I move into it about the 10th Oct. 

Marcus J Parrott will be elected to congress by a large majority 
as to the result in the council & lower House can not tell. A great 
effort is made by the Pro Slavery party to carry this election all 
depends upon the frauds which may be perpetrated. 

I have little confidence in Walker or the honesty of any of the 
party. Their officials here are not men of common honesty dur- 
ing the troubles here last fall our post master stood on the Levee 
with a axe saying he would kill any God Damn Yankee who dare 
land from the Steam Boat The whole Party is as corrupt as 
Hell itself What the Democratic Party deny at the east is here 
openly advocated by the Nationals Well I hope the good Pious 
Christians at the East who support the Democratic Party will Some 
day have the pleasure of associating with their allies here God 
Almighty has written on their faces in legible characters the words 
Scoundrels But then the time is coming when these men cannot 
live in Kansas, and they know it and consequently the desperate 
effort they now make 

Write soon 


Wednesday Oct. 14th 1857 

Yours of the 2ond Inst has this day come to hand. . . . 

Business this month not as good as last Our Free State men 
are very much depressed on account of the frauds in the last elec- 
tion. They are more glaring than ever before 28 I will write you 
more fully in a few days. I wrote you a letter of 5 pages a few 
days ago. Many letters are lost or stolen on the route somewhere 
The clerks in this office I think are honest but I cannot say as 
much for the Post master himself 

28. On October 5-6 an election was held for territorial delegate to congress and for 
members of the territorial legislature. Despite the frauds referred to, the Free-State party 
won a decisive victory, electing 9 of 13 members of the territorial council and 24 of the 39 
members of the lower house. In addition, Marcus J. Parrott, the Free-State candidate 
for delegate to congress, defeated his Proslavery opponent 7,888 to 3,799. 


The money panic affects us here to some extent although noth- 
ing to what you describe 

Tis mainly the want of currency 
Expect Merrit here in a few days 

Yours Truly 


Tuesday Oct 20th 1857 

Your letter dated at Westfield Oct 10th come to hand yesterday, 
our mails have been quite irregular for a few weeks. Am pleased 
to know our folks have had such a good Peach harvest and hope 
they will continue to be fruitfull. I always had confidence in fruit 
and wanted our folks to cultivate large orchards. As to your com- 
ing here to preempt I would advise it, If you was so situated that 
you could preempt but no single wooman can avail herself of that 
privilege unless she be a widow or a guardian, or has some one 
dependent on her for a support (what would be termed a family) 
Therefor I think it useless for you to come and then you would 
have to remain here 6 weeks and by that time the River would be 
frozen up. I think your claim is safe, and if you can get a Land 
warrant I think I could get some one to preempt it for about $600. 

I have less faith than ever in preaching or Lecturing. The world 
is bound to go to the Devil anyway, and the easiest way is to slide 
along easy. I am infidel in almost everything. When an adminis- 
tration can not only sustain but boldly defend the flagrant frauds 
which have been perpetrated on this people for the last three years, 
I think that Satan has such a fast hold of them that [it] is entirely 
useless to endeavor to reclaim them. 

When men who stood at the gang way plank with Broad Axe in 
hand threatning to cleave the Skull of any damned Northern man 
who attempted to Land from the Steamer on Kansas Soil, when 
men who have perpetrated cold blooded murder & who publicly 
boast of it, when men who with drawn sword flourished over the 
head of a lone woman Swearing if she did not leave the Country in 
so long a time he would cut out her heart, when almost every man 
who holds any important office in this Territory have been guilty of 
the above or Similar acts, when these men and these men alone are 
the men selected by an administration to fill the various Post offices 
Land offices, what is the use of talking? My God men who will 
approve and defend such mens acts, are not men to reason with. I 


know many of them will not reason. The only argument is the 
strong arm of might. And were the people once to stand up and 
say we will have our rights, they would be granted at once The 
Pro Slavery Border Ruffian Democracy never attack a man here 
who says he will defend himself. So I have been compelled to 
wear a knife and carry a Colts Revolver and the consequence is 
no trouble will be made on my account. The hounds never attack 
a man single handed with very few exceptions they are cowardly 
dishonorable in all their intercourse with Free State men. 

The Pro Slavery business men here are a better class of men. 
They denounce the Bullying course of some of their party but dare 
not speak for fear of loosing their own Standing. When Kansas 
comes in Free, A large number of these scoundrels will leave the 
country and Kansas will then boast of as good a population as any 
State or Territory 

You probably get all the Election news The [New York] Trib- 
une's report can be as fully relied on as any The fact is the truth 
can not be had on the ground We dont know what to believe 
we here are credulous enough to believe any thing may be perpe- 
trated by the Pro Slavery Party no matter how absurd, or flagrant 
a wrong it may be What can they do worse than they have in 
the last election Our Free State Congressman M J Parrott is 
elected also a majority of both branches of our Territoral Legis- 
lature, but we do [not] believe it until we see the certificates, and 
the members actually take their Seats. If there had been common 
honesty the Free State men would have all 

My business looks, have very flatering prospects ahead I may 
come home in December. Have not heard from Merritt in two 
or three weeks he was well then Expect him here in a few 
days Money matters here are more quiet [than] that east, no 

Hope to hear from you often 

Yours Sincerely 


Wednesday Oct. 28, 1857 

I have been thinking over about my visiting home this winter, 
and can hardly come to a conclusion. If I go home my expenses 


will not be less than $100, and then I shall loose over a months 
business which will be over another $100. So you see by visiting 
home I am $200 or more poorer than I would be to stay here. And 
in these money Panic times one must economise as much as possi- 
ble in Dress, traveling expenses, &c My Cigar, Whiskey, & Pleasure 
Bills generally are mere nothing for the last two months. And if I 
keep on improving in this way, I see no reason why I may not one 
day be a rich man. In this country one can most readily under- 
stand that [it] is far easier to make than to save money. 

I hope you will send on the funds to use in Kansas. I can invest 
for you as you may think best. I would rather have one dollar now, 
than two after March next. In these close times, a much sharper 
lookout is required than in times when money is plenty. At the 
same time now is the time to make the most money, by a cautious 
investment in such manner that should one operation fail, all would 
not be lost. I am not one to believe that all the country will be 
ruined by this Panic, on the contrary now is the time for everyone 
having spare money to operate. 

Could you have the agency of the Aetna company for Lawrence 
I would like to see you settled in that town. Lawrence contains the 
best population of any town in the Union and is destined to 
become a large town. I think I could get you the agency for any 
other except that but then no place unless it is this city will com- 
pete with it but I suppose there is no chance to sell property in 
Rochester. I am sure Mother would be pleased with living in this 
country, and particularly in Lawrence, because there is such a 
unanimity of sentiment prevailing among all of them. I hope to 
hear by next letter that Mother is getting better. Also that she will 
write me a few words, as she has not written me since I left home. 


October 30, 1857 

I notice by New York Tribune 22ond under head of "Commer- 
cial Matters" that Land warrants have been selling as low as 60 
to 65 cents per acre, & are now worth 75 to 85 cts I think you can 
find 4 or 5 in Rochester for a very low figure, I wrote you fully 
about this a day or two ago. I can loan Land warrants here, for 
the purpose which I want them, but I will have to pay $1.00 per 
acre and 3 per cent per month interest on same, six months time. 


You will readily see a good business in buying there and selling 
here at $1.00 per acre. Have heard nothing from Merritt, tis not 

I have issued ten fire policies this month prems $557.75 and two 
Cargoe policies premiums $6.22. I charge $2.00 for policy and 
Survey on fire risks and $1.50 on Inland And am thinking of 
charging $2.50 for policy & Survey on fire risks, business for No- 
vember I think will be good. Made up and sent my report to com- 
pany for October yesterday. So you see I am prompt. All Kinds 
of produce continues very high Potatoes 75 cts. apples 1.00 to 
1.25 and other things in same ratio. I wrote you yesterday 29th 
and also two or three days before that enclosing diagram of Susan 
& Marys land. I perhaps ought to number my letters as many 
people are satisfied that their mail matter is tampered with at the 
Post office here . . . 

Oct 31. Well another mail boat has come up and shall get her 
mail tomorrow Sunday noon. We have to wait for slow men to 
distribute the mail Letters 1M hours and papers from 6 to 48 hours, 
tis very negligently conducted 

I am satisfied that money can be made in buying stocks at pres- 
ent prices, although not as sure as loaning on lands and then it 
takes too much money to dabble in stocks 

Yours Truly 

Monday November 2, 1857 

I am writing you almost every other day. I have now made ar- 
rangements for preempting Susan & Marys fractions. The cost of 
doing it will be one 160. acre Land warrant and $150. cash, which 
will be needed at once 

I have made arrangements for the preempting of four quarters 
of land 640 acres. I preempt one quarter myself, and shall want 
for that 4. 160 acre warrants and $300. cash. 

My total wants are 

5 Land Warrants 160 [acres], and $450. cash. This Land is 
worth $5.00 per acre as soon as title is perfected Hope you can 
arrange matters and forward funds & warrants immediately. . . . 
I have not many arrangements for any further outlay of funds and 
the above I know to be tip top. 

My insurance . . . business opens well today for the first 
days business in Nov. have taken five risks as follows 


$250. Rate 6 Prem $15. on Hearse in Stable 
$10,000. " 18 150. Brick building $5,000, 

Clothing 5,000 
300 "2 "6. Dwelling expand 10 ft. 

to Dwelling 

3000 "6 " 180. Groceries & Provisions 

3,000. " 1% " 52.50 on Clothing 

$403.50 total and 

have charged $9.50 for policies fees on them. Shall take over a 
$1,000 prems this month. 

My premiums for last month are all paid but $2.22 and that is 
owing by one of our best merchants for a small river risk, and will 
be paid whenever I call I dont give any time longer than the 
20th of each month and then all prems must be paid at any rate 
I have but very little bantering about rates, can do here much 
better in that line than you can in Rochester The people do not 
value money so highly here and the money panic has not affected 
them much. 

What arrangements are you making for next years business. If 
you could sell farm, and mother and all could be satisfied to move 
to Kansas say Lawrence, and you follow insurance there I have no 
doubt you would like it much better than Rochester They are the 
best set of men that ever breathed over in Lawrence and our 
old Fogy conservative men here who have heretofore been de- 
nouncing Lawrence men now unite in saying they have always 
taken the true stand, and to them is owing the privilege which we 
now enjoy, that of success, they are earnest men, no boys play, 
and report here says that Gov Walker would not have thrown out 
the Oxford returns had he not been laboring under a wholesome 
fear of his neck. 29 I never saw men more desperate than were the 
Free state men a few days after the Election. They were ready for 
any move for open rebellion, and more In fact I dont think it 
possible for Gov Walker to have recognized the fraud and preserved 
peace also 

Write soon. 

Yours &c 


I think the Home Co have some thought of establishing an agency 
here This morning I reed a Statistical sheet from them and have 

29. Oxford precinct in Johnson county polled 1,628 Proslavery votes in the October 
election. Most of them were illegal and were thrown out by order of Governor Walker 
"for informality, not for fraud." D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kansas (1886), p. 195. 


filled it up and sent them. If I succeed in getting my Kickapoo 
land through all O. K. there will be 640. acres in a square body of 
as handsome land high rolling Prarie rich as rich can be. within 12 
miles of Atchison on the Missouri River And it must be kept for 
years, as ten years hence 640 acres in that place lying in that shape 
will be valuable. 

You had best keep business operation quiet Weather very 
pleasant has been rainy during last month. 



Saturday Nov 7, 1857 

I have heard nothing from you since Oct 15th We have filed 
on 5 quarters of land and can prove up and preempt on the 4th of 
December when I shall want the 5. 160 [acre] warrants and $300, 
or $600, cash You need not send the cash but give me orders to 
draw on you payable in current funds or Gold as you may prefer 
Send warrants by Express, you ought to get them for 70 to 80 
cents If I can close my land matters before the River closes 
think I shall go to Rochester from the 7th to 15th December (Start 
then ) for home ) 

My business this month is good have issued 9 fire & 1 River 
policy. Amt premiums a little over $800. one premium was 
$240, one $180, one $150, one $130. reckon you dont issue many 
such policies. I take all the desirable risks. Although there are 3 or 
4 other agents, yet some how the damned Yankee does the business, 
best pro Slavery men give me business, insured one dwelling, 
$5,000 on building & $2500 on furniture & Clothing therein prem 
$75 one year, can you beat that. 

I must make some arrangements for money next year. It seems 
to bad not to have money to loan at 5% per month when it can be 
had east at 7 to 10 per cent per annum and on poorer security than 
we get here. 

I see you are like all the world who have had no experience in 
the west. You look upon most everything as moonshine. You 
dont believe half [of] what I write. You think every body here is 
crazy and while you think so every body here is getting rich. Now 
is the time to dip in Money wont be made here at this rate five 
years hence, dont allow any thing to prevent the prompt sending 
of those 5 warrants by the 20th Nov at farthest. 

Business here this winter will be dull insurance I mean, next 
year it must be good. I shall want to get back by Jany 20. to get 


ready for River business &c and at that time the best bargains in 
Real Estate can be made 

Wilder has gone to the Doniphan Land office to enter Land for 
preemption or rather to Loan them Warrants. 

Affairs here look well and if Buchanan would only turn a few 
of the Federal office holders out who have been guilty of murder 
& robbery, people would feel better, but it does grind them to have 
men controll Post offices & Land offices in whom nobody has any 
confidence Not even the Ruffians themselves. The time will 
soon come when they also will get their deserts 

The Steamer "New Lucy" is now lying at the Levee, but I am 
to late to put this letter in her mail. 

Write soon & fully 

Yours &c 

Monday Dec. 1, 1857 

Your letter of the 12 & 14th Susans of the 9th & 10th with moth- 
ers letter enclosed, yours of the 17th and Susans & yours of the llth 
Nov containing two Land Warrants, Power of Atty and much news 
frome home were all received to day and Saturday in good order 
Warrants appear to be all right, shall probably use them this or next 

Dont understand me as complaining in the least I can get 
along and do well without any funds from home, and in case of 
necessity could assist you if required. I could sell the Land war- 
rants to day for $160, or could loan them one year for a note of $280. 
and a deed of 160 acres of Land to secure the note. Dont you make 
any investments at home unless to improve the farm in the way of 
trees &c Am inclined to think you can do best on the farm. Would 
advise selling the whole business to Sheldon if Aaron could make 
up his mind to come to Kansas, and farm it, start a Lumber yard 
wood & coal yard, Grist mill or any other business most, but I will 
not take the responsibility of advising again. I think any man who 
will come here and adopt the "go ahead" system will succeed. 

As for my Self I consider a fixed fact, and dont want you to lay 
awake o' nights on my account, for I have confidence in my suc- 
cess ultimately Am satisfied that thus far my business has 
equalled my anticipations and while I would and could use a large 
amount of funds in business could I obtain the article, yet I can work 
on a smaller scale I have paid for my Kansas experience very 


lightly in comparison with many. When title is obtained to Kick- 
apo Lands I will give you statement of investments of your funds 
in Kansas And let the times be good or bad I know the prices 
are for much less than others making for permanent investments. If 
I could have had two or three more land warrants at 76tf the 
Kickapo Section would not cost over $2.00 per acre, and a bet- 
ter section of 640 acres you never saw, A No 1 every inch of it 
would sell for $3.00 cash to day, $5.00 next summer, and situated 
within 12 miles of Atchison & Doniphan, on the Missouri River and 
only 1& mile south of the St Joseph & Fort Riley road 30 & 1M miles 
north of the Fort Leavenworth & Fort Laramie Road both exten- 
sively traveled roads. I think the location desirable 

Our political matters remain very much mixed up the national 
"Democratic Constitutional Convention" has framed a constitution, 
as you will see by the Tribunes correspondent They may foment 
more trouble, and the administration may back them in their plans, 
as they do in retaining John Calhoun in office J J Clarkson Fred 
Emory & Clark and many others who have assisted in foisting the 
foul thing upon the people of Kansas. 31 but you [see?] there are 
too many freemen here. Although many of them are of the milk 
and water kind yet there are enough good and true men on the Soil 
to put down the usurpation. 

30. This is apparently another name for the route from St. Joseph to Kennekuk which 
had its junction with the Fort Leavenworth road at Kennekuk. 

31. Anthony here refers to the Lecompton constitutional convention and the Proslavery 
instrument which it produced in November, 1857. John Calhoun, United States surveyor 
general for Kansas and Nebraska, was president of the convention. Frederick Emory, 
who was at various times a United States mail contractor and register of the Western land 
district at Ogden, made himself conspicuous during 1856-1857 as the leader of a gang of 
"regulators," or Border Ruffian vigilantes. Clark was probably George W. Clarke, a Pro- 
slavery Democrat who was employed for a time in the Fort Scott land office and who won 
notoriety as the murderer of the Free-State settler, Thomas Barber, in December, 1855, 
while he was United States agent to the Fottawatomie Indians. J. J. Clarkson has not been 

(Part Two, the D. R. Anthony Letters of 1858-1861, Will Appear 
in the Summer, 1958, Issue.) 

Early Theatre at Fort Scott 


THE setting for the beginning of theatre in Fort Scott and south- 
eastern Kansas was quite different from that of Leavenworth 
and Atchison. Northeastern Kansas, as well as central and north- 
western Missouri, had been served by the river traffic of the Mis- 
souri river. Several towns, four of which were of considerable size, 
Kansas City, Leavenworth, Atchison, and St. Joseph, afforded sub- 
stantial patronage in their own right, and operated as bases for ac- 
cess to the near-by interior towns. But Fort Scott and southeastern 
Kansas were far removed from water navigation, and were served 
only by expensive animal-powered land communications. That is, 
until the coming of the railroads and associated services. Other 
factors, of course, contributed to the delay in settlement and de- 
velopment of the area, particularly southern Bourbon and Neosho 
counties, and those farther south. The Missouri-Kansas border 
wars, by 1865, had virtually depopulated the border tiers of coun- 
ties on both sides of the state line. There were also controversies 
over Indian titles, and over land grants to railroads. 

Just prior to the Civil War, the village of Fort Scott was visited 
by occasional entertainers, but not theatre. Professor Searl, magi- 
cian and ventriloquist, in May, 1860; the New York Vocalists, in 
June, 1860; Seguar Ferrello, the "Italian Ole Bull/' and Peabody, 
the banjo performer, at Williams' Hall, December, 1860, March, 
1861; the Great Western Minstrels, in April, 1861. 

In the latter part of 1862, when Union troops were concentrated 
at Fort Scott, soldier entertainment attracted attention. During 
most of August the "Union Opera and Variety Troupe" provided 
that type of diversion, and again the same organization reopened 
for the fall season late in September and continued through much 
or all of October. This was the "Varieties" combination that had 
become notorious at Leavenworth under the direction of the ex- 
pansive and irrepressible Irish comedian, Ben Wheeler, at the Amer- 
ican Concert Hall derisively called the "Moral Show." In August 
Ben had with him the humorist, Oscar Willis, "the graceful Mile 

DR. JAMES C. MALIN, associate editor of The Kansas Historical Quarterly, is professor 
of history at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, and is author of several books relating to 
Kansas and the West. 



Carolista and LaBelle Louise," the jig-dancer, Johnny Mitchell, 
and the violinist, A. G. Cooper. For the later engagement the bal- 
ladist, Leon DeBerger, was featured in place of LaBelle Louise. As 
the Bulletin put it: "The Union Varieties are running gay. Ben 
Wheeler is a whole troupe in himself, and is 'well supported/ " 
Another group of entertainers were advertised as "Franklin and 
Baker's Amphitheatre." The components of this company had also 
appeared at Leaven worth in the "Variety" type of show: Baker, 
the Red Man of Agar, and his son Willie, Mr. and Mrs. Franklin, 
and Mr. and Mrs. (Kate) Navo. 1 

After the war a limited assortment of miscellaneous entertainment 
visited Fort Scott by stage. But, allowing for certain kinds of di- 
versions associated traditionally with saloons, gaming rooms, and 
dance halls, serving particularly the unattached population of a 
pioneer town, the citizens were thrown back mostly upon their own 
resources for amusement. 2 


The coming to Fort Scott of the first railroad, the Missouri River, 
Fort Scott and Gulf, in December, 1869, was long anticipated and 
worked a revolution in most all aspects of the activities of this city 
of about 4,000 population. Commercial entertainment, especially 
theatre, was a conspicuous beneficiary. Watching the advancing 
construction work on the railroad in Bourbon county, the Monitor 
wrote wishfully, May 12, 1869, that if the contractors at the north 
end did as well "we may expect the cars in Fort Scott by the 4th 
day of July." Not altogether by coincidence a few days later the 
Monitor described the new furnishings of McDonald Hall; new 
chairs, three chandeliers, eight side lamps "It is now one of the 

1. Fort Scott Democrat, May 19, June 23, 30, December 15, 1860; March 9, April 
13, 20, 1861; Fort Scott Bulletin, August 9, 23, 30, September 27, October 4, 11, 1862. 

James C. Malm, "Theatre in Kansas, 1858-1868: Background for the Coming of the 
Lord Dramatic Company to Kansas. 1869," Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 23 (Spring, 
1957), pp. 23-25; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, August 28, November 27, 1861. 

Mrs. C. H. Haynes, "Early Theatricals in Fort Scott," Fort Scott Daily Monitor, April 

8, 1895. In this article, primarily reminiscences, Mrs. Haynes said: 

"The first traveling troupe that gave public entertainments in this city was a company 
from Leavenworth, whose 'advance agent' found great difficulty in obtaining a building. 
. . ." the only place available being an ice house, which was furnished for the purpose 
of the soldier shows with benches, a drop curtain, and candles with tin reflectors for foot- 
lights. She added: 

"I cannot vouch for the quality of these first theatricals, as the ladies did not patronize 
them, for the reason, that we were not wanted, the performances being regular 'variety 

Mrs. Haynes dated this episode 1863, but it should have been a year earlier; also, this 
was "entertainment," but not theatre. 

No contemporary verification has been found for the ice-house housing of these shows, 
but space was exceedingly short. The school house had been turned into a military hos- 
pital during the summer of 1862, and a citizens' drive to construct a temporary building 
for the fall opening of school failed. Fort Scott Bulletin, June 7, 14, July 12, August 2. 

9, 1862. 

2. Charles W. Goodlander, Memoirs and Recollections of C. W. Goodlander of the 
Early Days of Fort Scott (Fort Scott, 1900). The author gave more attention than is 
usual in such reminiscences to the devices for self-amusement. 


best halls in the State." But at year's end and the railroad a reality 
the owners went a step further; erected "a fine stage" and provided 
a "very tolerable scenic property." By this time the facilities were 
under contract to the National Theatre. 8 McDonald Hall, named in 
honor of a former citizen, then carpet-bag Republican senator from 
Arkansas, Alexander McDonald, occupied the second floor of the 
annex, Main street side, of the Wilder House, the principal hotel 
and saloon, with billiard and pool rooms. This was Fort Scott's 
theatre until the Davidson Opera House was opened in January, 
1875. 4 

In Fort Scott during the decade of the 1870's there was no more 
unanimity than in the 20th century about the nature of either enter- 
tainment or humor. In the public communications field they are 
inseparable and equally treacherous: 

The individual who left three kittens, and a dog with a tin pan tied to his 
narrative, on our office stairs last night, can have them in a transfigured state 
by calling at the butcher shop. We would modestly suggest that we have no 
further call for such supplies. 

Telephones had not yet arrived, but evidently the people made 
known their reactions immediately and in no uncertain terms. The 
next day a somewhat chastened ( ? ) editor wrote in disillusionment 
and bewilderment, real or feigned: 

Whenever people learn to walk upon their eye-brows, to balance ladders 
on their chins and climb to the tops of them when fleas shall swallow ele- 
phants and elephants traverse space upon mosquitoes then, and then only, 
will an Editor be found whose items give pleasure alike to rich and poor, 
honest and false, respectable and low. 5 

The railroad brought a somewhat greater assortment, but not nec- 
essarily a uniformly higher quality of entertainment the railroad 
was a common carrier. 

On January 17, 1870, the National Theatre opened in McDonald 
Hall for about six weeks, and undertook to play daily, except Sun- 
day, and a matinee "for the especial accommodation of Ladies and 
children," extra on Saturday afternoon. A different piece was pre- 
sented each day, allowing numerous repeat performances. Ban- 
croft and Fessenden were lessees and proprietors, C. P. DeGroat, 
stage manager, O. H. Perry, leader of the orchestra: "This elegant 
place of amusement is now open for the regular season, with a First 
Class DRAMATIC COMPANY, Selected from the principal the- 

3. Fort Scott Daily Monitor, January 16, 19, 1870. 

4. Fort Scott Monitor, May 19, 1869; Daily Monitor, April 8, 1895. 

5. Ibid., March 16, 17, 1870. 

S 1958 


atres of the East/' among whom were Mary Preston, Edith Blande, 
Emma Stowe, and a male contingent that was headed by DeGroat, 
with O. H. Barr, etc., "The whole forming an array of talent second 
to none either east or west. . . ." 6 

Lest the 20th century reader be misled into thinking that the 
National Theatre was a "going concern/' certain discrete facts 
should be pointed out which the contemporary public may or may 
not have known at the beginning. Except, possibly, for a small 
nucleus the company was in prospect only. To be sure, actors had 
been engaged, but most, apparently, as individuals only. After their 
arrival rehearsals were necessary to train them into an effective 
group unity. They were to open Monday evening, January 17, but 
the Sunday morning Monitor announced that they had arrived on 
last night's train which had been delayed by "a heavy load and 
slippery track." Competition was announced at the same time: 
"The can-can opened last night at Rubicam & Dilworth's, and the 
Dramatic Troupe from Chicago opens tomorrow night at McDonald 
Hall." If the identification "from Chicago" was correct, then again 
the ubiquitous combination was in evidence: Chicago, railroads, 
and theatre. After the second performance the Monitor revealed: 
"We understand that if the management are successful, the hall 
is to be enlarged, and additions made to their stock company." 
Except for the use of the term "stock company" in the news item 
no other reference was made to the form of organization of this 
troupe, a resident theatre or a traveling company. The circum- 
stances indicate the former. This was an era of transition, how- 
ever, from the resident to the traveling company as had been illus- 
trated at Leavenworth and Atchison. 7 In practice, whatever the 
original intentions may have been, the Nationals soon took to the 
road as a traveling dramatic troupe. 

On Monday night McDonald Hall was crowded, but the name 
of the play was not mentioned, possibly it was not important. The 
Monitor conceded that: 

We were most agreeably surprised by the character of the entertainment. 
Knowing our limited population, the small size of our halls, and the utter 
impossibility of putting proper stage machinery into them, we were disposed to 
think that no company of any merit whatever could be persuaded to come here. 
And considering the inevitable drawbacks of an opening night, lack of acquaint- 
ance with the stage from short time for rehearsal, creaking machinery and poor 
entrances, we marvel that the company did so well. 

6. Advertisement in ibid., January 19, 1870 ff. Mary Preston was usually referred to 
thereafter as May. 

7. Tames C. Malin, "Theatre in Kansas, 1858-1868 " Kansas Historical 

Quarterly, v. 23 (Spring, 1957), pp. 15-20. 


Mrs. Pontifex did not know her part, and the prompting was unartistically 
done. . . . Miss Mortimer (Preston au billet) swung out too much voice, 
forgetting the size of the hall, but modulated it with exceeding tact, and was 
throughout graceful, piquante, and versatile. Not the least interesting part of 
her performance was the by-play with the foot, hurt by the rough stage, and 
the deft way she went through the narrow crack left for an exit, or doubled 
herself up in a corner, when unable to get out. Of Lieut. Kingston (O. B. 
Barr) we did not see enough to judge he appeared worn out. 8 

On Wednesday evening the opening play was repeated and "was 
much better rendered than at the first attempt . . . and Miss 
Mortimer ( Preston ) had donned a sparkle and life that carried her 
smoothly over poor support. In the sofa scene, Mr. Barr did nicely, 
and Miss Preston was well, tantalizing." The bad name associ- 
ated with theatre even at its best had to be overcome, if possible, 
and the Monitor assured the public about the Nationals: "To their 
credit be it said that they confine themselves strictly within the lim- 
its of legitimate drama, and none need stay away through tenderness 
on that point." 9 

In any case, the first week in which such a group worked together 
would be considered a breaking-in period. However, the situation 
in which the Nationals found themselves was not so simple. New 
personnel were trickling in during the second week, January 24-29. 
Edith Blande appeared for the first time on Monday, and Gaston 
and Frye wired that they would arrive on Tuesday to take their 
places on the stage the same evening. Thus, the Monitor, January 
25 (Tuesday) explained to the public: "The management have la- 
bored under peculiar difficulties for the past few days; coming 
players have failed to meet their engagements promptly, the best 
on hand have been sick, and changes in the programes so provok- 
ing to the audience have been necessary." Possibly it was out 
of kindness to the company that no reports on the shows of the 
latter part of the first week were printed. Also, stage properties 
were incomplete, and on January 27, Thursday of the second week, 
the new drop curtain was announced, painted by George Fessenden, 
artist of the theatrical company. 

Miss Blande was billed to make her debut in "Asmodeus" on 
Monday of the second week, January 24, with the "Little Rebel' r 
as an afterpiece. She was represented as an English girl, late of 
the Drury Lane Theatre, London, who had made her American 
debut October 4, 1869, at Baltimore: "We trust her foot and lips 
have not lost their cunning since she left the fostering care of Lydia 

8. Daily Monitor, January 18, 1870. 

9. Ibid., January 19, 20, 1870. 


Thompson." The Monitor of Tuesday was kindness itself in com- 
mentary upon the "Little Rebel" she "dances as lightly as of yore." 
The play "Asmodeus" had not been presented Monday because a 
new actor, Mr. Gaston, did not arrive, but apparently was offered 
Tuesday. As reported, the Wednesday production, " 'Peter White's 
Wife' was rendered with more spirit and better effect than 'As- 
modeus/ Miss Blande's dancing was especially pleasing. . . .** 
The "Black Eyed Susan" performance of Thursday "was undoubt- 
edly the best they have yet given us." Miss Preston was "Su" and 
"Her fainting was very artistic; so was the last hook on her dress 
[but] Miss Blande was evidently suffering from severe indisposi- 
tion." For the ladies and children "Peter White's Wife" and "Pas 
de Fascination" were presented for the Saturday matinee "chaste 
and unobjectionable entertainment." For the evening performances 
of Friday and Saturday, the bill was "The Ticket-of -Leave Man," 
"the most successful and satisfactory performance yet given. . , . 
The spirited and effective acting of May Preston several times 
elicited hearty applause; she is a favorite, and grows in popularity 
with every appearance." The Sunday Monitor, January 30, was 
probably justified in its week-end summary: "The playing of the 
National company shows decided signs of improvement of late, 
and they have been rewarded for their efforts by excellent houses 
for several nights." 10 

During the third week the Nationals appeared to have been 
somewhat stabilized. Monday's plays, "Caste" and "Nan, the Good- 
for-Nothing," were repeated Tuesday. DeGroat, the comedy man, 
made a hit, and Miss Preston appeared "in her customary animated 
and engaging manner." The lighter feminine lead was evidently 
gaining favor: "The blonde is generally acknowledged a very en- 
gaging style of beauty, but when the blonde is united with the 
Blande, the effect is absolutely irresistible." The "Serious Family" 
was coupled with "Pas de Fascination" on Wednesday and "Black 
Eyed Susan" with "Toodles" on Thursday night. Management was 
commended particularly 

in the selection of pieces suited to the tastes of the people, as well as adapted 
to the special ability and talent of their troupe. The "Serious Family" and 
"Toodles," two as rich and laughable farces as the language affords, and 
entirely within the capacity of the company, we regard as among the best 
selections yet made. DeGroat, as "Aminidab Sleek," and "Timothy Toodles," 
is scarcely to be surpassed by any comedian now on the stage. 

On Thursday "Black Eyed Susan" was coupled with "Toodles" 
'The crowning attraction of the evening DeGroat's incomparable 

10. Ibid., January 22, 23, 25, 27-30, 1870. 


Toodles' . . . must be seen to be appreciated." On Friday 
"Toodles" was again paired with the feature play, the "Marble 
Heart/' In the latter: 

Mr. Barr's "Rafael Duchalet" surpassed in true histrionic inspiration all his 
former characters. May Preston, as "Marco, the marble hearted" was truly 
artistic and effective. Miss Blande, as "Marie" surpassed herself. She has 
never appeared before with such grace and naturalness. Divested of a cer- 
tain degree of affectation, which almost makes the spectator nervous, she has 
both the beauty and ability to become a charming actress. We were pleased 
to notice her improvement in this respect last evening. 

Saturday's matinee pieces were the "Serious Family" and the "Little 
Rebel," repeating the "Marble Heart" and the "Little Rebel" in the 
evening: Miss Blande's "rope-skipping dance, in the second piece, 
is a truly delightful exhibition of grace and skill. . . ." n 

The National's fourth week was disheartening. DeGroat became 
seriously ill and "All That Glitters Is Not Gold" gave way to "As- 
modeus," but without one of the principal characters: "The enter- 
tainment closed with 'The Little Rebel,' but the previous mishaps 
of the evening has so thoroughly demoralized the esprit of the com- 
pany that they did not do as well as usual. Miss Blande in great 
measure retrieved the misfortunes of the night by her excellent 
dancing." Performances for Tuesday and Wednesday were can- 
celled, and the Monitor explained: "It is but justice to the manage- 
ment to say that this unfortunate state of affairs was entirely beyond 
their control. Several actors with whom they have made engage- 
ments have failed to arrive." The hope was expressed that the new 
players, and DeGroat's recovery would enable the Nationals to 
offer "a better class of pieces than have heretofore been attempted." 

Upon resumption of production Thursday, some reorganization 
had been effected in the orchestra, and D. K. Russell, a popular 
comedian made his first appearance. The following evening a new 
leading lady, Olive Kneass, was introduced. DeGroat was not 
back, and the Monitor had nothing to say about the Saturday per- 
formances. 12 

If the fourth week was disheartening, the fifth week was disas- 
trous to the Nationals. Monday's bill was the "Lady of Lyons," 
but internal differences erupted in open rebellion and both sides 
told the public their stories. The Monitor presented the manage- 
ment side: 

The performance last night was sadly interfered with by an internicine 
strife among the subordinates of the company, evidently engendered for the 

11. Ibid., February 1-6, 1870. 

12. Ibid., February 8, 10, 11, 1870. 


purpose of involving the management in so much difficulty as to render the 
production of the piece advertised for the evening an impossibility. According 
to Mr. Bancroft's statement, Mr. Barr, the leading man, since the illness of 
Mr. DeGroat, has taken advantage of the situation to make demands upon the 
management not warranted by their contract, and to which the management 
could not, in justice to themselves, accede. One of the other principal mem- 
bers of the company, Mr. Frye, so far espoused the cause of Mr. Barr as to 
refuse to appear unless his demands were complied with. Mr. Frye became 
so demonstrative as to make his arrest by the police necessary during the 

At this point in the story a diversion is desirable, in order to intro- 
duce one of the participants in the evening's bizarre activities. A 
local of the day reported that: "Gen. Darr, the genial host of the 
Wilder House, returned last evening from a Northern tour." He 
would scarcely have been in a position to know anything of the 
current status of the theatre. There would have been time for din- 
ner and a drink or two at the bar "to swell the receipts" before 
the curtain rose. But to resume the Monitors narrative: 

When the cause of the difficulty became known the sympathies of the 
audience were warmly enlisted in behalf of the management. General Darr 
came promptly forward and volunteered to take the place of Mr. Frye, and 
although he was obliged to read the part, he acquitted himself right nobly; 
in fact, we think the audience derived more real pleasure from the novelty 
of the affair than they would have done had the original programme been 
carried out. 

Mr. J. D. Thompson, of Leavenworth, kindly helped to rescue the manage- 
ment from their complications by taking Mr. Barr's place. 

The play proceeded, in spite of all drawbacks and they seemed at one 
time nearly insurmountable and the audience retired entirely satisfied with 
the performance, and warm in their determination to support the management. 

Mr. Barr is a meritorious actor, and was making many friends here; we 
should regret to do him any injustice, but it would seem from a candid state- 
ment of the facts, that he was endeavoring to take undue advantage of the 
circumstances which had already involved the very gentlemanly managers of 
the company in considerable trouble and expense. The conduct of Mr. Frye 
would appear entirely unjustifiable. 

Barr's card challenged the accuracy of the Monitors version: "It 
does me injustice by placing me in a false light before the public 
of Fort Scott." He insisted that he had "not only labored ardently 
and faithfully to discharge all duties," but had even "played various 
parts which were entirely uncalled for by the terms of my engage- 
ment." He maintained that the management had violated the 
contract and refused to pay the week's salary due: "My connection 
with them is severed because I would lend no further aid to imposi- 
tion upon the public, by placing pieces upon the stage without 


proper rehearsals which proceeding can only end, as has been 
demonstrated on two or three occasions, in disgraceful perform- 

Monday's play was repeated Tuesday and: "Notwithstanding 
the difficulties under which the Company have labored, the ren- 
dering of 'The Lady of Lyons' last night was excellent. . . . We 
hope that the Company will not be disheartened by their many mis- 
fortunes, but hope for better times in the future/' Theatre was 
scarcely reported the remainder of the week, but on Saturday the 
Monitor reporter responded to the Nationals' persistence: "It is 
with much pleasure that we notice marked improvement in the 
work of the theatre, and the presentation of a bill that we can hon- 
estly commend." The names of plays thus approved were not given. 
On Sunday, whether in the nature of a prod to the management, or 
a reality accurately reported, the Monitor said: "It is rumored that 
Miss Preston is to have a complimentary benefit. We hope that it 
may be soon, and that the hall may be crowded/' 13 

Belatedly, and justly, the sixth week of the National's run was 
May Preston's. "Honey Moon" was Monday's play: "The manage- 
ment have good reason to congratulate themselves upon the pos- 
session of Miss Preston. Throughout their many troubles she has 
never failed them, but alike in good and poor support, has filled 
her varied parts to the best of her ability, and that ability is far 
above the average." On the day this was written, Tuesday, Febru- 
ary 22, the reporter announced, with regret, that this was the last 
week of the National Theatre in Fort Scott. DeGroat returned to 
his place on Wednesday, recovered from his illness, but Miss Pres- 
ton was ill and absent for the first time: "The play last evening 
showed powerfully the absence of its leading attraction Miss Pres- 
ton" in "Under the Gaslight." In keeping with the irony of this 
comedy of errors, the confirmation of the rumored benefit for Miss 
Preston revealed the probable cause of her illness: 
Since her debut, which was highly successful, she has surely and won 
her way in admiration and regard of all habitues of the theatre, until she has 
come to be the reigning favorite. Untiring in her efforts to administer to the 
amusement and entertainment of the public, she has nightly retired from the 
stage to assume the equally arduous duties of the sick room, and that she has 
been able to fill both duties so ably is as much a matter of surprise as of 

On Friday, after two days of illness, the Monitor announced: 
"Miss Preston, we are pleased to say, returns to the boards to-night, 

13. Ibid., February 15, 16, 19, 20, 1870. 


as 'Juliana* in the comedy of 'The Honey-Moon*. ... It will 
contrast well with her tragic role at her benefit Saturday 
night. . . ." 

On Saturday morning the Monitor insisted: "Miss Preston has 
recovered from her illness and will appear in full force as 'Juliet* 
to-night." The play she had chosen for her benefit was Shake- 
speare's "Romeo and Juliet." 

Although the Monitor did not make an issue of it, the probabili- 
ties are that this was really the first presentation of a Shakespeare 
play in Fort Scott. In any case the rarity of such an event focuses 
attention upon the manner of local reaction: 

Shakespeare's sublime tragedy, will be produced at the theatre to-night, 
on the occasion of the benefit of Miss May Preston. Of the beauties of the 
play, it is almost unnecessary to speak. Our readers are, most of them, as 
well acquainted with it as school boys with their readers but comparatively 
few have had the pleasure of witnessing it upon the stage, and as it may 
never be reproduced in this city, all should avail themselves of the opportunity. 
We shall see Miss Preston depart from us with regret, and have willingly given 
a large part of our space for the past few days in calling the attention of the 
public to the last tribute they can pay to her worth. 

The next morning, February 27, the Daily Monitor reported: 
An extremely crowded house at the theatre last night betokened that Miss 
Preston has made many friends in her short stay amongst us, and that her 
absence will not be unregretted. Despite the drawbacks which attend Shake- 
speare's dramas upon any stage, and more particularly upon the provincial 
one, the play passed off easily and with sustained interest. Many parts of 
Miss Preston's acting were excellent her tableau work was faultless, and the 
"potion scene" one of the most difficult was charmingly rendered. [Thomp- 
son, as Romeo, received only passing comment, but the nurse,] rarely well 
played, redounds more to Miss Stowe's credit than any representation she 
has yet given us. 14 

The next in the closing round of benefit performances was one for 
Miss Blande, Monday, February 28. She appeared as "Claude, the 
love-lorn hero" in "Claude Melnotte," a burlesque on the "Lady of 
Lyons." The Sunday Monitor explained the situation thus: 
The roles in which she has been obliged to appear have been of a different 
character from those in which she has been accustomed to, and almost entirely 
foreign to the department of dramatic representation in which she has been 
schooled. For this reason she has not always appeared to that advantage 
which her merit should ensure her. The play selected for her benefit, however, 
is one of the class to which she is adapted both by nature and training, and 
one in which she is entirely at home. 

In spite of the careful build-up, however, the Blande performance 
was a disappointment: "The fault lay not with Miss Blande" ac- 

14. Ibid., February 22, 24-27, 1870. 


cording to the drama critic "that Miss Blande carried herself 
through as well is more to her credit than success under other 

Three more performances by the company were scheduled. On 
Tuesday "Under the Gaslight" was pronounced good, and was to 
have been repeated on Wednesday, but Miss Preston was again too 
ill to appear, and, that the show might go on, farces were substi- 
tuted. On Thursday, the closing night of the season for the Na- 
tionals in Fort Scott, Barr returned to the company and to his 
former position of leading man, the event being celebrated by a 
benefit performance for him the play, "Under the Gaslight/* The 
attendance was not large for a farewell occasion, but there was 
unusual competition, and "The play . . . did not go off with 
the same spirit as on Tuesday evening, the zest with which it was 
rendered previously not seeming to animate scarcely one of the 
performers." In spite of this reservation about the success of the 
evening, the critic continued that: "The re-union of Mr. Barr with 
the company adds very greatly to its character and force, furnishing 
just what the company has lacked since he left it." Of course, Miss 
Preston played "despite her indisposition" and her recovery seemed 
assured so that she could "give her almost indispensable support 
to the company ... an artiste and true woman." Miss Blande 
was credited with "a more favorable impression . . . than al- 
most any character she has previously undertaken." 

On Friday, March 4, the Nationals went on tour, playing "Lady 
of Lyons" in Kansas City on Saturday. The chapter was not quite 
closed at Fort Scott, however, as announcement had been made 
Sunday, February 27, that: 

On Friday evening, a select grand masquerade and fancy dress ball will 
take place at McDonald's Hall, for the benefit of the National Theatrical Com- 
pany. The gentlemanly proprietors of the theatre have suffered considerable 
pecuniary loss in favoring our city with the first respectable dramatic enter- 
tainment we have had, and on this occasion our citizens should show their 
gratitude for their labors by making at least partial restitution of their pecuni- 
ary losses. 

Mr. Bancroft remained behind to represent the Nationals at the 
ball on Friday night. The next day the Monitor reported that the 
receipts were "quite gratifying." 15 

The major competition with which the Nationals had to contend 
on their closing night in Fort Scott was a special excursion train 
carrying the Fort Scott delegation to "The Grand Celebration" of 
the coming of the Gulf railroad to Girard, the county seat of the 

15. Ibid., February 27, March 1-5, 1870. 


county adjoining Bourbon on the south. Fort Scott had been the 
"end of the line" only about ten weeks. The coming of the rail- 
road to Fort Scott had really brought the Nationals to the city, so 
the celebration of its extension, competing with their closing show, 
was a part of the "price of progress," which so often was two-edged. 
But as the Monitor pointed out, such railroad celebrations "are com- 
ing to be of almost weekly occurrence in Kansas. Towns in the 
interior are being connected with the balance of the world with 
such rapidity that we can scarcely keep tract of them." 16 

Although technically Fort Scott had now lost its position on the 
Gulf railroad as a dead-end town, nevertheless it and other towns 
on the road remained substantially in that condition so long as their 
one railroad ran no where in particular and had no connections 
with other roads at its southern end. Not until at least a second 
railroad came, and only when rails ran through Fort Scott to large 
towns to the south, to the east, and to the west could traveling 
troupes work out itineraries for continuous tours; going out on 
one line and returning to home base on another. Prior to the 
winter of 1875-1876 not much of that was possible. 


"The departure of the theatre has left our amusement seekers at 
a loss," complained the Monitor, March 6, 1870. "Some lectures 
from men of acknowledged eminence, would fill the gaps." A vol- 
unteer theatrical troupe was attempted under General Darr, who 
was like an old fire horse who responded to every alarm. The per- 
formance was reported poorly attended, 26 tickets including 
comps. 17 A month later, with an ironical enthusiasm, the Monitor 
reviewed the prospects: 

Fort Scott just now has a varied and liberal variety in her amusement line. 
The "Opera House" presents its peculiar attractions nightly; the Wizard Oil 
[patent medicine] men hold forth daily and nightly at the street corners and 
their performances are by no means the least pleasing of the catalogue; the 
Stereopticon is setting the children wild with delight at McDonald Hall; Or- 
ton's Circus pitch their pavilion here on Friday; the Nationals will revisit us 
next week, and we shall have the fascinating and eloquent Olive Logan with 
her "Girls" on the 25th. 

The so-called "Opera House" received some unwelcome publicity, 
which nevertheless possesses historical importance as revealing 
aspects of competition in the amusement field and sidelights on 
the social scene: "Behind the scenes of the Opera House is a 

16. Ibid., March 3, 1870. 

17. Ibid., March 6, 13, 16, 1870. 

18. Ibid., April 21, 1870. 


little apartment called the wine-room, where some of the privileged 
do nightly congregate, for a glass of wine and a closer acquaintance 
with the ballet dancers/* This setting introduced the story of a 
man who visited the wine room drunk and woke up the next morn- 
ing at home minus $150. The aid of the police was solicited, a 
trap laid, and one of the "frail sisters" caught, and the unspent half 
of the money restored. Immediately the proprietor of the Opera 
House replied by "card*' denying that the incident occurred in the 
wine room, but in the supper room of another establishment, the 
Magnolia. Furthermore, an entirely different version of the story 
was told, alleging that the money was given expressly for the pur- 
chase of a watch, the donor "being smitten," and that he admired 
the watch after the purchase. Only two or three days afterwards, 
they charged, did he, coward like, invent the story about losing the 
money, and obtained the co-operation of the police. The card 
closed with a defense of the "Opera House," good order being kept 
in every department and the place kept "'respectable* in every 
sense of the word." But unsavory tales continued to be associated 
with the institution: "A young farmer from the country sold grain 
yesterday for a handsome roll of bills; celebrated the 15th amend- 
ment; went to the Opera House, and came out delighted; visited 
the keno rooms, and borrowed fifty cents for his night's lodging. 
Sic transit gloria!" 19 

The year 1870, the first under the railroad regime, introduced 
intense competition among hotels, saloons, billiard halls, and as- 
sociated amusement facilities for entertaining the influx of traveling 
population as well as residents. Gunn's Domino Billiard Hall and 
Saloon was rearranged, and the Crystal Palace imported a new 
steward. The new hotel, the Gulf House, was opened to challenge 
the Wilder House. General Darr, wholesale liquors, with new 
business connections in Kansas City, was one of the proprietors of 
the Wilder House, and its Saloon and Billiard Hall. He was sure 
that with his new Kansas City connections "the 'receipts' will be 
'swelled* enormously." The phrase "swell the receipts" had become 
a byword in Fort Scott and was peculiarly identified with General 
Darr, who supposedly, after each new guest had registered, sug- 
gested: "Let's go to the bar and swell the receipts/' 20 

Only a few fragments of biographical data have been available 
about Darr. The federal census enumeration of Fort Scott listed 
him as Joseph Darr, Jr., 40 years of age, single, born in Ohio of 

19. Ibid., March 5, 6, 10, 1870. 

20. Memoirs and Recollections of C. W. Goodlander of the Early Days of Fort Scott 
(Fort Scott, 1900) p. 77. 


foreign-born parents. He had a younger brother, George, 17 years 
of age, associated with him in the hotel as clerk. In 1867 Darr 
opened a music store in Leavenworth. 21 Nobody appeared to 
question his right to use the title of "General," or to explain how he 
acquired such rank. No information was forthcoming either, about 
how he became a "veteran" theatrical manager. In pioneer com- 
munities it was sometimes best not to be too inquisitive about ori- 
gins. In the case of Joseph Darr, his character was being gradually 
exposed to public view. 

General Darr was determined to meet all competition in the 
spring of 1870, so "The Wilder House is undergoing a general puri- 
fication by soap and water, paint, whitewash and new wall paper." 
Also, "The 'Delmonico' billiard hall is being repainted, newly 
papered, and generally burnished up for the summer campaign." 22 

Another sign of spring was the dog notice announcing that after 
May 15 "all dogs found running at large" on which taxes had not 
been paid would be dealt with according to law. General Darr 
had a sense of humor comparable to that of the editor of the 
Monitor. He did not mix kittens with dogs, but the day following 
the city dog notice he did inaugurate the "Dog Lunch": "Gen. Darr 
yesterday regaled the habitues of the Wilder with a lunch of splen- 
did, highly flavored Bologna sausage. The General calls it 'Dog 
Lunch/ and says it will be served regularly, every day at 10 A. M. 
All are invited." That was only one of his innovations. The next 
item on the list: "Darr's elegant piano in the Delmonico is being 
nightly punished by ambitious amateurs: it draws a big crowd." 
But that was only a by-product. An announcement headed: "Darr's 
Opera House" was explained in some detail: 

General Darr is introducing some very seductive attractions at the Delmon- 
ico. A splendid piano, presided over by a first-class musician, is now operated 
daily and nightly, and a splendid violinist will soon be added. The General 
also informs us that he has engaged the professional services of a leading 
prima donna of one of the Eastern Opera troupes, who will shortly make her 
debut in Fort Scott. These attractions together with the "Dog Lunch," the 
General thinks will "swell the receipts" enormously. 23 

Entertainment and improvement of young men had been the 
principal argument used in the library association discussions, but 
the Monitor reading room descriptions had credited George A. 
Crawford, the owner of the Monitor, with interest in provision for 
women as well. A Monitor editorial, November 24, 1869, on the 

21. Leavenworth Daily Times, August 25, 1867; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, 
August 21, 27, September 5, 1867. 

22. Daily Monitor, April 12, 13, 17, 22-24, 29, 1870. 

23. Ibid., April 29, May 5-7, 1870. 


theme of "Long Evenings" asked what could and should be done 
with the long evenings between supper and bedtime; gambling, 
drinking, etc.? What else was there to do for those without homes 
and family associations? When saloons, gambling houses, dance 
halls, etc., were the only recreation available, the fair sex should 
not be intolerant if young men pursued their pleasures there. An 
examination of the manuscript census rolls for 1870 and 1875 is a 
vivid reminder of how many young men and women lived in Fort 
Scott without the family associations of a home. 

It was only natural however that some should resent too much 
emphasis upon the wickedness of Fort Scott ( a city with the repu- 
tation of more saloons than any other type of business ) , and among 
them was the editor of the Monitor, February 3, 1870: "Our city 
has acquired the reputation abroad of being a Tiard town/ and ex- 
pressions of like import are not infrequent even at home." But he 
insisted that this reputation was both undeserved and undesirable; 
especially if Fort Scott was compared with towns along the Union 
Pacific and Kansas Pacific railroads: "Our town is undoubtedly 
quite bad enough, and there is abundant room for moral improve- 
ment, but that we are such a cess pool of iniquity as is often repre- 
sented is not at all true." 

In the spring of 1870 the Methodist women took up the challenge 
about entertainment. They acted in the matter by dividing them- 
selves into four bands, each of which took turns in providing a 
week's amusement for young people. 24 The record of activities is 
lacking, and there is reason for the assumption, that, like most such 
enterprises, the plan withered for lack of continued support. 

In May, after showing in Kansas City, Leavenworth, Topeka, and 
elsewhere, and undergoing major reorganization, the National The- 
atre returned: "Fort Scott has an almost paternal interest in the 
'Nationals/ and will give them a warm welcome home." 25 This 
was a perspective quite different from the pretentious advertisement 
of January and much more realistic. The only remaining member 
of the former cast to register upon the Monitor editor was Miss 
Stowe, whose finished performances were in sharp contrast with 
her "stammering beginnings" of the previous January. Misses 
Preston and Blande were no longer with the company, but instead, 
the leading lady was Nellie Boyd, a newcomer who did not make a 
marked impression upon the theatrical editor. He did not realize 
that Nellie Boyd was soon to rise to an enviable stardom, heading 

24. Ibid., Aprtt 8, 1870. 

25. Ibid., April 27, 1870. 


a company of her own, one of the leading traveling troupes to en- 
tertain Midwestern audiences for more than a decade. After a few 
performances, the ubiquitous General Darr helping out on occasion, 
the National Theatre moved on. 26 About a month later the Wil- 
liam A. Rouse Dramatic combination made history of a sort, when 
on June 1, for the first time in Fort Scott, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was 
presented. 27 

On June 15, the Daily Monitor chronicled the "closing of the 
Opera House." "The exhibitions have not been of a very exalted 
moral tone, and since the novelty of the affair wore off, it has not 
been so well patronized, and has lately entirely lost favor with our 
citizens. Its sudden demise provokes no mourning." Four days 
later the editor lamented: "Mr. and Mrs. Couldock will play in 
Leavenworth this week. We hope they will come to Fort Scott. A 
meritorious dramatic entertainment in this city would be really re- 


Preparations for the winter amusement season were announced 
in August, 1870. General Darr had returned after a prolonged 
absence looking like he had been "swelling the receipts." As re- 
lated to the theatre, the Monitor, August 24, announced that "Fort 
Scott's genial favorite, Gen. Darr," would manage "a full theatrical 
company," which would open the season at McDonald's Hall about 
September 1: "The General is not slow in the histrionic line, him- 
self. . . ." The enterprise assumed the name "Olympic Theatre." 
McDonald Hall underwent another remodeling; further ventilation, 
a new stage door, changes in the main entrance, and redecoration. 
Also, "With regard to the theatrical enterprise, no effort will be 
spared to furnish a company equal to any in the West, and induce- 
ments will be held out to the most prominent stars to favor us with 
their delineations." The costs of the preparations were being fi- 
nanced by the owner of the hall and General Darr: "A city without 
public amusements is most forlorn, and only by aiding the proprie- 
tors of the enterprise can we hope to retain it." 28 This description 
indicated clearly the nature of the institution contemplated; a resi- 
dent company (often called a stock company) which could func- 
tion as a "full company" staging plays in its own right, or provide 
the support for traveling stars. This was the sort of thing that 
Leavenworth had attempted during the early 1860's, but had aban- 

26. Ibid., April 27, 28, May 5, 7, 1870. 

27. Ibid., June 1, 1870. 

28. Ibid., August 30, 31, 1870. 


doned after 1867. The experiences of the coming season would 
determine whether or not Fort Scott could succeed, or await the 
circumstances that might afford the city entertainment by the newer 
type of traveling theatre. 

The first contingent of players arrived August 30: Annie Jamison, 
leading lady, Annie Ward, "soubrette, dauseuse, and cantatrice," 
Thompson and Russell, formerly of the Nationals, and some others. 
O. H. Barr joined the group on September 3, and from time to time 
additional players were announced. Apparently, performances 
began as scheduled, but the names of the plays were not featured, 
and only fair houses were reported. The troupe was taken to Ne- 
vada, Mo., about mid-September for three days. Although opti- 
mistic notices appeared in the Monitor about the support given the 
theatre during September, reality caught up with the reporter and, 
October 4, the public announcement was made that it would be 
closed temporarily. 29 

Before the Olympic Theatre reopened something new had oc- 
curred in the offices of the Monitor, announced September 29, 1870: 
"Capt. E. F. Ware, of Cherokee County, takes charge temporarily 
of our local columns." Prior to this time Ware had divided his year, 
summers and winters, between his farm and the Fort Scott harness 
business. Upon coming to town for the winter on this occasion, he 
undertook editorial work. Just how long his temporary tenure 
lasted is not clear, but probably until the end of the year, when the 
owner of the Monitor, George A. Crawford, obtained the services 
of D. W. Wilder to take over the managing editorship, January 1, 
1871. During his short term as locals editor, Ware was supposedly 
responsible for what appeared on the city page. In due course, 
however, some questions on this score do arise. 

A "new edition" of the Olympic Theatre was announced in the 
Daily Monitor, October 19, to open October 24, "a new company 
and change of scenery" which would entertain "with first class 
dramatic art." Day by day the advertising campaign unfolded: 
"General Darr is a man of energy, and we have no doubt that his 
efforts will be crowned with success." The "news story" of October 
23 opened with the hackneyed but realistic statement of fact, ap- 
plicable probably to most people concerned: "The Winter season 
now approaching demands a succession of amusement festivities 
to relieve the dreary monotony pervading an inland town. . . ." 
In this particular instance the public was assured that "we know of 

29. Ibid., September 3, 4, 6-8, 10, 11, 15-18, October 4, 1870. 


no more formidable indication that 'fun will reign supreme* than 
the announcement of the reopening of the Olympic Theatre and 
Darr's Fort Scott Varieties/' both under General Darr's manage- 
ment: "It would be superfluous to state that the company selected 
for the ensuing season at the 'Olympic Hall' will rarely find its 
equal in any first class Opera House outside New York." 

The "Varieties" and the "Theatre" were separate investments; "the 
'Varieties' will be conducted on first class principles" in the place 
"lately occupied by Gunn's Domino" and 

will be a favorite resort for the general convenience of those who attend light 
amusements. Music, singing and dancing will comprise the bill of fare at 
the latter place; 

A lunch counter on the Eastern plan will be provided and meals can be 
secured at all hours with little cost. 

General Darr promises some great novelties in both of these public resorts, 
and nothing will be tolerated in either that can offend the most fastidious. 

The energy and enterprise of the Proprietor deserves a most suitable 
acknowledgment in the way of greenbacks. 

The announcement had significance to the competitive scene 
outwardly, at least Darr had won out over Gunn's Domino. Another 
question is not clear, however, because the article had appeared 
in the locals column in the form of a locals editorial; who was re- 
sponsible, the business manager or the locals editor? Was it a local 
or an advertisement? 

The Olympic Theatre did not open on schedule, October 24, 
"owing to extensive preliminary arrangements," but supposedly 
the varieties did: "The General is 'immense* on 'popular amuse- 
ment.'" But in another editorial type of advertisement, printed 
October 26, the statement was made that "General Darr proposes 
to open an institution commonly termed as 'Varieties/ where Afri- 
can Minstrels, Fun and Jollity predominate." The location was the 
former Gunn Domino premises, "nearly opposite the Wilder House, 
and will begin its season in a few days ... it caters only to 
enjoyment without vulgarity. If the performances will be as repre- 
sented, and the promises held out fulfilled, there is every reason for 
congratulations. . . ." This carried the advertisement tag "Oct 
26dlt." 30 

On October 27 the Monitor reported that "Gen'l Joseph Darr vis- 
ited our office yesterday, in company with Mr. [M. V.] Lingam 
. . . the Manager of the Olympic Theatre. ... If the the- 
atre is conducted as promised by the General and Mr. Lingam, it 

30. Ibid., October 25, 26. 1870. 


will be a favorite resort for our citizens." Again a definite date, 
October 31, a Monday, was set for the opening of both the theatre 
and the varieties, and the editorialized advertisement closed: "with 
reference to both entertainments, we repeat the saying, *y u pays 
your money, and you takes your choice/" The Sunday Monitor, 
October 30, recorded that: "Darr's Varieties were in full blast up 
to a late hour last night." An item of the same Sunday urged that 
ladies should patronize the Olympic Theatre performances, and 
Tuesday morning's paper reported that many had been in attend- 
ance. Although extravagant boasts were made about the quality 
of the players, the best troupe that had ever been in the city, those 
named were Lingham, the new manager, and some members of 
the former cast, George Beach, D. K. Russell, and Annie Ward. No 
leading lady was listed. 31 

If there is any relevance to the question of authorship of what 
appeared in the locals columns of the Monitor during these weeks, 
who wrote this (carrying the tag "Nov 4 dlt" for Friday morning's 
Monitor, November 4 ) , and why? 

The proprietor of the "Olympic Theatre" is at a loss to know in what fit- 
ting terms to express his most intense gratification at the very liberal and enor- 
mous patronage extended to his managerial enterprise by the overflowing 
houses of this week, which enables him to add to the debit side of his Ledger 
over $500. A farewell performance will be given for the benefit of Gen. 
Darr on this Friday evening. When, if the attendance is as liberal as here- 
tofore experienced, he will probably leave the city in debt and enabled to 
effect his long cherished desire of selling another corner lot for the benefit of 
this "one horse village." 

The following day two announcements were made. First, that 
the proceeds of the theatre for Wednesday night, November 9, 
would go to the Catholic church building fund under the direction 
of General Blair and Dr. Hays. The second announcement was 
that there would be four more performances, ending Wednesday, 
when the troupe would go on tour of neighboring cities: Paola, 
Lawrence, Topeka, Sedalia, etc. Instead of closing Wednesday, 
however, performances continued through the week. 

On November 11 the announcement was made that Annie Tiffany 
had been secured for an engagement of six days, November 14-19; a 
"leading lady" who would be supported by the resident members 
of the Olympic Theatre. Thus the star system was introduced in 
Fort Scott. Plays in which Miss Tiffany specialized were being 
rehearsed over the week-end "The Hidden Hand," "The Little 

31. Ibid., October 27, 28, 30, November 1, 4, 1870. Lingham was the spelling of 
the manager's name used later. 



Treasure," 'The Lady of Lyons," "Camille ? " etc. Then Miss Tiffany 
stayed on a second week playing "The Honey Moon," "East Lynn," 
"Othello," and "The Stranger," translated from the German of 
Kotzebue. Of "East Lynn," the theatre critic of the Monitor re- 

It was played with much ability too much in fact. There is no use in 
putting a whole audience in tears; an actor ought to play kind of easy when 
he sees the eyes of the audience getting humid; at least when he sees a 
prominent citizen stepping down for his handkerchief with his eyes shut, he 
ought to "weaken" on the pathos; still it is impossible to find fault, for the 
play was splendid. . . . 

In "Othello," Lingham played Othello, D. K. Russell was lago, 
and Miss Tiffany did Desdemona to Edwin Tiffany's Cassio. The 
Monitor made no comment on the play itself or on Shakespeare: 
"The Hall was so crowded last night that all of the audience could 
not be seated. The play last night was very fine . . . [and] 
was fully appreciated." The surprise of this performance appar- 
ently was the acting of D. K. Russell, the troupe's funny man. The 
impression persisted, because at a later time the theatre critic re- 
verted to the occasion by remarking that: "He surprised us all by 
his delineation of lago a week ago." 32 

The year 1870 was the occasion of the Franco-Prussian war, the 
fall of the Second Empire, and the attempt to establish a French 
Republic. Frenchmen and sympathizers had met in the Monitor 
reading room and the office of the town company in October to 
pass resolutions and raise money; "As France loaned us a Lafayette 
when we were trying to start a republic, we ought to return the 
favor now." The French feeling at the theatre was strong enough 
that late in November, the report was made that the orchestra 
"plays the 'Marsaillaise* every evening, and it is always received 
with uproarious applause. It is the song of a Republic and belongs 
as much to us as anybody, and the Americans have adopted it." 33 

A new leading lady, Alice Gray, was engaged to open in the play 
for Monday, November 28 Wilkie Collins* "Man and Wife," as 
dramatized by W. W. Austin. The house was reported crowded: 
"The ladies turned out en masse." The same play was repeated 
Tuesday and Wednesday. On Tuesday morning the Monitor ad- 
monished: "This play is fearfully tragic, and all those who come 
ought to bring two or three extra handkerchiefs." But the theatre 
critic had some ideas of his own: "The death of Delmaine strikes 

32. Ibid., November 11-14, 19, 20, 22-24, 26, December 2, 1870. 

33. Ibid., October 29, November 1, 24, 1870. 


us as not being poetically just." The suggestion was offered that 
he should be disposed of suddenly. 

The next production was "Ingomar," originally a German play. 
Whether or not the orchestra played the "Marsaillaise" was not 
recorded. The theatre critic was enthusiastic: "Last night Fort 
Scott had the best theatrical entertainment that it has ever had." 
He insisted that people who were familiar with the play had never 
seen it better done in the East: "We do not propose to praise 
theatrical efforts unless they are meritorious, but will say that the 
performance last night was GOOD." On Friday night "The Hunch- 
back," and on Saturday night "The Marble Heart" were the offer- 
ings as benefits for Miss Gray and Lingham, respectively, and the 
"season" ended. In retrospect the theatre critic "bid farewell to the 
talented Miss Gray with the hope that she will not confine her 
dramatic reputation to the performance of such stupid disagree- 
able pieces as 'Man and Wife/" His only adverse criticism was 
that Miss Gray was "too lachrymose," and Miss Tiffany "too fear- 
fully gushing for Southern Kansas." 34 

General Darr took his Olympic Theatre on a three-week tour of 
the cities at the opposite end of the Gulf railroad. As the Leaven- 
worth performances are most fully documented they may be used 
as a mirror of General Darr in that setting; first a two-night engage- 
ment, December 6, 7, and later a full week's run December 12-17. 
All the advertising was in the name of the star, Annie Tiffany "The 
Tiffany Troupe." The press notices were reprinted from Eastern 
newspapers; for example from Memphis, and were in praise of 
Annie Tiffany, without a reference to General Darr and "The Olym- 
pic Theatre" of Fort Scott. Scarcely was General Darr's name to 
be found in connection with the Leavenworth engagements, and 
then only casually as the manager it was Tiffany's show, for pub- 
licity purposes the "property" of the star. 33 That was pretty much 
the way the star system worked. Upon leaving Topeka the Com- 
monwealth, December 23, indicated the troupe's itinerary: Law- 
rence, Fort Scott, Sedalia, St. Joseph, and other Missouri towns, and 
then back to Topeka for the session of the state legislature. In 
neither place was the name of the Olympic Theatre used, and 
neither was Fort Scott credited with being the base of General 
Darr's company. 

34. Ibid., November 26, 29, 30, December 2-4, 1870. 

35. Leavenworth Dotty Commercial, December 1-4, 6-8, 10 13-17, 1870. 

In Topeka the Darr troupe played five days, December 19-23 (Monday through Fri- 
day). Miss Tiffany dominated the publicity but General Darr's name was used in a sec- 
ondary role 'genial whole souled gentleman." Topeka Daily Commonwealth, December 
16, 17, 20-23, 1870. 


On home ground, things were a little different. The Olympic 
Theatre returned to Fort Scott for a short engagement, beginning 
Saturday, December 24, Christmas Eve: "The company, as at 
present organized, is the best that has ever played in the city. 
. . ." The stars were "The dashing and versatile Miss Tiffany, 
the refined and lady-like Miss Boyd, the lively and graceful Miss 
Ward, and the masterly and accomplished Mr. Lingham." The 
people were admonished to show their appreciation of General 
Darr. The opening play for December 24 was "Delicate Ground, 
or the French Republic." In the personals appeared the following: 
"Gen. Darr, that man who knows, and is known by everybody, 
called on us yesterday. We are glad to learn from the General's 
own lips that he has 'accumulated great wealth* from the north, 
since he showed his smiling face at our sanctum; and that he has 
come home for the benefit of Fort Scott." 

Miss Tiffany's last night with the Olympic Theatre was December 
30, when the hall was reported crowded "our citizens turned out 
to 'swell the receipts/ " On January 7, 1871, the Olympic Theatre 
closed in Fort Scott, a benefit for Mr. Lingham: "The management 
had reason, for one night at least, of the holiday season, to be 
grateful to the Fort Scott public." But adverse comment was 
added: "His support was not altogether of a character that would 
call forth unqualified praise; the prompting was altogether too 
plentiful, and the halting and stammering of a portion of the char- 
acters absolutely painful in some of the scenes." These factors, 
no doubt, helped to explain the final statement: "We regret that 
financially our energetic and jovial friend, Darr, has not been suc- 
cessful during his present stay among us. . . ." 36 

But the cup of woe for Joseph Darr, Jr., was not yet full. The 
Wilder House Hotel and the Wilder House Saloon were sold, the 
dissolution of partnership notice being dated January 3, 1871. Be- 
sides Darr's varieties, there was one other house of entertainment 
that had been mentioned occasionally, but March 7, 1871, the 
Monitor commented bluntly its pleasure that the varieties was 
closed, the Alhambra had died a few weeks earlier. Now there was 
no place of "amusement" in Fort Scott. Of course he was using the 
word "amusement" in a special sense. The editor stated frankly 
that he had opposed such "dens" and had refused them advertising 
in the Monitor. This was a new voice speaking in behalf of the 
paper D. W. Wilder had taken the editorship, January 1, 1871. 37 

36. Daily Monitor, December 22-29, 31, 1870, January 1, 3-8, 1871. 

37. Ibid., December 3, 8, 20, 23, 31, 1870, January 1, 4, March 7, 1871. 


Although George A. Crawford was owner of the Monitor, he was 
not a newspaper man, and he had too many other interests to run 
the paper himself. Ware was filling in temporarily in a secondary 
position. The record is not clear as to who was responsible for 
the policy details of the paper, or how far Ware was accountable 
for what appeared on the locals page. In any case, the record was 
unsatisfactory, and Wilder's explicit overhauling of the course of the 
Monitor sets off that situation in sharp relief. Also, Wilder's as- 
sertion about the exclusion of certain types of advertising is import- 
ant to the historian, because it is a candid reminder that, as a matter 
of voluntary censorship, he was excluding from the newspaper the 
record of an unsavory segment of the town's social history. 

Not only had General Darr been closed out at Fort Scott, but 
elsewhere his credit had run out. The Olympic Theatre was re- 
ported as playing in Humboldt. It was advertised to open in 
Wyandotte, Friday, February 3, and in Leavenworth, Monday, 
February 6, but did not appear at Leavenworth. The Times re- 
ported: "A despatch from Wyandotte informs us that they are 'up 
in a balloon/ We hope, if the balloon passes over this city, the 
agent will drop the small sum of fifteen dollars due this office for 
printing." But a week earlier a report was in circulation that Darr 
had already left the theatrical business, and was operating the 
Baldwin House at Thayer, the terminus of the Leavenworth, Law- 
rence, and Galveston Railroad. 38 The Lawrence Tribune, February 
11, elaborated upon General Darr's career, opening its editorial 
with a comment that the Fort Scott papers were no longer praising 
him "to the sky." 

Since his retirement, from one place and another, and in one way and another, 
we have heard a great deal of Gen. Darr, and what we have heard, instead of 
altering to his advantage the poor opinion we had of him, has, on the other 
hand, confirmed this opinion and made it poorer still. Just before breaking 
up, Darr contracted debts in several newspaper offices, which now remain 
unpaid. We heard, some time ago, that he was in debt to every one of the 
actors he had employed. . . . [Russell confirmed this.] Our own trans- 
actions with the gentleman were of such a nature as to cause us to lose all 
respect for him. 

We are not surprised that Darr has left the dramatic business, or rather 
that the business left him. ... He had the best troupe that ever came to 
town. They are now scattered all over the country. . . . 

One might say that doing of "facetious Joseph" became legendary 
in Kansas. A year later the Leavenworth Times, February 1, re- 

38. Ibid., January 17, 1871; Leavenworth Daily Bulletin, January 31, 1871; Lawrence 
Daily Kansas Tribune, January 31, 1871; Wyandotte Gazette, February 2, 1871; Topeka 
Daily Commonwealth, February 1, 1871; Leavenworth Daily Commercial, February o, 7, 
1871; Leavenworth Daily Times, February 7, 1871. 


printed "for the edification of the General's numerous friends" a 
letter he wrote to one of his creditors in Ottawa: 

My Dear Hayes: I have several times instructed my clerk (as I am away 
very often) to remit the amount of your bill, but since it has been so shame- 
fully neglected, I begin to think of several reasons why it should 

FmsT. The property was shipped by you solely for my accommodation. 

SECOND. You made no profit on the articles, but cleverly run yourself in 
debt to others for them on my account. 

THIRD. You are now properly mad because of the neglect of repayment; 
but you are as mad as you ever can be, and you 


FOURTH. It seems to be an unfortunate characteristic of mine to tax the 
patience of my friends in many matters far beyond endurance. I know of a 
taylor who has consumed dollars of postage stamps in earnestly calling my 
attention to an unpaid account; a dry goods merchant who weekly sheds 
bottles of ink mixed with tears in refreshing my recollection about an 


and sundry and divers articles of female apparel, for which he has not to 
this day been reimbursed; and several mournful hotel keepers who long to 
obtain a sight of my fractional currency or legal tender for meals furnished 
and lodging given to my late disbanded 

and multitudinous others who weep over my pecuniary frailties. 

If you ever read Dickens' "Bleak House," you will no doubt remember my 
prototype "Horace Skimpole," who luxurated owing others, and to whom im- 
possibility to pay his debts was a joy forever. 

FIFTH. If I were now to pay you, my name would be obliterated from 
your books. Your clerk in glancing over the alphabetical index of his ledger 
would fail to take any 


among the D's, including the D. B.'s and the D. H.'s, and I myself should be 
wiped away, perhaps, forever from your recollection, unless at some future 
time my portly form should loom up, and your lips would utter the euphonious 
exclamation, "There goes the 


SIXTH. Our poorly paid Congressional legislators have very wisely placed 
it in the power of every so-disposed scoundrel to entrench himself behind the 
complacent bankrupt law, where he can smile upon his soft or otherwise 
hearted creditors and be returned by a legal tribunal as "non comatibus in 
swampo," in which order of society I long to enroll myself a member of high 

SEVENTH. You may 


and this would, in the nature of things, add to my placidity of temper while 
it would correspondingly exasperate yours. 

EIGHTH. Your politeness in all this matter, deserves a decided rebuke, and 
therefore I take great pleasure in enclosing the amount, and hope to drink a 
bottle of fine Rhine wine with you on the result. 



About the same time, 1870-1872, the ambitions of Kansas City, 
Mo., were tested out in new directions, based upon her rapidly 
developing rail net radiating to all points of the compass. Some 
of her leaders were thinking of their town as more than a city. 
They envisioned a metropolitan area, with the city as a focus. In 
this perspective Kansas City was reaching out to tie into her met- 
ropolitan area as much territory as her railroad system made pos- 
sible. 39 Opera House excursions were organized over all roads 
leading to Kansas City. Special package rates were offered, cover- 
ing the round-trip ticket, omnibus fare between the railway station 
and the Coates Opera House, supper, and tickets to the show. In 
November, 1870, the Fort Scott tickets cost $2.50 to see Alice Gray 
in the "Long Strike" by Dion Boucicault. The following winter, 
1871-1872, four excursions occurred: to hear Janauschek in "Mary 
Stuart" for $3.00; Edwin Forrest in "Jack Cade" for $3.00; Lucille 
Western in "Oliver Twist"; and the "irresistable Lotta" as Capt. 
Charlotta and Lady Lorrogan, for $2.25 each. Train schedules 
varied, but for example: on one occasion the train left Fort Scott 
at 10:46 A. M., arriving in Kansas City at 4:00 P. M., and returning 
left Kansas City at 12:00 midnight, arriving in Fort Scott at 6:25 
A. M. Supposedly, Fort Scott contributed as many as 200 excur- 
sionists on a trip. 40 


Of course Fort Scott wanted entertainment closer home, some- 
thing less strenuous and costly, and besides the city was ambitious. 
In spite of the great drouth of 1873 and 1874 and the world-wide 
panic and depression which, beginning in the fall of 1873, demor- 
alized business for several years, the Davidson Opera House was 
launched during the winter of 1873-1874, J. G. Haskell, architect. 
It was finished and formally opened January 1, 1875. In order to 
meet the competition, the old McDonald Hall, that had served for 
so long, was again rejuvenated, law offices occupying the upper 
floor. 41 These were brave attempts but the times had not been 
right for big shows to patronize Fort Scott. 

3 ?' e, S T ethi x abo , ut the Kansas Cit y story is told in James C. Malm, Grassland His- 

torical Studies: Natural Resources Utilization in a Background of Science and Technology, 

nd me A'' 8y and Ge Sraphy (Lawrence, 1950). See especially chapters 20-22 


, 1871 ' 

I 1 - Ibid -> November 16, 1873, November 21, December 29, 1874, January 1, 3, 6, 


In the meantime a few traveling companies showed in Fort Scott, 
the year 1871-1872, the best being Louise Sylvester. In 1872-1873 
the Renfrew Troupe disbanded in Fort Scott, although the Lord 
Dramatic Company played to good houses for several nights, and 
again the following winter. 42 The Simons Comedy Troupe began 
periodic visits to Fort Scott during the winter of 1873-1874. This 
company was built around a man-and-wife team. 43 By the mid 
1870's, the railway net had matured sufficiently in southern Kansas 
that the day of the small traveling theatre company had fully ar- 
rived, there as elsewhere. 

42. Ibid., December 8, 1871, November 22, 24, 26-28, 30, December 8, 1872, No- 
vember 9, 11, 15, 1873. 

43. Ibid., December 17, 21, 23, 27, 28, 1873; March 3, 4, 1874; June 6, 11, 12, 
September 7, 8, 1875; January 19, 20, 1876. 

An Army Hospital: From Horses to Helicopters 
Fort Riley, 1904-1957 Concluded 


THE second half century of army medical service at Fort Riley 
began with solid constructive progress as a three-story lime- 
stone wing was added on the south side of the post hospital in 1906. 
A medical department stable was erected near the hospital in 1908. 
Then in 1909 the final three-story south wing of the hospital was 
completed. This completed the second permanent post hospital 
begun in 1888. The isolation hospital was completed in 1910. 

War Department General Order 191, September 13, 1907, changed 
the designation of the Cavalry and Light Artillery School to the 
Mounted Service School. But with the advent of 20th century 
military terminology, the distinctive, descriptive, and professional 
titles within the medical department were discontinued. Thus, 
surgeons and hospital stewards were reduced to a common military 
denominator and were addressed simply and drably by title of rank. 

In 1909 Maj. Joseph H. Ford, medical corps, was post surgeon. 
Seven years later Major Ford served as assistant division surgeon 
under James D. Glennan during the punitive expedition into Mex- 
ico. Capt. Henry L. Brown, medical corps, was also on the Fort 
Riley hospital staff and later helped hunt Pancho Villa. Captain 
Brown listed the Fort Riley command on the "Sick and Wounded 
Report" of February, 1909, and included the Seventh cavalry, Tenth 
cavalry, Sixth field artillery, detachment of farriers and horseshoers 
school, detachment signal corps, detachment cooks and bakers' 
school, detachment of hospital corps, and detachment of mounted 
service school. In November, 1909, the troop strength of the post 
averaged 2,267, with 99 hospital admissions during the month. 

Lt. Col. William P. Kendall, medical corps, was post surgeon of 
Fort Riley from 1910 through 1912. Kendall was born in Massa- 
chusetts on September 10, 1858, and received his M. D. in 1882 from 
Columbia University. Doctor Kendall retired on October 18, 1920, 
with the rank of colonel. The first member of the medical reserve 
corps to serve at Fort Riley was 1st Lt. Leonard P. Bell, medical 

MAJ. GEORGE E. OMER, JR., MC, is chief of surgery, Irwin Army Hospital, Fort Riley. 



reserve corps, when he reported in 1910. In January, 1911, the 
Seventh cavalry left Fort Riley en route to the Philippine Islands 
and Lt. Floyd Kramer, medical corps, accompanied the command. 
The "Reports of Sick and Wounded" for 1912 included newborn 
sons for proud fathers Capt. Addison D. Davis, medical corps, and 
Lt. Frederick R. Burnside, medical corps. 

In 1912 the chief of staff of the army was Maj. Gen. Leonard 
Wood, who received his M. D. at Harvard University in 1886. The 
adjutant general of the army was Maj. Gen. F. C. Ainsworth, who 
received his M. D. at New York University in 1874. This remark- 
able circumstance of two doctors-turned-soldiers and commanding 
the army will not likely occur again. Meanwhile at Fort Riley, 2d 
Lt. George S. Patton was "Master of the Sword" at the mounted 
service school in 1913. 

From 1913 until July, 1915, Col. Henry I. Raymond, medical 
corps, was the Fort Riley post surgeon. Colonel Raymond, Maj. 
William R. Eastman, medical corps, and Capt. James C. Magee, 
medical corps, were members of a board of preliminary examina- 
tion of applicants for appointment in the medical corps. In 1915 
Colonel Raymond left Fort Riley to assume charge of the medical 
supply depot at San Francisco. 

Maj. Chandler P. Robbins, medical corps, reported to Fort Riley 
in 1915 to be post surgeon. Doctor Robbins* entire medical staff 
included Maj. George H. Crabtree, medical corps, Capt. Jacob M. 
Coffin, medical corps, and Capt. Larry B. McAfee, medical corps. 
Maj. C. T. Robbins was regimental surgeon for the Tenth cavalry 
and went with the regiment to Mexico in 1916. Capt. L. B. McAfee 
joined the cantonment hospital on the Mexican border in 1916 and 
later became brigadier general and assistant surgeon general of the 

The only remaining medical officer at Fort Riley during the puni- 
tive expedition into Mexico was Lt. John Hewitt, medical reserve 
corps. For almost 12 months in 1916 and 1917, Doctor Hewitt was 
post surgeon at Fort Riley. Almost all military personnel were off 
with John J. Pershing chasing Francisco "Pancho" Villa, but Lieu- 
tenant Hewitt soothed babies and treated wives. During this duty 
tour the first elevator was installed in the post hospital. Maj. John 
Hewitt, medical corps, retired in 1931 and died at the Fort Riley 
post hospital on May 1, 1956. 

World War I brought tremendous medical changes to Fort Riley. 
The high for total medical activity in terms of personnel and organi- 
zational activities was reached during that period. 


The first new medical activity was the medical officers' training 
camp. The training camp at Fort Riley existed longer than the 
three other medical officers' training camps that were established, 
beginning on June 1, 1917, and finally closing on February 4, 1919. 
The site selected was northeast of the post hospital. There the 
terrain rises gradually from the main road through the reservation 
(K-18) up through Magazine canyon to the eminence of Wireless 
hill. Near the eastern edge is One-Mile creek. In the southern 
portion of the camp site were the medical officers' barracks, while 
the quarters of the ambulance companies and field hospitals were 
on the northern side. Headquarters of the training camp was first 
established in cavalry headquarters, which was the first permanent 
hospital on the post. As no barracks were completed, the artillery 
guardhouse was temporarily assigned to the training camp for use 
as quarters. A newspaper clipping of June 6, 1917, noted: "A num- 
ber of the surgeons . . . have been put in the guardhouse" 
but only until their quarters were finished. 

No allotment was made to prepare the barracks of the medical 
officers' training camp for winter occupancy. The buildings were 
built with partially cured lumber and the walls soon shrunk with 
many visible cracks. As an expedient, permission was obtained to 
haul scrap lumber left over from the construction of Camp Fun- 
ston. Carpenters were recruited among the enlisted men and or- 
ganized into a detachment and put to work lining the inside of the 
buildings with the scrap lumber. The walls were first covered with 
newspapers and tar paper, then wainscoted to the windows. This 
kept the most severe winds out, if not pneumonia. The cantonment 
occupied by the 13th and 20th cavalry regiments on main post was 
turned over to the training camp in December, 1917. Again a con- 
struction company of enlisted men was formed to remodel the 
buildings. Stairways were built, stable stalls were floored, baths 
and toilets installed, and a gun shed was converted into a mess hall. 
The final quarters that were occupied by officers and enlisted men 
had a capacity varying from 80 to 100 men for each barracks. It 
would have to be an understatement to suggest that during the 
severe winters of 1917-1918 and 1919 there was some discomfort 
from the cold. 

When the medical officers' training camp opened, the academic 
staff consisted of the commandant, nine medical officers and two 
enlisted men. The commandant was Lt. Col. William N. Bispham, 
medical corps. Doctor Bispham was born in Virginia and received 
his M. D. from the University of Maryland in 1897. He was an 


enlisted man in the infantry and had been a contract surgeon for 
two years before joining the regular army. Colonel Bispham re- 
tired from the army in 1939. 

The program of instruction for the training camp included field 
classes with such subjects as map reading, professional subjects 
like orthopedics, and combined military-medical problems such as 
sanitary tactics in the field. Special schools for officers in ortho- 
pedics and roentgenology were established in December, 1917. The 
orthopedic classes were taught at the base hospital where a ward 
was set aside for bone surgery cases. Another building was as- 
signed for the orthopedic out-patient clinic and classroom. Approx- 
imately 15 physicians graduated from the course each month. The 
orthopedic course was taught by Maj. J. P. Lord, medical reserve 
corps. A similar four-week course in roentgenology was taught by 
Maj. Arial W. George, medical reserve corps. Other special classes 
in military sanitation and epidemiology were taught by Maj. Charles 
S. Williamson, medical reserve corps, and Maj. Daniel M. Shew- 
brooks, medical corps. A basic general medical course was taught 
to the enlisted men and was under the supervision of Maj. Henry 
C. Pillsbury, medical corps. 

The medical officers' training camp band was the first 50-piece 
band to be organized within the army. At the special request of 
the American Medical Association, the band was sent to Chicago 
in June, 1918, to present special concerts at the annual meeting 
of the association. 

Evacuation hospital No. 1, the first evacuation hospital organized 
in the United States, was formed at the training camp in 1917. 
During the life of the camp 54 student companies were organized 
and more than 4,500 officers and 25,470 enlisted men reported for 
training. Some of the units that were organized included: Evacu- 
ation hospitals 1, 7, 9-12, 15-17, 19-21; ambulance companies 27, 
28, 36-41; base hospitals 70, 81-90; hospital trains 38, 39; corps 
sanitary train 1; army sanitary train 1. In July, 1918, the medical 
officers' training camp was partially consolidated with the training 
camp at Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. 

With the merger, Col. William N. Bispham, medical corps, was 
transferred to Fort Oglethorpe. The new commandant of the train- 
ing camp was Lt. Col. H. F. Pipes, medical corps. The consolida- 
tion of training left the Fort Riley camp with responsibility for 
training regimental detachments, ambulance companies, and field 
hospitals. Courses of instruction continued, as here listed for 


August, 1918, Order No. 39, Fort Riley MOTC; army regulations, 
Maj. K. W. Kinard; field sanitation, Capt. A. G. Byers; system of 
trenches, Lt. R. A. Hennessey; examination of field equipment, 
Capt. E. H. Morgan; field regulations, Lt. Carl Davis; tent pitching, 
Capt. H. C. Parsons; map reading, Capt. F. E. Ellison; mess man- 
agement, Lt. H. I. Conn; and medical department in campaign, 
Maj. H. C. Parker. Perhaps the courses listed do not fall under 
any recognized medical professional specialty, but all the instruc- 
tors noted in this paragraph were physicians on active duty in the 
medical corps. 

The other major medical organization at Fort Riley during World 
War I was the base hospital. The base hospital was organized 
September 27, 1917. To obtain the needed facilities as soon as pos- 
sible, the artillery post was converted to medical buildings with 
headquarters of the base hospital in Building 92, which is now 
called Custer Hall and is the headquarters of the U. S. army ag- 
gressor center. Six two-story gray limestone artillery barracks 
fronting on the parade ground, were adapted to hospital purposes. 
Around the southern portion of the artillery parade were eight brick 
buildings utilized for the neurological section. Just east of the 
permanent limestone buildings on the artillery parade were six 
temporary wooden buildings used for genitourinary patients, and 
one hundred yards on east were 12 semipermanent buildings utilized 
for various contagious diseases. 

Occupying the summit of the hill east of the contagious disease 
section, a group of ten ward buildings was constructed and utilized 
as the convalescent hospital. In the middle of this convalescent 
group (Godfrey Court) the American Red Cross built a two-story 
building for patients and their families. This is now the main of- 
ficers' mess. The old post hospital was called section "K" and be- 
came the surgical services with a group of semipermanent buildings 
constructed to the north and east for additional cases. The isola- 
tion hospital was used for the treatment of meningitis. More than 
50 buildings were occupied by the base hospital during its lifetime 
from September, 1917, until June, 1919. 

The first commandant of the base hospital was Col. Douglas F. 
Duval, medical corps. Doctor Duval was born in Maryland on 
June 4, 1870, and received his M. D. from the University of Virginia 
in 1894. Colonel Duval retired from the army in June, 1934. The 
base hospital was commanded for the longest period of time by Col. 
Edward R. Schreiner, medical corps. Doctor Schreiner was born 


in Pennsylvania on November 18, 1873, and received his M. D. from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1896. Colonel Schreiner entered 
federal service as a contract surgeon, joined the regular medical 
corps and commanded the cantonment hospital on the Mexican 
border in 1916. He retired from the army in 1928. 

The army nurse corps was established in 1901 by Surg. Gen. 
George Miller Sternberg, a former Fort Riley post surgeon. But 
army nurses were not assigned to Fort Riley until 1917. The first 
chief nurse at Fort Riley was 1st Lt. Elizabeth Harding, army nurse 
corps. A recent letter from Miss Harding describes the flavor of 
World War I nursing at Fort Riley: 

"I arrived at Fort Riley about the middle of October, 1917, in a snow 
storm! I spent the coldest winter of my life and the hottest summer that I 
can remember. Barracks were being converted into hospitals. At first it was 
very primitive with no toilet or bath facilities except in the basement of the 
buildings. Hot water and heat were scarce. The nurses were first quartered 
in the various buildings on the parade ground but finally moved into 
wooden cantonment type buildings and felt we were in a palace. In those 
days there was a great deal more bedside nursing than I am inclined to think 
is done now. Excellent nursing care was given and we rarely dropped below 
one nurse to ten patients. 

The uniform of the nurses was "not uniform" and there were very few 
regular army nurses. As usual in large groups as were housed together at 
Camp Funston, there were many epidemics. Many of the troops came from 
the farms where they had never come in contact with contagious diseases. 
The most serious outbreak was meningitis. The penicillin teams of World 
War II reminded me of the teams doing spinal punctures and giving serum at 
Fort Riley. Several years previously, Kansas had had a meningitis epidemic 
due to human carriers, and research was completed under the direction of the 
Rockefeller Foundation. A carrier was found among the nurses and one 
night we cultured over three hundred to see if there were any others. At one 
time we had over 800 cases of mumps, there was measles, smallpox, diph- 
theria, and every conceivable contagious disease. Our surgical work was 
light. In those days cars were few and far between, eliminating automobile 
accidents. However, post-operative care was much longer than it is now. 

I left Fort Riley in October of 1918, for duty in the Office of the Surgeon 
General. The flu epidemic had just struck, and the day I left there were 
over 5,000 patients. Barracks were opened at Camp Funston to accommodate 
the sick. Several nurses died, I am not certain, but it seems to me at least 
sixteen. The nurses who had been on duty at Fort Riley stood up very well, 
but nurses who were rushed in for the emergency were hard hit, and arrived 
sick. Oh, yes, it was not all work and no play. We had many parties, dances, 
and picnics at Fort Riley in 1917-1918. 

Lieutenant Colonel Harding was retired from the army and now 
lives in New York City. 


Statistical data indicates that the highest census of the Fort Riley 
base hospital was in October, 1918, when there were 11,645 patients 
in the hospital; the same month there were 958 deaths. In 1918 
there were 122 assigned doctors and 297 nurses on duty at the hos- 
pital, in addition there were 1,024 attached enlisted men. This was 
a contrast to the outbreak of the war when the entire medical de- 
partment of the army consisted of approximately 500 officers and 
3,000 enlisted men. 

A famous physician and cavalryman, Surgeon Leonard Wood, 
served at Fort Riley during World War I but did not practice 
medicine. He had won his Congressional Medal of Honor while 
chasing Apaches with the Fourth cavalry. He became chief of 
staff of the army after transferring to the line. As major general, 
he trained more than 150,000 recruits at Camp Funston. He or- 
ganized the 89th division and later the 10th division. Wood came 
to Fort Riley on August 26, 1917, and stayed throughout the war. 
He died in 1927 and was buried in the plot in Arlington cemetery 
reserved for the "Rough Riders" regiment, which he raised and 

The position of post surgeon of Fort Riley was retained during 
World War I, but referred only to the physician who was on the 
staff of the commandant of the mounted service school. Maj. 
Chandler P. Robbins, medical corps, returned from Mexico in 1917, 
and a newspaper story of July 19, 1917, noted that Post Surgeon 
Robbins had ordered that all workers of the Fuller Construction 
Company be given typhoid shots. Later, the important medical 
decisions for the entire reservation were made by the highest rank- 
ing medical officer, first Colonel Duval and then Colonel Schreiner. 
Maj. L. A. Clary, medical corps, followed Major Robbins in the 
position of post surgeon from October 31, 1919, to February 6, 1920; 
then Maj. John A. Martin, medical corps, filled the staff position 
until October 30, 1920. 

The mounted service school continued to function throughout the 
war period. The department of hippology included the veterinary 
hospital, the school for stable sergeants, and the school for horse- 
shoers. The department of hippology had existed since 1902 with 
civilian veterinarians and enlisted farriers as instructors. The vet- 
erinary corps was established in 1916 and the first Fort Riley post 
veterinarian was Capt. Daniel B. Leininger, veterinary corps, who 
was senior instructor of the department of hippology in 1918. 


Doctor Leimnger was born in Pennsylvania in 1879 and received 
his D. V. S. degree from Kansas City Veterinary College in 1906. 
He was promoted to colonel in 1937 and retired in 1943. 

In addition to the staff medical officer at the main post area, a 
camp surgeon was maintained at Camp Funston. Funston had 
accommodations for over 50,000 men, and 14 infirmaries were main- 
tained as well as numerous regimental dispensaries. The first camp 
surgeon was Maj. Fred W. O'Donnell, medical corps. Doctor 
O'Donnell was born at Milton Malby, Ireland, in 1869. In 1888 
he came to Kansas with his parents and in 1896 graduated from 
medical school. He first practiced medicine in Bushton, but later 
took a year's graduate work at Columbia University and then 
opened his office in Junction City. Following his tour at Camp 
Funston, he accompanied the 89th division overseas and served with 
distinction. As a lieutenant colonel, O'Donnell returned to Kansas, 
where he remained in private medical practice in Junction City 
more than 60 years. In 1946, on the anniversary of his 50th year 
in practice, Doctor O'Donnell was honored by the Fort Riley-Junc- 
tion City community. Following his death on November 6, 1956, 
his memory was perpetuated when a housing area on Morris Hill 
at Fort Riley was named "O'Donnell Heights" on May 18, 1957. 

The public health service assumed some responsibility for the 
medical care of Fort Riley personnel when typhoid fever was re- 
ported in Ogden on August 14, 1917. Col. Charles E. Banks, senior 
surgeon arrived from Washington and met with Doctor Montgom- 
ery, Riley county health officer, and Doctor Northrup, Geary county 
health officer. A health zone or quarantine area was established 
around Camp Funston and rigid sanitary inspections were main- 
tained for drugs, food, and dairy products. Maj. L. G. Brown, 
medical corps, 89th division surgeon, co-operated in the preventa- 
tive medicine program by placing recruits in a large detention camp 
for quarantine purposes. A newspaper clipping of December 22, 
1917, noted that a new detention camp was being built north of 
Junction City on Pawnee Flats with 500 tent houses for 5,000 men. 
This is the site occupied by the World War II cantonment hospital. 

Red Cross nurses assisted the public health officials and also 
worked in the base hospital. The first Red Cross nurse at Fort Riley 
was Ann Marie Hannon, who arrived August 18, 1918, and worked 
several months before leaving the post with hospital train duty. 
Nurse Hannon is now Mrs. Alan Eustace of Wakefield. 

Upper: Converted artillery barracks, part of the 3,000-bed World War I 

base hospital, 1918. 

Cenfer: Permanent hospital group, 1926, now post headquarters. 
Lower: Camp Whitside, World War II cantonment hospital, 1953 (on K-18 
opposite First Capitol building). 

Operating room scene in cantonment hospital, 1957. 

The new Irwin Army Hospital, dedicated February 7, 1958. 

Daniel B. Leininger 
(1879- ) 

First post veterinarian and senior instructor 
in the department of hippology. 

William N. Bispham 

The first commanding officer of the medical 
officers' training camp at Fort Riley. 

Leonard Wood 

A surgeon turned soldier who trained 

the 89th and 10th divisions in World 

War I. 

Edward R. Schreiner 
(1873- ) 

Post surgeon and one of the commanders 

of the 3,000-bed base hospital in World 

War I. 

(Photos courtesy the National Archives, the Armed Forces Medical Library, 
and the Photo Laboratory, Fort Riley.) 



What is currently considered the "old-army" is the model that 
existed between the two World Wars. The military establishment 
compressed into a pattern of garrison duty, service schools, and 
troop assignments. Camp Funston was amputated from Fort Riley 
when the wooden barracks of the cantonment were sold for sal- 
vage at public auction. But continuity of the post was assured 
when the mounted service school was officially changed to the 
cavalry school on September 19, 1919. The station medical service 
returned to the pre-war hospital group north of Highway K-18, 
with hospital headquarters in Building 108. The telephone direc- 
tory for 1920 listed only three medical officers on the post in addi- 
tion to the post surgeon, Maj. L. A. Clary, medical corps. 

From 1921 until 1924 the post surgeon was Lt. Col. Llewellyn P. 
Williamson, medical corps. The army surgeon general's report for 
1905 stated that Asst. Surg. L. P. Williamson had reported an out- 
break of beriberi among the Philippines at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition. This is the only epidemic of this disease that has been 
reported in the United States. A complement of five nurses was 
assigned to the hospital, with 1st Lt. A. L. George, army nurse 
corps, as the chief nurse. The chief of the hospital medical service 
was Maj. Arthur D. Jackson, medical corps, who was born in 
Argentina in 1873 and had received his M. D. from Northwestern 
University in 1899. The chief of the hospital surgical service was 
Maj. Douglas Miltz McEnery, medical corps, a native of Louisiana 
who had entered service in 1911 after receiving his degree in medi- 
cine from George Washington University. 

During most of World War I the dental officers assigned to Fort 
Riley were reserve officers on temporary active duty. The first 
regular dental officer who functioned as post dental surgeon was 
Maj. Arthur W. Holderness, dental corps. His son, A. W. Holder- 
ness, Jr., was born at Fort Riley on October 28, 1920, and gradu- 
ated from West Point in 1943. The post veterinarian was Robert J. 
Foster, major, veterinary corps, a native of Ohio who had received 
his D. V. M. degree from Cornell University in 1902. 

Lt. Col. Alexander Murray, medical corps, was the Fort Riley 
post surgeon from 1924 until 1927. Doctor Murray was born in 
Virginia in 1874 and received his degree in medicine from Colum- 
bian University, D. C., in 1902. Colonel Murray retired from the 
army in 1938 but was recalled to active duty from 1940 to 1944. The 

5 1958 


hospital staff included Maj. Charles C. Hillman, chief of medicine, 
and Maj. Joseph Casper, chief of surgery. Hillman retired from the 
army in 1947, a major general. 

One of the more utilized areas of the Fort Riley reservation 
is Pawnee Flats, the territory north of the Kansas river between 
One-mile creek and Three-mile creek. This area included the 
site of Pawnee where the first territorial legislature of Kansas 
met. Camp Root was built on Pawnee Flats in 1902 for the first 
army field maneuvers and field hospitals with ambulance companies 
were utilized for the first time. The largest quarantine camp for 
Camp Funston during World War I was built on the Flats. A 
National Guard camp was built there in 1924 and named in honor 
of Col. Warren W. Whitside, the post quartermaster. Camp Whit- 
side was the site selected for the cantonment hospital of World 
War II. The new Irwin Army Hospital has been built in the Camp 
Whitside (Pawnee Flats) area. Perhaps it is appropriate that 
medical activities should dominate Camp Whitside and Pawnee 
Flats, since Colonel Whitside had previously worked with medics. 
The army surgeon general's report for 1904 noted the appointment 
of Capt. Warren Webster Whitside, 15th cavalry, as instructor in 
equitation at the army medical school. 

In 1926 2d Lt. Seth Overbaugh Craft was the first member of 
the new medical administration corps to be assigned to Fort Riley. 
Craft was born in New York state in 1900 and had been an enlisted 
man in the medical department of the army from 1920 to 1925, prior 
to his commission. Colonel Craft retired in 1955 from his position 
as executive officer of Brooke Army Hospital. 

Col. Jay W. Grissinger, medical corps, was the Fort Riley post 
surgeon from 1927 until 1929. Doctor Grissinger received a M. D. 
degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1898 and entered 
active duty in 1902. He was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal during World War I. The hospital staff included Maj. 
Dean F. Winn, chief of surgery, and Maj. Paul Richard Eddins 
Sheppard, chief of medicine. Winn retired in 1948, a brigadier 
general. First Lt. Lulu M. Gerding, army nurse corps, was the 
chief nurse. Post dental surgeon was Lt. Col. Frank P. Stone, den- 
tal corps, a native of Missouri who had received a D. D. S. degree 
from Washington University in St. Louis in 1900. Maj. Paul Ram- 
sey Hawley, medical corps, was assigned to Fort Riley in 1927; he 
retired as a major general in 1946, after awards including the 
Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, and Bronze Star 


From 1929 until 1931 the post surgeon of Fort Riley was Col. 
Ernest L. Ruffner, medical corps. Doctor Ruffner was born in 
Kansas in 1870 but went east to obtain his M. D. from the University 
of Buffalo in 1894. During World War I he was awarded the Dis- 
tinguished Service Medal. The post dental surgeon was Capt. 
James Harvey Pence, dental corps, who had earned his D. D. S. at 
Kansas City- Western Dental College in 1921. Maj. James B. Owen, 
medical corps, was chief of medicine at the post hospital and Maj. 
Robert Burns Hill, medical corps, was chief of surgery. Hill re- 
tired as a brigadier general in 1950 with decorations including 
Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, and Commendation Ribbon. 

Col. Edgar William Miller, medical corps, was the Fort Riley 
post surgeon from 1931 until 1936. A native of Iowa, Doctor Miller 
earned his M. D. in 1899 from Creighton Medical College in Ne- 
braska. Colonel Miller entered federal service as a contract sur- 
geon and was afterward appointed an assistant surgeon in 1903. 
His bravery during World War I was recognized by awards of Silver 
Star with Oak Leaf Cluster and a Purple Heart. Colonel Miller 
retired in 1941. The post veterinarian was Col. John Alexander 
McKinnon, veterinary corps, a Canadian who had received degrees 
in veterinary surgery from Ontario Veterinary College and Toronto 
University. The office of post dental surgeon belonged to Maj. 
Albert Fields, dental corps, who was born in Kansas in 1888 and 
graduated from the Louisville College of Dentistry in 1915. The 
post hospital staff was headed by Maj. Charles Robert Mueller, 
medical corps, chief of medicine; Maj. James M. Troutt, medical 
corps, chief of surgery; and 1st Lt. Anna A. Montgomery, army 
nurse corps, chief nurse. 

Depression times enveloped Fort Riley and the military progress 
pace was marching-in-place. The annual report of the post sur- 
geon for 1933 recorded a station complement of 212 officers, 13 
nurses, 9 warrant officers, and 2,437 enlisted men. This human total 
of 2,671 was less than the 2,807 animals supported on the reserva- 
tion. Units at Fort Riley included the 2d cavalry, 13th cavalry, 
9th cavalry, 84th field artillery, and the 16th air corps observer 
squadron. Medical activities were extended in 1933 to support 
units of the civilian conservation corps within a wide radius of 
Fort Riley. More than one medical administration officer was as- 
signed for the first time in 1935 when the post telephone directory 
listed 1st Lt. Walter D. McFarlon, medical administration corps, 
2d Lt. Frank R. Day, medical administration corps, and 2d Lt. 
William R. Chamberlain, medical administration corps. The mili- 


tary profession became more attractive as the economic pinch 
increased so that reserve medical officers, contract physicians, and 
contract nurses appeared on the rolls of the hospital staff. But 
good patient care continued and research projects were accom- 
plished, as indicated by the establishment of a Seventh corps lab- 
oratory at Fort Leavenworth in 1933 and active study was made 
of meningococcus meningitis. 

From 1936 until 1939 the post surgeon of Fort Riley was Col. 
Morrison Clay Stayer, medical corps. M. C. Stayer was born in 
Pennsylvania in 1882 and was a private in the army hospital corps 
from April 27 to December 8, 1898. He left the army for an edu- 
cation and earned an A. B. degree from Lafayette College in Penn- 
sylvania in 1903, and then a M. D. from Jefferson Medical College 
in 1906. He retired as a major general in 1946 with decorations in- 
cluding the Distinguished Service Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster 
and the Legion of Merit. The hospital staff included Maj. Henry 
Cheesman Dooling, medical corps, chief of medicine; Maj. James 
Albertus Bethea, medical corps, chief of surgery; and 1st Lt. The- 
resa Anne Wilson, army nurse corps, chief nurse. Brigadier Gen- 
eral Dooling retired in 1947, Major General Bethea in 1949, and 
Lieutenant Colonel Wilson in 1951. 

In 1937 nurses' quarters were built just east of the post hospital. 
The brick structure contrasted with the limestone hospital. The 
first signs of the future women's medical specialist corps were evi- 
dent when Dorothy Grace Tipton was assigned in 1939 as physio- 
therapy aide, while in 1940 Elizabeth M. Murray was the first 
dietitian and 2d Lt. Laura Skillon, army nurse corps (physiother- 
apist), became the first commissioned therapist assigned to Fort 

The peace-time era ended with the tour of Col. Sanford Williams 
French, medical corps, as the post surgeon of Fort Riley from 1939 
until 1941. A native of New York, French was a hospital steward 
in the U. S. navy from January, 1902, until February, 1910. Mean- 
while, he earned a M. D. degree from George Washington Univer- 
sity in 1909. Then began his career as an army medical officer that 
lasted from 1910 until 1944. Lt. Col. Arthur Benedict McCormick, 
dental corps, was post dental surgeon and Col. Jacob E. Behney, 
veterinary corps, was post veterinarian. The annual photograph of 
the hospital staff showed 13 smiling nurses in 1939. Perhaps the 
unlucky number was the omen of the future, for early in World War 
II, Minnie L. Breese, Dorthea M. Daley, Sallie P. Durrett, and Ruth 
M. Stoltz became Japanese prisoners. 



With war an ominous probability, the tempo of building and ac- 
tivity at Fort Riley rapidly increased. Camp Funston was rebuilt 
in 1940 with more than 900 buildings that were subsequently used 
by the Second cavalry division and the Ninth armored division. 
The cavalry replacement training center at Camp Forsyth was con- 
structed in the fall of 1940 and contained over 250 buildings, in- 
cluding five dispensaries and one dental clinic. Over 150,000 men 
trained at Camp Forsyth during World War II. 

In 1939 the post hospital consisted of 11 wards with 250 patient 
beds. The first major remodeling since 1889 was completed in 1939 
with the air conditioned and tiled operating suite complete with 
two operating rooms, orthopedic cast room, and various utility 
rooms. Operating room nurse was Lt. K. "Red" McNulty, army 
nurse corps. Sgt. Glenn Ens worth was chief surgical technician, but 
now is Capt. G. Ensworth, medical service corps. A 500-bed can- 
tonment type temporary hospital was constructed at Camp Whit- 
side to relieve the acute shortage of hospital facilities. Work was 
started on December 8, 1940, and the cantonment hospital was 
first opened for patients in March, 1941. The old post hospital was 
designated as the surgical annex. In 1941 the 250-bed surgical 
annex was beautified by further landscaping, trees, shrubs, and 
flowers while oats were planted around the cantonment station hos- 
pital to keep down the dust. 

War came, and changing confusion became the pattern of the 
times. Pearl T. Ellis, army nurse corps, who had been at Fort Riley 
since 1927, was promoted from lieutenant to major in less than one 
year. Hospital Sgt.-Maj. William W. Smith received a direct com- 
mission as captain. Col. Sanford W. French, medical corps, opened 
the new station hospital at Camp Whitside and then was ordered 
to Oliver General Hospital in Georgia. 

Col. Adam E. Schlanser, medical corps, was post surgeon of Fort 
Riley from 1942 until 1945. Doctor Schlanser was born in Ohio 
in 1880 and earned his M. D. from the University of Cincinnati in 
1908. The hospital staff included Col. Raymond W. Whittier, med- 
ical corps, as chief of surgery, and Lt. Col. Paul A. Paden, medical 
corps, as chief of medicine. The detachment commander was Capt. 
Adolph Guyer, pharmacy corps, who now lives in Hays. Lt. Col. 
Pearl Tyler Ellis, army nurse corps, remained as hospital chief nurse 
until 1945, thus completing more than 17 years of service at Fort 


Meanwhile, the post population climbed to 38,299 in 1942. Al- 
though that was a huge human medical problem, consider the last 
big animated task of the veterinary medical service. There were 
6,649 animals in the Second cavalry division, cavalry replacement 
training center and the cavalry school. The permanent veterinary 
hospital on main post had 46 stalls and an isolation ward, while 
the cavalry replacement training center had a temporary 50-stall 
hospital. The Second cavalry division was inactivated in 1942, the 
last division surgeon was Lt. Col. Lucius K. Patterson, medical corps. 

Construction of the new station hospital was completed in 1942 
and consisted of 84 cantonment-type temporary buildings occupy- 
ing 80 acres of Camp Whitside. There were 38 wards with a ca- 
pacity of 1,292 patient beds. In addition, there were eight barracks 
for the medical detachment. During the winter those barracks 
became expansion patient wards and the capacity of the hospital 
was increased to 1,750 beds. The post surgeon's office was moved 
back to the surgical annex in 1943 from the station hospital, but the 
surgical annex was not entirely administrative in function, since 
4,031 operations were performed that year. In 1943 the station hos- 
pital became part of the army service forces under the seventh 
service command with 142 officers and 283 enlisted men assigned. 
Medical units in training on the Fort Riley reservation included: 
46th general hospital, 217th general hospital, and the 715th medical 
sanitary company. 

The station hospital became a regional hospital in June, 1944, 
and the increased responsibility was reflected by the average census 
of 807 patients during October, 1944, the highest during World 
War II. There were 45 medical officers, 45 dentists, and 43 nurses 
attached to the hospital; 32,704 dental patients were seen during 
the year and medical supply processed 35 tactical organizations de- 
parting from Fort Riley for overseas. Four numbered medical 
units completed training, including the 54th general hospital, 56th 
portable surgical hospital, 57th portable surgical hospital, and 23d 
veterinary station hospital. 

A prisoner-of-war camp was established at Camp Funston in 1944 
with satellite stations and small infirmaries established at Eskridge 
in April, Peabody and Council Grove in August, El Dorado in Oc- 
tober, and Camp Phillips at Salina in November. The Camp Fun- 
ston POW surgeon was Capt. Max Feldman, medical corps, while 
the outlying infirmaries were staffed by German medical officers. 

Col. Irwin Bradfield Smock, medical corps, was post surgeon of 
Fort Riley from 1945 until 1949. A native of Pennsylvania, Doctor 


Smock graduated from the medical school of the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1912. Colonel Smock retired in 1949 with decora- 
tions including the Legion of Merit and Commendation Ribbon. 
His son, Richard Smock, was the honor graduate of the ground 
general school, officers candidate school at Fort Riley in 1949. Sec- 
ond Lt. Richard Smock was killed in action in Korea in 1951 and is 
now buried in the Fort Riley cemetery. 

The army intelligence school was established at Fort Riley in 
December, 1945, but with the end of World War II, both the cav- 
alry and intelligence schools were terminated on October 31, 1946. 
The ground general school was activated on November 1, 1946. 
The last cavalry replacement training center surgeon was Lt. Col. 
Frank F. Harris, medical corps, while Colonel Smock was the last 
surgeon of the cavalry school. The last mounted cavalry parade 
was in Junction City on November 11, 1946, in honor of Dr. Fred 
W. O'Donnell's 50 years of service to civilian and military patients. 

In 1945 plywood floor covering was installed in the corridors of 
the station hospital and then finished with linoleum. Thirty-six 
mechanical ventilation units were installed in the wards. By 1947 
the inevitable postwar cutback had skeletonized the hospital, and 
the staff was limited to 13 medical officers, eight dental officers, 15 
nurses, five medical service officers, and 90 enlisted men. The 
post population was 4,067 on December 31, 1947, with 68 patients 
in the station hospital. 

Post headquarters moved into the first permanent hospital in 
1890 when the second permanent hospital was occupied. The 
pattern was repeated in 1947 when the surgical annex was con- 
verted into Fort Riley post headquarters. The station hospital at 
Camp Whitside became the primary medical facility on post. 

The Tenth infantry division was reactivated on August 9, 1948, 
at Camp Funston, the same post at which the division was first 
organized in 1917. The division surgeon was Col. Felix Shelley 
Bambace, medical corps. The training division boosted the post 
census to 12,593 on December 31, 1948, with a hospital census of 
252 patients. 

In 1949 the hospital hit a home run in the usual peace-time 
austerity game by having the lowest net cost per inpatient day of 
all station hospitals in the army. The hospital staff included Col. 
John Presly Bachman, medical corps, as chief of surgery, and Lt. 
Col. John Henry Taber, medical corps, as chief of medicine. Colonel 
Bachman was previously assigned at Fort Riley in 1936 under 
Colonels Stayer and Bethea. Doctor Taber, a native of Nebraska, 


was once commissioned in the chemical warfare service. Maj. Wil- 
liam W. Smith, medical service corps, was adjutant of the same 
hospital where he had been sergeant-major in 1939. Lt. Col. Arthur 
N. Kracht, dental corps, was post dental surgeon, and Maj. John 
H. Shoemaker, veterinary corps, was post veterinarian. Maj. Susan 
W. LaFrage, army nurse corps, was chief nurse. Later in the year, 
Col. Norman H. Wiley, medical corps, was assigned as chief of 
surgery following his completion of residency training at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and Maj. Pauline Henriette Girard, army 
nurse corps, became chief nurse. 


In 1950 Col. Norman Hyde Wiley, medical corps, became Fort 
Riley post surgeon and held the position until 1952. A native of 
Pennsylvania, Doctor Wiley received his A. B. degree from Lafay- 
ette College and earned his M. D. in 1928 from Jefferson Medical 
College. The hospital staff included Col. Robert W. DuPriest, 
medical corps, as chief of surgery; Capt. Herbert Tucker, medical 
corps, as chief of medicine; and Maj. Helen L. Tucker, army nurse 
corps, as chief nurse. Lt. Col. John M. Abrams, medical service 
corps, was the hospital executive officer. 

On January 1, 1950, the ground general school became the army 
general school by General Order No. 53, department of the army. 
There was little functional change, since the officer candidate 
course, the mythical enemy aggressor, intelligence extension courses 
and training were all continued. The cold war flamed hot when 
the Korean conflict began in June, 1950. The increased activity was 
reflected in a post population of 17,274 on December 31, 1950, 
and an associated hospital census of 478 patients. As usual, the 
hospital had been understaffed with professional personnel and to 
meet the increased patient work-load, six navy medical officers were 
assigned to Fort Riley in October, 1950. 

A series of emergency flood memoranda published in July, 1951, 
reflect the threatened disaster of the rising Smoky Hill, Republican, 
and Kansas rivers. Tenth division soldiers worked 24-hour duty 
tours to reinforce the dike at Camp Funston while dependents were 
evacuated. Conservation of food supplies, gasoline, and water 
became mandatory. On July 12, the water was ten feet deep at 
the Fort Riley railroad station and both Camp Funston and Marshall 
Field were inaccessible and out of communication. The water level 
was subsiding by July 17, with the cantonment hospital and Camp 
Whitside as the only post area to entirely escape the flood. 


Throughout the time of the Korean conflict the cantonment hos- 
pital served the swollen station complement and the Tenth division 
with its many training activities. More than 600 major operations 
were performed in 1952. The chief of surgery, Col. R. W. DuPriest, 
died of an acute heart attack in April, 1952, and was replaced by 
Lt. Col. John W. Patterson, medical corps. Less tragic assignments 
included the appointment of Lt. Col. Clarence B. Johnson, veter- 
inary corps, as post veterinarian, and Maj. Helen L. Staehlin, army 
nurse corps, as chief nurse of the hospital. Colonel Wiley, the 
post surgeon, was assigned to Percy Jones Army Hospital on April 
29, 1952, and his position was temporarily assumed by Lt. Col. 
Kenneth Eugene Hudson, medical corps. 

Col. Lyman Chandler Duryea, medical corps, was the post sur- 
geon of Fort Riley from August, 1952, through May, 1956. Doctor 
Duryea was born in Massachusetts and served in the navy from 
1917 until 1921. He earned his M. D. degree from the University 
of Vermont in 1931 and his graduate studies included a master of 
science in public health from Johns Hopkins University in 1936. 

The hospital staff included Lt. Col. Donald Campbell, medical 
corps, as chief of surgery and Lt. Col. Donald Lavern Howie, med- 
ical corps, as chief of medicine. Doctor Campbell was born into 
an army family stationed in Hawaii and earned his M. D. at Cornell 
University in 1940. Doctor Howie received his degree in medicine 
from the State University of Iowa in 1948. Col. Fayette G. Hall, 
dental corps, replaced Col. Willard LaGrand Nielsen, dental corps, 
as post dental surgeon. Col. Don L. Deane, veterinary corps, be- 
came post veterinarian and Lt. Col. Eleanor R. Asleson, army nurse 
corps, became chief nurse of the hospital. 

The dry facts of hospital statistics hid the tremendous medical 
team effort responsible for the total number of hospital days-lost 
decreasing from 191,242 in 1952 to 44,018 in 1954 within a command 
that averaged 20,000 population during the entire period. The 
noneffective rate dropped from 26.49 to 6.38 during that time, the 
lowest of all station hospitals in the army. 

Fort Riley celebrated its centennial in 1953. From many medical 
aspects, the passing scene could be viewed only with nostalgia. 
The days of rugged individuals with saddlebag medical kits were 
gone, and specialty nosomathetes replaced the cavalry surgeons 
competent in any situation from Indian ambush to garrison ampu- 
tation. The tremendous veterinary service of the days of the cav- 
alry school had dwindled to a few pampered family pets, and even 
in the centennial year the number of government retired horses 


gradually decreased from 43 to 30 and the military police detach- 
ment dog platoon was transferred to Camp Carson, Colo. The 
largest hospital in the history of the state of Kansas, the huge 3,000- 
bed base hospital of World War I, was only a memory with its re- 
maining buildings now serving as barracks and offices. No trace 
remained of the medical officers' training camp that prepared al- 
most 30,000 medical soldiers for World War I duty. The real 
feature of the second half century was the efficient and effective 
healing team composed of individual doctors, dentists, nurses, vet- 
erinarians, administrators, therapists, enlisted technicians, and 
ancillary personnel within the army medical service. In 1953 the 
cantonment hospital was capable of handling up to a peak load of 
1,000 patients. In addition, eight dispensaries were operated and 
a blood donor center drew and shipped over one thousand pints 
of blood each month. The area of medical service extended by Fort 
Riley had grown from the 50-mile radius of frontier days to a mod- 
ern hospital that treated military patients from an area that included 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas. 


Construction of the new hospital began on July 19, 1955, when 
the first shovel of earth was dug by Lt. Col. Eleanor R. Asleson, 
army nurse corps, the hospital chief nurse. Over 43 million pounds 
of concrete have been poured to erect a building 111 feet high with 
six working floors. No feature of superior medical care has been 
overlooked. Irwin Army Hospital has a pneumatic tube distribu- 
tion-communications system with 42 stations and an audio-visual 
call system which provides two-way conversation between each 
patient and his ward nurse. Bulk oxygen is piped into all critical 
medical treatment areas. Approximately six millions of dollars 
have been spent to build this modern 250-bed hospital. Maj. Wil- 
liam J. Deragisch, medical service corps, has been project officer 
during most of the construction period. 

Even in peacetime, military units are transferred and a new 
technique called gyroscope was utilized at Fort Riley on September 
27, 1955, when the Tenth infantry division at Fort Riley and the 
First infantry division in Germany traded home stations. The 
division surgeon of the First division (1957) is Lt. Col. John B. 
White, medical corps. A native of Ohio, Dr. White earned his 
M. D. in 1927 from the University of Oregon medical school. 

Other medical units were in training at Fort Riley. The hospital 


plant furnished patients, classroom space, and instructors for techni- 
cal skills. In 1955 the 900th surgical hospital, 388th evacuation hos- 
pital and the 928th medical company (ambulance) were released 
from active duty. Training continued in the 93d evacuation hos- 
pital (semimobile) commanded by Col. Walter B. Lacock, medical 
corps; the 47th surgical hospital, commanded by Lt. Col. Harold I. 
Drinkaus, medical corps; and the 58th medical battalion (separate), 
commanded by Lt. Col. Ross R. Haecker, medical service corps. 

Colonel Duryea, post surgeon, was assigned to Washington, D. C., 
in May, 1956, and his position was assumed by Col. Walter B. La- 
cock, medical corps. The hospital staff included Lt. Col. Jack T. 
Rush, medical corps, as chief of surgery, and Maj. Mary C. Jordan, 
army nurse corps, as hospital chief nurse. Lt. Col. Gerald E. Geise, 
medical service corps, was hospital executive officer. 

Col. Milford Timothy Kubin, medical corps, became post surgeon 
of Fort Riley in July, 1956. History completed the first full circle 
for Fort Riley physicians with the assignment of Doctor Kubin, 
since his first duty station after internship was Fort Riley. First 
Lieutenant Kubin rode field-patrol with the horse cavalry while 
Colonel Kubin supervises the evacuation of patients from field 
maneuvers with helicopters, a change of hospital techniques from 
horses to helicopters within one professional career. A native of 
Kansas, M. Tim Kubin earned his degree in medicine from the 
University of Kansas in 1929 and his graduate studies have included 
a M. S. in public health from Harvard University in 1946. 

The post dental surgeon is Col. John E. Finnegan, dental corps. 
Doctor Finnegan was born in Minnesota and received his D. D. S. 
from the University of Minnesota in 1935. His chief dental assist- 
ants include Lt. Cols. C. J. Blum, E. D. Chase, H. G. McMaster, 
J. C. Sexson, and N. E. Sondergaard, all of the dental corps. 

The post veterinarian is Lt. Col. William Ginn, veterinary corps. 
A native of South Carolina, Doctor Ginn earned his degree in vet- 
erinary medicine from Auburn in 1934. 

The last professional staff of the cantonment hospital and the first 
of Irwin Army Hospital includes Lt. Col. Robert James Bradley, 
medical corps, as chief of medical services, and Maj. George E. 
Omer, Jr., medical corps, as chief of surgical services. Doctor 
Bradley earned his B. S. from the University of Wisconsin, followed 
by a degree in medicine from the University of Wisconsin in 1945, 
with his post-graduate residency training in internal medicine at 
Fitzsimons Army Hospital. Dr. Omer, a Kansan, received an A. B. 


from Fort Hays Kansas State College, an M. D. from the University 
of Kansas in 1950, and his post-graduate studies include residency 
training at Brooke Army Hospital with a master of science in ortho- 
pedic surgery from Baylor University. Maj. Florence E. Judd, 
army nurse corps, became the Fort Riley hospital chief nurse fol- 
lowing an assignment at Walter Reed Army Hospital. Major Judd 
earned her R. N. degree in 1934 from Saint Mary's Hospital in East 
Saint Louis and her postgraduate studies have earned a B. S. in 
nursing education from Columbia University and an M. S. in hos- 
pital administration from Baylor University. Lt. Col. Virgil T. 
Yates, medical service corps, is the hospital executive officer. Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Yates earned his B. S. and A. B. from Northwest 
Missouri State Teachers College and postgraduate work includes 
a master of science in hospital administration from Baylor Univer- 

A Fort Riley Historical Society was founded in August, 1957, 
under the patronage of Maj. Gen. David H. Buchanan, command- 
ing the First division and Fort Riley. To deposit and display the 
rich history of Fort Riley and the surrounding community, the first 
permanent post hospital was dedicated as the Fort Riley Museum 
on September 20, 1957. It is most appropriate that the first building 
used to rebuild, administer and preserve the men of Fort Riley 
should now be used to perpetuate their memory. 



"Annual Report of Fort Riley Post Surgeon," 1942. 

W. F. Pride, History of Fort Riley (Topeka, Capper Publications, 1926), pp. 

258, 260, 262, 278, 286, 308, 312. 
"Report of Sick and Wounded," Army Medical Department: H. L. Brown, 

February, 1909; J. H. Ford, August, 1909; Paul Greeman, September, 1909; 

W. P. Kendall, 1910-1912. 

Official Army Register, 1945, pp. 611, 1083, 1158, 1220, 1251, 1267, 1368. 
Interviews: Mrs. John Hewitt, Wakefield; Mrs. Alan Eustace (Ann Marie 

Hannon), Route 3, Wakefield; Mrs. Cleary (daughter of Doctor O'Donnell), 

Junction City. 
Letter to Major Judd, chief nurse, U. S. A. H., Fort Riley, from Elizabeth 

Harding, 30 Park Ave., Apt. 3-D, New York 16, N. Y. 
J. K. Herr and E. S. Wallace, The Story of the U. S. Cavalry (Boston, Little, 

Brown and Company, 1953), p. 208. 
Junction City Union, June 6, July 19, August 14, 16, 18, September 4, 6, 

November 19, December 4, 22, 1917; January 21, 1918; June 24, 1953. 


The Army Almanac (Washington, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950), 

p. 90. 
Frank Tompkins, Chasing Villa (Harrisburg, Pa., Military Service Publishing 

Co., 1934), pp. 257-270. 
Souvenir of Fort Riley, 1918: "The Base Hospital," p. 13; "Department of 

Hippology," p. 14; "Medical Officers' Training Camp," p. 18. 
Telephone Directories, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1918 and 1919. 
Col. Charles Lynch, ed.-in-chief, The Medical Department of the U. S. Army 

in the World War (Washington, U. S. Government Printing Office, 1921- 

1929), v. 7, "Training" (Col. William N. Bispham, M. C., ed.), pp. 180- 

The U. S. Army in World War II (Washington, Office of the Chief of Military 

History, Department of the Army, 1956), v. 5, "The Medical Department 

Hospitalization and Evacuation in Zone of Interior" (Clarence McKittrick 

Smith, ed.), pp. 304-313. 
The Military Surgeon, Washington, v. 34 (1914), p. 452; v. 35 (1914), p. 

506; v. 36 (1915), p. 289. 
Kansas City (Mo.) Star, May 12, 1957. 
General Order No. 156, Headquarters, Fort Riley, Kansas, May 18, 1957, 

Sec. I, naming of O'Donnell Heights. 
Fort Riley, Its Historic Past, 1853-1953, pp. 16, 19. 
Junction City Republic, June 25, 1953. 


Telephone Directories, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1918-1937, 1939, 1940. 

"Annual Report of Post Surgeon," Fort Riley, Kansas, 1933, 1935. 

Report of the Army Surgeon General, 1904, pp. 11, 12; 1905, p. 52. 

Fort Riley, Its Historic Past, 1853-1953, p. 17. 

Souvenir of Fort Riley, 1918, p. 14. 

Official Army Register, 1945, pp. 62, 72, 203, 235, 257, 326, 438, 446, 618, 

624, 676, 713, 730, 885, 941, 1018, 1198, 1238, 1362, 1396. 
Ibid., 1957, pp. 207, 862, 984, 999, 1004, 1010-1012, 1021, 1024, 1025, 1045, 

1046, 1048, 1051, 1057, 1069, 1073, 1088. 


"Annual Report of Post Surgeon," Fort Riley Kansas, 1941-1944, 1947-1950. 

Junction City Daily Union, June 24, 1953. 

Fort Riley, Its Historic Past, 1853-1953, pp. 9, 10. 

Telephone Directories, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1948, 1949. 

The Army Almanac, p. 378. 

Official Army Register, 1945, pp. 36, 530, 715, 871, 911, 1003, 1367, 1434. 

Ibid., 1957, pp. 40, 314, 478, 655, 844, 924, 980, 1007, 1056, 1072. 

Personal Interviews: Sfc. William F. Paris, medical detachment, U. S. A. H., 
Fort Riley; M/Sgt. Lloyd C. Glass, dental detachment, U. S. A. H., Fort 
Riley; Capt. Glenn Ensworth, medical service corps, headquarters, Fifth 
U. S. army, Chicago. 



"Annual Report, Fort Riley Post Surgeons," 1950-1954. 

"Emergency Floor Memoranda," Nos. 1-6, July 11-17, 1951, U. S. A. H., Fort 


Junction City Daily Union, June 24, 1953. 
Official Army Register, 1945, p. 269. 
Ibid., 1957, pp. 127, 208, 241, 411, 634, 664, 924. 
Fort Riley, Its Historic Past, 1853-1953, p. 11. 


"Army Medical Service Activities Report (Annual Report, Post Surgeon)," 

Fort Riley, 1954-1956. 
"Memorandum Report," Irwin Army Hospital, October 30, 1957, Major Dera- 


"Officers Roster (RCS ATPER-16)," U. S. A. H., Fort Riley, August 26, 1957. 
"AMEDS Personnel Status Report (RCS ALFMD-21)," U. S. A. H. (5021), 

Fort Riley, December 31, 1956. 

"Professional Staff Conference Program," U. S. A. H., Fort Riley, 1956, 1957. 
Telephone Directories, Fort Riley, Kansas, 1955-1957. 

Official Army Register, 1957, pp. 29, 91, 110, 215, 445, 446, 481, 647, 949. 
The American Traveler, Fort Riley, September 18, 1957. 

The Annual Meeting 

THE 82d annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society 
and board of directors was held in Topeka on October 15, 1957. 
The meeting of the directors was held in the rooms of the Society 
and was called to order by President Holla Clymer at 10 A. M. 
First business was the reading of the annual report by the secretary: 


At the conclusion of last year's meeting the newly elected president, Rolla 
Clymer, reappointed Will T. Beck, John S. Dawson, and T. M. Lillard to the 
executive committee. Members holding over were Charles M. Correll and 
Frank Haucke. 

Two members of the Society's board of directors have died since the last 
meeting. Robert Stone, a Topeka attorney since 1892, an organizer and past 
president of the Shawnee County Historical Society, active throughout his long 
life in many civic and charitable organizations, and for many years a member 
and director of this Society, died in June. Mrs. Mae C. Patrick of Satanta, 
widely known for her participation in literary and political activities, died in 
July. She helped to found the libraries of Santa Fe and Satanta and was 
instrumental in organizing several women's clubs in western Kansas. The loss 
of these two friends is noted with sorrow. 


Last year it was necessary to report, with regret though without surprise 
considering the state of our treasury, that almost all requests for major improve- 
ments to the Memorial building and the other properties operated by the 
Society were denied. The same statement must be repeated this year. The 
1957 legislature did make appropriations for completing the rewiring of the 
Memorial building, installation of standpipe fire protection units, construction 
of museum storage closets, and partial interior painting. However, requests 
for funds to complete the air-conditioning system, replace exterior doors, mod- 
ernize plumbing and fixtures, install steel stack floors, and to make several 
other desired improvements were rejected, some for the third and fourth times. 

A supplemental appropriation was made for reroofing the First Territorial 
Capitol, the original grant having proven insufficient. A request for $350 for 
drilling a water well at the Funston Home was approved. The hole was drilled 
but the water proved too salty to be usable. Another appropriation has 
therefore been asked for next year to rebuild two cisterns on the property. 
Funds were allocated for tree-trimming at Shawnee Mission and for water- 
proofing and partial interior painting in the East building. No capital improve- 
ment requests were approved for the Kaw Mission at Council Grove. 

Appropriations asked for routine operating expenses were granted, with 
only a few exceptions, both for the Society itself and for the properties which 
it administers. 

Budget requests for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1959, were filed with 
the state budget director in September. In addition to appropriation requests 
for salaries and operating expenses, which amount to about the same as last 



year, the major long-term improvements listed above were submitted again. 
New requests included $2,000 for repairs to the roof of the Memorial building, 
$17,500 for installing steel shelving in the basement vault, $650 for repair of 
the loading dock and the walk at the south entrance, $2,500 for interior paint- 
ing, and $1,000 for tree-trimming, lawn work, and landscaping. With the 
exception of relatively small amounts requested for minor items of special 
maintenance, such as tree-trimming at the Funston Home and the Kaw Mission 
and enlarging of the parking area at Shawnee Mission, all capital improvement 
requests for these and the other properties were repetitions of last year's budget. 


The Kansas Historical Quarterly is now in its 23d year. Articles of interest 
in the Spring number include Emory Lindquist's story of the contribution of 
three Kansans to the development of the dial telephone, and James C. Malin's 
series on the early theatre in Kansas, which has continued through the year. 
Featured in the Summer number was the report of a survey of Kansas historic 
sites and structures made by the Society. Other articles appearing or sched- 
uled to appear in 1957 include a story on the Lecompton constitutional con- 
vention by Robert Johannsen, a sketch of Thomas Benton Murdock and William 
Allen White by Rolla Clymer, an article on Fort Larned by William E. Unrau, 
and the story of the Kiowa and Comanche campaign of 1860 as recorded in 
the personal diary of Lt. J. E. B. Stuart, edited by W. Stitt Robinson. 

The Mirror, the bimonthly newsletter, continues as a worthwhile medium, 
bringing news of the Society's projects to its membership. Many fine museum 
items have been received as a direct result of stories appearing in the Mirror. 

Monthly news releases, based on items from the Kansas territorial press and 
other newspapers of a century ago, continue to be sent to the editors of the 
state. Selections appear in many Kansas newspapers, and the Society is happy 
to contribute in this manner to the growth of interest in the state's beginnings. 

A report entitled A Survey of Historic Sites and Structures in Kansas was 
published and submitted to the 1957 session of the legislature, as required by 
a law of 1955. The work of the survey occupied the better part of 18 months, 
but because it had to be done by the regular staff as time and other duties 
permitted the report does not pretend to be a complete or final inventory of 
the state's historic places. In fact, several additions and corrections were 
made when the copy was re-edited for publication in the Quarterly and others 
will be necessary in the future. Considerable interest, both in and out of 
Kansas, has been aroused by this report. 

Work has continued on the cumulative index to the Society's publications. 
Approximately 54,000 index entries have been completed for the first 16 vol- 
umes of the Collections. Only one volume of the Collections now remains to 
be indexed, plus the Biennial Reports for 1877-1930 and the three small vol- 
umes of special publications which were issued in 1886, 1920, and 1930, to 
finish the first phase of this project. The second phase is the compilation of 
a similar index for the Quarterly. Preliminary estimates indicate that the 
complete index for all publications can be issued in two volumes, and funds 
have been requested in next year's budget for printing the first. 

The Annals of Kansas, the second volume of which was formally presented 
at last year's meeting, has proven to be an acceptable contribution to Kansas 
historical literature. However, more volumes should be sold, and can be if 
their availability is known to persons interested. A book review which ap- 



peared in the September, 1957, number of The Mississippi Valley Historical 
Review called this Annals "better balanced and more authoritative than 
Wilder's work" and emphasizes its importance not only as a chronological list 
of Kansas events but as a "valuable statistical and pictorial reference." 

There has been a noticeable revival of interest in the historical marker pro- 
gram during the past two years. Texts have been prepared by the Society on 
the following topics: at Fort Leavenworth, a brief history of the fort; at Russell, 
the conflict with the Indians as the railroad pushed westward; at Victoria, the 
establishment of the towns of Victoria and Herzog; and near Belvue, the Louis 
Vieux ford on the Oregon trail. In addition, a text was written for a marker 
on the bluestem pasture region which is to be placed on the turnpike at the 
Matfield Green service area. 

Some months ago Governor Docking named the first members of a com- 
mittee to make preparatory plans for the observance of the centennial of 
statehood, which comes in 1961. Credit for this early development is due the 
Society's president, Rolla A. Clymer. The 1957 legislature appropriated $2,500 
for the committee's initial expenses, with the Society being designated as book- 
keeper for the fund. 


Public records from the following state departments have been transferred 
to the archives during the year: 

Source Title Dates Quantity 

Administration, Depart- 
ment of (Accounts & 

Reports Div.) Fiscal records 1861-1950 299 vols. 

Agriculture, Board of. ... Statistical Rolls of Counties, 1950 1,714 vols. 

Abstracts of Agricultural 

Statistics & Population.. 1943-1953 1,185 vols. 
Population Schedules of 

Cities & Townships 1956, 1957 8,417 vols. 

Alcoholic Beverage Con- 
trol Samples of first liquor ship- 
ment affidavits and stamp 

orders 1949 22 items 

Alcoholism, Commission 
on Correspondence & Papers, 1953-1957 5 transfer 

1923-1942 3 vols. 

State Auditor Soldiers' Compensation 

Warrant Registers 

Secretary of State Original House and Senate 

Bills, Resolutions and 

Petitions . . 1919-1947 26 transfer 

Enrolled Laws, Kansas Ter- 
ritory 1855-1860 11 vols. 

Social Welfare, Depart- 
ment of Records of the Kansas 

Emergency Relief Com- 
mittee 1932-1937 17 vols. 

Minute Records of Institu- 
tions 1939, 1940 18 vols. 



Annual reports were received from the Accounts and Reports Division of 
the Department of Administration, the Board of Medical Registration and 
Examination, and the Board of Podiatry Examiners for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1956. Annual reports were also received from the Banking Depart- 
ment, Corporation Commission, and the Labor Department for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1957. 

A small amount of county and local government archival material was 
received during the year. Mrs. J. P. Winslow of Padonia donated two volumes 
of Brown county justice of the peace records a "Stray Record, 1876-1898," 
and a "Justice's Docket, 1873-1904." A microfilm print of four journals of 
the proceedings of the governing body of Wichita, 1870-1889, was lent by 
Chester Ellis, city clerk of Wichita, and a copy has been made. 

One of the most interesting items deposited in the archives of Kansas in 
recent years was received in September.. The engrossed copy of the Lecomp- 
ton Constitution, famous Proslavery document of the territorial period, has 
been returned to the state through the courtesy and generosity of the New 
Brunswick Historical Club, New Brunswick, N. J., and the library of Rutgers 
University. The constitution was taken from Kansas by one of its signers, 
Alfred W. Jones, and given to the New Jersey organization in 1875. Now, 
100 years after its creation, it is back in the area of its origin. 

The 1957 legislature passed two laws concerning the disposition of records. 
One revised the membership of the State Records Board and gave that group 
additional authority. The board, which originally consisted of the attorney 
general, the state librarian and the secretary of the Historical Society, now 
includes also the state auditor and the state archivist, the latter acting as sec- 
retary. In the past all recommendations of the board concerning the disposal 
of state records had to go before the regular session of the legislature for 
approval. Now the board has final authority in such matters and may rec- 
ommend whatever disposition it feels is best for the business and historical 
interests of the state. Since the board has this power it may meet at frequent 
intervals through the year, thus eliminating a confusing rush of records business 
during the legislative session. 

The second law provides for the establishment of a state records center 
under the control of the Historical Society which will serve as a depository 
for inactive records of state agencies. It has long been realized that some 
method of inexpensive storage of noncurrent records, which have limited 
retention value but are not worthy of permanent archival preservation, is 
needed in Kansas. This law paves the way for such storage even though no 
funds were appropriated to make the plan operative. Both new laws are 
important steps toward more effective records management and storage in 

A new assistant archivist, Eugene D. Decker, joined the staff in September, 
replacing Carl W. Deal who was promoted to fill a vacancy in the library. Mr. 
Decker is a graduate of Kansas State Teachers College of Emporia and has 
done graduate work in history there. 


For the sixth consecutive year there has been an increase in the number of 
patrons using the library. This year the total was 4,099, of whom 1,616 
worked on subjects of Kansas interest, 1,569 on genealogy, and 914 on general 


subjects. Most of the queries by correspondence came from Kansas patrons, 
but many out-of-state people asked for information about members of their 
families who lived in Kansas in the early days. The extensive cataloguing of 
biographical material which has always been the practice in the library makes 
prompt replies possible in most instances, and several patrons have written in 
appreciation of this fact. 

The prevalence of Western dramas on television has prompted a large 
number of requests for information on Kansas marshals and cowtowns. Typical, 
and perhaps most frequent of such queries, is: Was Matt Dillon, of Gun Smoke 
fame, a real or imaginary character? To those of you who do not follow 
Westerns, the answer to that, of course, is that Dillon is an imaginary character. 

Requests from school children for histories of their home towns or localities 
have increased in number. Free material in the form of Kansas state publica- 
tions is sent whenever possible, but a large percentage of the 142 loan packages 
has gone to junior high and high school students. 

Five special newspaper editions and 3,142 miscellaneous issues were read 
and clipped in addition to the seven daily newspapers which are regularly 
searched for Kansas items. This material was augmented by clippings from 
newspapers over the state supplied by a clipping bureau, making a total of 
6,520 clippings for the year. Nine older clipping volumes and 3,539 miscel- 
laneous pages were remounted. 

Remounting of the 17 volumes of the Webb scrapbooks has been started. 
This unique collection of clippings from Eastern newspapers was purchased 
in 1877 from Mrs. Thomas H. Webb, widow of the secretary of the New 
England Emigrant Aid Company. The first 16 volumes cover events in Kansas 
from March, 1854, to September, 1856, and the last volume contains clippings 
dated from October 21, 1859, to December 12, 1860, relating to John Brown 
and the Harpers Ferry raid. 

A textbook display designed to show the changes in schoolbooks from 
territorial days to the present was arranged on the third floor early this year. 
Except for those most recently printed the books came from the Society's 
textbook collection, which is growing steadily through gifts of friends and 
other libraries. 

The library is one of six in Kansas asked to contribute entries for the Na- 
tional Union Catalog of books, the successor to the Library of Congress Catalog. 
Since many locally printed books do not reach the Library of Congress they 
have not been included in the old catalog, and the National Union listing, 
which includes entries sent in by co-operating libraries in each state, is expected 
to be more representative of the books published each year throughout the 

Microfilm copies of the 1850 Federal census records for Maine, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota were added this year, the gift of Lyal Dudley. The Marks 
ir Brand Record of the Oklahoma Cattlemen's Association and the 1884 edition 
of The Brand Book of the Western Cattle Growers' Association were lent by 
Lee Larrabee for microfilming. Theses lent by the authors to be microfilmed 
included: "The Kansas Soldier as a War Correspondent, 1898-1899," by Alan 
J. Stewart; "The History of Fort Lamed, Kansas: Its Relation to the Santa Fe 
Trail and the Plains Indians," by William Enrol Unrau; "A Sociological Study 
of Sheridan County, Kansas," by Lillian Ruby Toothaker, and "A Brief History 
of Emerson Carey's Carey Salt Company, 1901-1956," by George W. Simpson. 


Centennial booklets and other materials were received from Emporia, 
Greeley, Holton, Americus, Hiawatha, Olathe, Hartford, Madison, Muscotah, 
and DeSoto. Gifts of local histories included: Mahaska Sodbusters, by Clyde 
W. Miller; 90 Years of Ellsworth and Ellsworth County History, by George 
Jelenik; 75 Years in Kansas, or Corn Bread and Sorgum Molasses, by the 
late Frank A. Russell; Ottawa University, Its History and Its Spirit, by B. Smith 
Haworth; History of Ionia, Kansas, by Lester Stites, and Kansas Monks, His- 
tory of St. Benedict's Abbey, by Peter Beckman, O. S. B. Caroline Walbridge 
gave a copy of her thesis on Kansas textbooks, Randolph Orville Yeager, his 
thesis on the "Indian Enterprises of Isaac McCoy, 1817-1846," and Harrie S. 
Mueller, a thesis by Virgil Vesper Hinds on the "History of Provisions for 
Religious Instruction in Selected Public Schools of Kansas." This is the first 
product of the recent history scholarship Colonel and Mrs. Mueller so gener- 
ously endowed at Kansas State. Sizable collections of books were received 
from Eugene and Justis N. Ware and Mrs. Amelia Cozier, grandchildren of 
Eugene Fitch Ware, and from Mrs. Eugene L. Bowers, the Capper estate, 
and Mrs. J. C. Ruppenthal. 

An unusual gift is Merchant Sail, by William Armstrong Fairburn. This 
definitive six-volume work on sailing ships is not for sale but has been placed 
in selected libraries throughout the country as a public service by the Fairburn 
Educational Foundation, Inc. 

Two histories of the state have been published within the past year. Kan- 
sas, a History of the Jayhawk State, by William Frank Zornow, the first one- 
volume adult history of Kansas published in several decades, and Kansas, the 
First Century, a four-volume history edited by John D. Bright, giving up-to- 
date historical and biographical material. 

Library accessions, October 1, 1956-September 30, 1957, were: 

Kansas 174 

General 682 

Genealogy and Local History 144 

Indians and the West 57 

Kansas State Publications 99 

Total U56 


Kansas 1,162 

General 448 

Genealogy and Local History 51 

Indians and the West 11 

Kansas State Publications 288 

Total 1>960 

Clippings ( bound volumes ) 35 

Magazines (bound volumes) 167 

Microfilm (reels) 

Books, periodicals, etc 44 


Total . 54 



Valuable papers including two large collections have been received during 
the year. 

Thirty-six file drawers of letters and documents from the office of the late 
Arthur Capper were received from his estate. These fall mainly within the 
period of his service as U. S. senator from Kansas, 1919-1949. Agricultural 
legislation received much of his attention during these years. Arthur Capper 
was governor of Kansas, 1915-1919, and founded one of the great publishing 
houses of the country. The papers are not yet organized but are open for 
limited research. 

Clifford Hope of Garden City, U. S. representative from Kansas for 30 years, 
has deposited papers from his Washington office which fill 156 transfer cases. 
Mr. Hope was for many years senior member of the house committee on agri- 
culture and his papers should prove valuable to students working in the fields 
of agricultural and political history. The collection is temporarily restricted to 
such use as Mr. Hope approves. 

Daniel Read Anthony, III, of Leavenworth has presented letters of his 
grandfather, Daniel Read Anthony, written during the period 1857-1862. 
There are 122 items in the collection. Daniel Read Anthony, of Rochester, 
N. Y., came to Kansas in 1854 as a member of the first party sent out by the 
Emigrant Aid Company of Massachusetts. He settled in Leavenworth and 
became active in territorial affairs; also, he entered the newspaper field and 
published the Leavenworth Times which is still in the hands of the Anthony 
family. Early letters reflect economic and financial conditions in the territory; 
those of the war years tell something of Anthony's service with the 7th regi- 
ment Kansas Volunteers. 

Sixty-seven letters written by Eugene Fitch Ware to members of his family 
were received from the children of his daughter, Amelia Ware Baird. Nearly 
all were written in 1904 while Ware was in Washington, D. C., serving as 
commissioner of pensions. Because of their historical importance, the Society 
would like to know the location of other Ware papers; the information is also 
wanted by Prof. James C. Malin of the University of Kansas who is making a 
study of Ware. 

Mrs. Stuart F. Hovey of Kansas City, Mo., gave papers of her grandfather, 
Dr. Andrew Jackson Huntoon. There are 150 items in the collection. Dr. 
Huntoon came to Kansas in 1857. He served during the Civil War with the 
5th Kansas cavalry and the 2d regiment Kansas State Militia. Following the 
war, he settled in Topeka and was prominent in public affairs until his death. 
Most of the letters in the collection were written by Huntoon and his wife 
during the period of his military service. 

James W. Wallace, Scott City, and Richard W. Wallace, Topeka, have given 
a collection of nearly 500 items relating primarily to their grandfather, Capt. 
Augustus W. Burton, and Co. H, 12th Kansas Volunteer infantry regiment. 
The papers extend over the unit's entire period of active service, 1862-1865. 
Included are ordnance, clothing, and equipment records; requisitions; general 
and special orders, etc. 

Papers of Jessie Kennedy Snell were given by Omer A. Snell of Colby. 
They include reminiscences of Thomas county pioneers and notes on Thomas 
county history. 


Two volumes of business records were received: Webb Woodward, Topeka, 
gave a volume of prescription records from the pharmacy of B. W. Woodward 
and Company, Lawrence, 1874-1878; and Dr. Wilson Hobart gave a day book 
with cash account records from the business of Wilson Keith, dry goods 
merchant of Topeka, 1878-1895. 

Thomas H. Bowlus, lola, gave ten pieces of large currency, series 1899, 
1907, 1914, 1918, and 1923. 

Microfilm copies of the following have been acquired: 

Seven reels of correspondence, 1833-1884, from the library of the Presby- 
terian Historical Society, Philadelphia. The letters relate to the work of Presby- 
terian missionaries among Indians in Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Oklahoma. 

Record of soldiers buried at Fort Wallace. The list was compiled when 
bodies were removed in 1886 for reinterment at Fort Leavenworth. Film 
was made from photostats lent by R. F. Brock, Goodland. 

Diaries and papers of Bertha and Hermann C. Benke, 1886-1893, residents 
of Barton county. Originals were lent by Paul Gibler, Claflin. 

Letter books of Thaddeus Hyatt, 2 volumes: 1858-1859, 1875-1876. The 
earlier volume contains copies of many letters pertaining to Hyatt's interests in 
Kansas; letters in the second volume were written while Hyatt was in England 
and on the Continent and relate mainly to his inventions and business enter- 
prises. The books were lent by Hyatt's grandson, John K. Hyatt, St. Louis. 

Scrapbook of Emerson C. Lewellen, for many years a resident of Harvey 
county and Newton; and records of the Jantzen Hillsboro Creamery, 1899-1903. 
Originals were lent by Earl McDowell, Cherokee, Okla. 

Diary of William T. Barnett, 1899-1900. Barnett was a member of Co. I, 
12th U. S. infantry, and the diary is a record of his service in the Philippines. 
Original was lent by Horace J. Smith, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Records of Osage Mission on the Neosho river, now St. Paul, Kan., 1820- 
1885. Included are lists of baptisms, marriages, and burials. The five manu- 
script volumes were made available for reproduction by the Passionist Mon- 
astery, St. Paul. 

Other donors were: Mrs. Jessie Jenner Baker, Topeka; Edward M. Beougher, 
Grinnell; Berlin B. Chapman, Stillwater, Okla.; Harry E. Chrisman, Liberal; 
Mrs. W. B. Collinson, Topeka; Pauline Cowger, Salina; Charles Darnell, 
Wamego; Mr. and Mrs. C. C. Ellis, Wichita; Alan W. Farley, Kansas City; 
Mrs. Jeannette Burney Gibson, Ottawa; Mrs. Edna Piazzek Gilpin, Valley 
Falls; Mrs. George Hedrick, Lawrence; Alfred G. Hill, Swarthmore, Pa.; 
George J. Hood, Lawrence; Kansas State Auditor; T. M. Lillard, Topeka; 
Alfred Lower, Topeka; Fred R. Marckhoff, Elgin, ID.; Don Maxwell, Topeka; 
Dr. Karl A. Menninger, Topeka; Howard S. Miller, Morrill; Clyde M. Reed, 
Jr., Parsons; Mrs. W. W. Reed, Topeka; Mrs. F. Homer Richart, Denver, Colo.; 
Harold E. Rorschach, Tulsa, Okla.; J. C. Ruppenthal, Russell; John W. Shuart, 
Topeka; Mrs. J. R. Throckmorton, Hays; Mrs. C. E. Toothaker, Hoxie; Mrs. 
Benjamin Weaver, Mullinville; and Thomas Bayne Wilson, Williamstown. 

Joseph W. Snell. Topeka, joined the staff in January as assistant cataloguer 
in the division of manuscripts. Mr. Snell is a graduate of Washburn University, 
has completed his course work for a master's degree in history at the University 
of Kansas, and is currently doing research for his thesis which will deal with 
a phase of the government's Indian policy. 



In the past 12 months the microfilm division has made nearly 370,000 ex- 
posures, bringing the total since the division was established to more than 
4/i million. Most of this year's production, about 229,000 exposures, was of 
newspapers. About 100,000 exposures were made of archival records, and 
the balance was divided between library and manuscript materials. 

Kansas newspapers filmed included the Arkansas City Weekly Republican 
Traveler, April 16, 1887-January 2, 1908; Clay Center Weekly Times, January 
5, 1882-December 29, 1955; Kinsley Graphic, December 18, 1880-July 11, 
1940; Leavenworth Weekly Times, July 7, 1870-September 5, 1918; Ottawa 
Daily Republican, September 29, 1879-February 8, 1902; Ottawa Daily Re- 
public, February 10, 1902-December 31, 1914; Ottawa Weekly Herald, No- 
vember 7, 1889-March 18, 1915; and Wyandotte Herald, January 4, 1872- 
December 29, 1910. The Kinsley Mercury has been filmed from August 4, 
1883, to February 23, 1900, and work on this paper is continuing. In addi- 
tion, short runs of 19 other newspapers were microfilmed. 

Filming of the 1905 state census, which was begun last year, has been com- 
pleted. The original record, in 478 large volumes, has now been condensed 
into 177 hundred-foot rolls of film. More than 15,000 exposures were also 
made of records of the State Insurance Department. 


The museum has completed its most successful year. Attendance was 
52,412, an all-time record, and 11,000 more than last year. Two factors are 
primarily responsible for this increase: the modernization program which 
includes construction of period rooms and new displays, and an educational 
program which offers planned and guided tours to school children and other 
groups. Some 300 organizations and groups took advantage of these tours, 
almost double the number registered last year. Roscoe Wilmeth, assistant 
museum director, who joined the staff in February, is in charge of the educa- 
tional program. He is professional archeologist also, and has inaugurated 
a systematic field survey of archeological sites along the Kansas river from 
Junction City to Kansas City. 

Twenty new displays relating to various aspects of Kansas history have 
been constructed in the second group of cases which were received early 
this year. Another 20 cases, to be used for military and Indian displays, have 
been ordered. 

Two period rooms, a doctor's office and a dentist's office, are nearly finished, 
and construction of a general store, complete with post office, has begun. These 
rooms are in the east gallery. 

During the year 130 accessions were received, comprising 1,526 separate 
items. Mrs. Emma Kelley and Lowell Kelley, White Cloud, Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Miller, Delavan, and Mrs. Dora Priddy, Ozawkie, donated a large num- 
ber of articles which are to be used in the general store display. Mrs. Alice 
G. Sennrich, Valley Falls, gave the equipment used in her early photographic 
studio; Mrs. W. R. Smith, Topeka, presented a collection of early hats; Mrs. 
C. H. Strieby, Council Grove, donated a number of toys; Mr. and Mrs. Bill 
Bradley and Mr. and Mrs. William A. Bradley, Cunningham, sent an early 


model Linotype; Mrs. Esther Gray Crumb, Pittsburg, donated a collection of 
scale models made by her father; W. M. Richards, Emporia, Roderick Bentley, 
Shields, Mrs. Benjamin Weaver, Mullinville, and James C. Malin, Lawrence, 
gave collections of barbed wire which include many old and unusual types. 
Other donors were: Ed Abels, Lawrence; Abilene Public Library; Mr. and 
Mrs. Harry Althof, Topeka; Portia Anderson, Topeka; Robert Appleton Co., 
New York; Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad; Charles Avery, Topeka; 
the children of Amelia Ware Baird; Rebecca Updegraff Bellamy, Topeka; 
Beloit Chamber of Commerce; W. H. Benedict; J. Leland Benson, Topeka; 
Dr. M. L. Bishoff, Topeka; Mrs. Howard B. Blackmar, Norwood, Mass.; Mrs. 
Henry S. Blake, Topeka; Mrs. Emily Broker, lola; J. L. Brownback, Fort 
Riley; Mrs. Dora Renn Bryant, Junction City; Alfred A. Carlson, Prairie Vil- 
lage; Estella Case, Wichita; Mrs. W. B. Collinson, Topeka; Oscar Copple, 
Wilsey; Julia Cotton estate, Topeka; Christina Grader, Paxico; Charles Dar- 
nell, Wamego; Mrs. Edwin W. Davis, Topeka; John H. Davis, Jr., Belvue; 
J. C. Denious estate, Dodge City; Bertha Dennett, Wellington; Mrs. Joan 
Dibble, Topeka; Mrs. Hattie M. Dillon, Scranton; Mrs. John DuMars, Topeka; 
Mrs. John L. Engert, Manhattan; Dr. Elvenor Ernest, Topeka; Mrs. Paul Ernst, 
Olathe; Dr. E. W. Eustace, Lebanon; Ben H. Fischer, Lincoln, Neb.; Herman 
C. Frahm, Topeka; Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Freed, Topeka; Mrs. Spencer A. Card, 
lola; Mrs. O. L. Garlinghouse, Topeka; B. J. George, Kansas City, Mo.; Mrs. 
Edna Gilpin, Valley Falls; Mrs. Robert Gleason, Topeka; Globe Clothing Co., 
lola; Frank Graham, Florence; Harry Griffin, Topeka; Mrs. Betty Griffiths, 
Hartford; Arnold Hallover, Burlingame; Dea Hart, Grenola; Mrs. Albertine 
Harvey, Long Beach, Calif.; Mrs. Frank Haucke, Council Grove; Dr. and Mrs. 
H. L. Hiebert, Topeka; Mrs. Don Hopson, Phillipsburg; Nina Catherine Howe, 
Kansas City; John Hudson, Topeka; Dr. James G. Hughbanks, Independence; 
Arthur D. James, Topeka; Mrs. Charles Jones, Topeka; Mrs. Erwin Keller, 
Topeka; W. A. Kingman, Springfield, Mo.; Mrs. Joe Kinnaird, Kiro; Mr. and 
Mrs. W. D. Kirkbride, Herington; Mr. and Mrs. Frank Knowles, Valley Falls; 
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest LaLouette, Florence; Ceora B. Lanham, Topeka; Mrs. 
Harry Lemon, Topeka; Helen D. Little, LaCrosse; Dr. A. Louis Lyda, Salina; 
Wendel Maddox, Garden City; Mark Marling, Topeka; Marquart Music Co., 
Topeka; Mrs. Helen Martin, Brookville; Don C. Maxwell, Topeka; Robert 
Maxwell estate, Topeka; Mrs. Vernon Me Arthur, Hutchinson; Orville, Amsa, 
and Earl McDowell, Cherokee, Okla.; Dr. Wm. M. Mclnemey, Abilene; L. D. 
Merillat, Topeka; Mrs. John O. Miller, Topeka; Dorthadean Moorman, To- 
peka; Mrs. Howard E. Morrison, Jr., Topeka; Will Morrison, LaHarpe; L. F. 
Morse, Benedict; H. C. Mulroy and Margaret Jetmore Mulroy, Topeka; D. W. 
Muns, lola; Mrs. Ethel H. Neff, Wichita; Mr. and Mrs. H. D. Nichols, Osage 
City; Mrs. Malcolm B. Nicholson, Long Beach, Calif.; Dr. A. R. Owen, To- 
peka; Jennie A. Philip estate, Hays; Francis Phillis, Topeka; George Preston, 
Paxico; Carl Puderbaugh, Ozawkie; B. W. Purdum, Topeka; Rebecca Lodge, 
Tola; Mrs. W. W. Reed, Topeka; Frank Reeder, Jr., Easton, Pa.; James W. 
Reid, New York; Charles Remaley, Topeka; Mrs. C. H. Reser, Hamilton; 
R. W. Richmond, Topeka; Col. G. L. Robinson, Jacksonville, Fla.; Mrs. J. E. 
Rosebrough, Topeka; Phyllis and Patricia Safirite, lola; Mr. and Mrs. Ellwood 
H. Savage, Topeka; Stanley D. Sohl, Topeka; Mrs. Nellie Sparks, Whitewater; 
Edwin H. Stade, Belvue; Mrs. W. E. Stanley, Wichita; Gary Steams, Topeka; 
Edith Updegraff Stephenson, Wichita; W. E. Steps, Topeka; L. C. Stevens, 


Topeka; Mr. and Mrs. Wm. C. Stevens, Lawrence; Charles S. Stevenson, Kan- 
sas City, Mo.; Cydnee Sue and Jeanne Lue Stillwaugh, lola; C. A. Stinson, 
Carlyle; Mrs. Jacob F. Strickler, Topeka; Mrs. William E. Studebaker, Topeka; 
Miss E. E. Terry, Olathe; Mr. and Mrs. Luther Tillotson, Topeka; Mrs. Rita 
S. Timpson, Elizabeth, N. J.; F. C. Troup, Logan; Fenn Ward, Highland; 
Mrs. Wm. J. Wertz, Topeka; Westminster Presbyterian church, Topeka; 
J. Howard Wilcox, Anthony; Ronald Wilson, Topeka; Gen. Thomas B. Wilson, 
Williamstown; Edwin Wolff, Tooele, Utah; and Mrs. Chester Woodward, 


In the past 12 months 5,495 patrons who called in person were served by 
the newspaper and census divisions, and several times that number by corre- 

Use of the newspaper files remained at about the same level as last year. A 
decrease in the number of original issues used was offset by the increased use 
of microfilm. Single issues of newspapers read totaled 5,589, bound volumes 
6,210, and microfilm reels 2,057. 

On April 15, under an act of the 1957 legislature, the Society began charg- 
ing $1.00 each for certified copies of its records. In consequence the number 
of requests for such copies has fallen off noticeably, 13,550 certificates being 
issued during the year as compared with more than 17,500 the previous year. 
Census volumes searched dropped to 36,134 from last year's all-time high of 

Almost all Kansas newspaper publishers send their publications to the 
Society for filing. One triweekly, ten semiweeklies, 291 regular weeklies, and 
55 dailies are now received regularly. In addition, 146 newspapers published 
by Kansas schools, churches, labor unions, and other institutions are donated 
by the publishers. Ten out-of-state newspapers are received, including the 
New York Times and the Kansas City Star and Times. The collections now 
total 57,582 bound volumes of Kansas newspapers and over 12,000 volumes 
of out-of-state newspapers. With the addition of 493 reels this year the col- 
lection of newspapers on microfilm now includes 6,419 reels. Twelve Kansas 
publishers contribute film copies of their current issues. 

Among the older Kansas newspapers received was a single issue of the Iowa 
Point Weekly Enquirer, July 30, 1858, given by George and Fred Massey of 
Iowa Point. The People's Herald, Lyndon, January 6, 1916-December 19, 
1918, was received from Jack Miller, Lyndon. This fills a period missing in 
the files. Another gap was filled by the purchase of the Washington Repub- 
lican, July 26, 1872-April 17, 1874. 

Other donors of older newspapers included: Mrs. H. W. Burgess and L. D. 
Merillat, Topeka; Mrs. Stuart F. Hovey, Kansas City, Mo.; R. E. McCluggage, 
Juneau, Alaska; Frank S. Boies, Battle Creek, Mich.; Myron McGinnis and 
Tom Buchanan, Bucklin; Mrs. Albertine Harvey, Long Beach, Calif.; and the 
Robert Maxwell estate. B. B. Chapman, Stillwater, Okla., was instrumental 
in obtaining for the Society a copy of the historical edition of the Guthrie 
(Okla.) Daily Leader published April 16, 1957. 


During the year 1,213 photographs were added to the collection. Of these 
792 were gifts, 127 were lent for copying, and 294 were taken by staff members. 


In addition, one reel of motion picture film and many color slides were added. 

The revision of the filing system mentioned in last year's report has been 
completed. In the course of this work a new count of the collection was 
made. The current total is 30,668 black and white photographs and 404 
color slides. 

Several large groups of photographs were given to the Society, among them 
more than 200 pictures from the Arthur Capper estate, a set of modern views 
along the route of the Santa Fe trail from the Kansas Industrial Development 
Commission, 60 prints of historic sites and buildings in Kansas from the 
Omaha office of the National Park Service, and 34 Sedgwick county pictures 
lent for copying by Floyd Souders, publisher of the Cheney Sentinel 

The Society has furnished photographs during the year to many individuals, 
newspapers, and business firms, to other historical institutions, to authors and 
book publishers, and to such publications as Holiday, American Heritage, and 
the Encyclopedia Americana. 

Thirty-eight new maps have been accessioned. One of the most interesting 
is an original plat of Iowa Point in Doniphan county which was given by 
George and Fred Massey of Iowa Point. The map collection, not including 
atlases and separate maps held or catalogued in the library division, now totals 
4,913. Town lithographs total 53. 


Subjects for extended research during the year included: Indian affairs in 
Alabama territory, 1817-1819; Delaware Indian language; the French fur 
trade in Kansas; history of medicine in Kansas; early cattle industry in western 
Kansas; tent theatre activity in the Midwest; histories of Kansas City, Kan., 
and Kansas City, Mo.; use of balloons in the Civil War; gas and oil in Kansas; 
banking in Kansas; the Philippine insurrection; the Mexican War; the Texas 
revolution; the automobile industry in Kansas, 1890-1918; the legislature of 
1893; wives of Kansas governors; the Kansas river basin; the Kansas Power 
and Light Co.; the Fort Riley hospital; Fort Zarah; Pardee Butler; Gov. J. W. 
Denver; George S. Park; David J. Brewer; John Palmer Usher; Jerry Simpson; 
and Charles M. Harger. 


John Scott, for 20 years custodian of the First Territorial Capitol, died 
February 6. He was a loyal and conscientious employee. His successor, J. L. 
Brownback of Mound City, began work late in January, and is proving to be 
a capable and congenial addition to the staff. 

Registration of visitors was 6,582, approximately 3,000 more than last year. 
Of this total, 4,591 were Kansans, 1,906 came from 44 other states and the 
District of Columbia, and 85 came from four United States territories and 
possessions and from 12 foreign countries. The only states not represented 
were Nevada, Rhode Island, and Vermont. 

During the year the caretaker's cottage was painted and the Capitol building 
itself was reroofed. Propane gas was installed in the cottage for heating and 
cooking, replacing the coal and kerosene which had been used for many years. 


Attendance at the Funston Memorial State Park during its first full year of 
operation totaled 1,008, approximately three times as many as were registered 


in the five months it was open in 1956. Kansas visitors numbered 886; the 
remaining 122 came from 21 other states. 

Largely through the donations of Mrs. F. A. Eckdall of Emporia and Aldo 
Funston of Parsons, a sister and brother of Gen. Frederick Funston, the home 
is gradually being furnished and decorated as nearly as possible as it was when 
Congressman Edward H. Funston and his family lived there. 


Registrations at the Kaw Mission totaled 5,525, a slight decrease from last 
year. The visitors' book showed 4,407 Kansans registered and 1,118 other 
persons from 15 foreign countries, four United States territories and possessions, 
and 46 states. Only New Hampshire and Vermont were not represented. 

The local Rotary Club has put in part of the walk leading to the Indian 
cabin which the club erected several years ago on the Mission grounds, and it 
is hoped that this project will soon be completed. The Nautilus Club of 
Council Grove presented two new roses for the grounds and Mr. and Mrs. L. 
D. Fike gave a large number of named varieties of day lilies. The Council 
Grove Republican, edited by Don McNeal, has given every possible co- 
operation since the Mission was acquired in 1951. Its news items and weekly 
"Museum Scoreboard," showing the number of visitors and the states repre- 
sented, have done a great deal to stimulate interest. The information bureau 
operated by the Junior Chamber of Commerce has also continued to direct 
visitors to the Mission. 

Donors this year included: Mrs. Norma Comer Bates, W. J. Bay, Lillian 
Blim, C. C. Bowman, Mrs. Lalla M. Brigham, Louise Brown, Oscar Copple, 
Mrs. R. R. Cross, Floyd Flynn, Harold Hallaver, Mrs. John Jacobs, Axel 
Johnson, P. J. Kirkbride, Minnie Lee Marks, Mrs. A. O. Rees, Mrs. Linnie 
Strouts, C. H. White, and the Women's Federated Clubs. Materials were 
also received on loan from Mrs. Frank Haucke and Mrs. A. H. Strieby. 


Although 4,428 persons registered at the Shawnee Mission, it is estimated 
that another 800 to 1,000 visited the property without signing the guest book. 
Thirty states and the District of Columbia were represented, as well as six 
foreign countries. 

Visitors included Gretchen and Gordon Whittaker, great grandchildren of 
the Rev. John Thompson Peery, a missionary and teacher who served at the 
Mission; Willard P. Russell, great-grandson of the Rev. Jerome Berryman, 
superintendent of the Mission when the North building was constructed in 
1845; and Harris Martin, son of John A. Martin, tenth governor of the state of 
Kansas. Approximately 100 members of the Kansas department of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution attended the annual meeting and picnic at 
the Mission on Constitution Day, September 17. 

On July 1 two guides were employed to help with the reception of visitors. 
They are to work on a part-time basis when the tourist season is at its peak. 
Physical improvements to the property included painting of the exterior wood- 
work, and wallpapering, and interior painting in the North building. All trees 
were pruned and several dead trees removed. 

The Society is indebted to the state departments of the Colonial Dames, 
Daughters of American Colonists, Daughters of the American Revolution, 


Daughters of 1812, and the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society for 
their continued assistance at the Mission. 


The accomplishments noted in this report are due to the Society's splendid 
staff of employees, and I make grateful acknowledgment to them. 

I should like to mention particularly Edgar Langsdorf, assistant secretary, 
and the heads of the Society's main departments: Mrs. Lela Bames, of the 
manuscript division, who is also treasurer of the Society; Robert W. Richmond, 
archivist; Alberta Pantle, librarian; Stanley D. Sohl, museum director; and 
Forrest R. Blackburn of the newspaper division. 

Recognition is also due the custodians of the historic sites administered by 
the Society: Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Hardy at Shawnee Mission, Mr. and Mrs. 
Elwood Jones at Kaw Mission, Mr. and Mrs. V. E. Berglund at the Funston 
Memorial Home and Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Brownback at the First Territorial 
Capitol. Respectfully submitted, 

NYLE H. MILLER, Secretary. 

At the conclusion of the reading of the secretary's report, James 
Malone moved that it be accepted. Motion was seconded by 
Charles M. Correll and the report was adopted. 

President Clymer then called for the report of the treasurer, Mrs. 
Lela Barnes. The report was based on the post-audit by the State 
Division of Auditing and Accounting for the period July 27, 1956, 
to August 8, 1957: 

Balance, July 27, 1956: 

Cash $3,318.88 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,000.00 


Membership fees $1,186.00 

Gifts and donations 43.00 

Interest on bonds 138.00 

Interest, Bowlus gift 27.60 



Disbursements $1,234.24 

Balance, August 8, 1957: 

Cash $3,479.24 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,000.00 




Balance, July 27, 1957: 

Cash $20.56 

U. S. bond, Series K 1,000.00 


Interest on bond $27.60 

Interest on savings account 2.48 


Balance, August 8, 1957: 

Cash $50.64 

U. S. bond, Series K 1,000.00 


Balance, July 27, 1957: 

Cash $117.07 

U. S. bond, Series K 500.00 


Interest on bond $13.80 

Interest on savings account 1.26 


Balance, August 8, 1957: 

Cash $132.13 

U. S. bond, Series K 500.00 


This donation is substantiated by a U. S. bond, Series K, in the amount of 
$1,000. The interest is credited to the membership fee fund. 


Balance, July 27, 1957: 

Cash (deposited in membership fee fund) $775.19 

U. S. bonds, Series G 5,200.00 




Bond interest ( deposited in membership fee fund ) 

Disbursements, books 

Balance, August 8, 1957: 

Cash (deposited in membership fee fund) $595.19 

U. S. bonds, Series K 5,500.00 



This report covers only the membership fee fund and other custodial funds. 
Appropriations made to the Historical Society by the legislature are disbursed 
through the State Department of Administration. For the year ending June 
30, 1957, these appropriations were: Kansas State Historical Society, including 
the Memorial Building, $207,970; First Capitol of Kansas, $3,822; Kaw Mis- 
sion, $4,333; Funston Home, $1,300; Old Shawnee Mission, $12,280. 

Respectfully submitted, 

MRS. LELA BARNES, Treasurer. 

On motion by Wilford Riegle, seconded by Frank Haucke, the 
report of the treasurer was accepted. 

President Clymer then called for the report of the executive com- 
mittee on the post-audit of the Society's funds by the State Division 
of Auditing and Accounting. The report was read by Will T. Beck: 


October 11, 1957. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

The executive committee being directed under the bylaws to check the 
accounts of the treasurer, states that the State Department of Post- Audit has 
audited the funds of the State Historical Society, the Old Shawnee Mission, 
the First Capitol of Kansas, the Old Kaw Mission, the Funston Home, and 
Pike's Pawnee Village, for the period July 27, 1956, to August 8, 1957, and 
that they are hereby approved. WILL T. BECK, Chairman, 


Fred W. Brinkerhoff moved that the report be accepted. James 
Malone seconded the motion and the report was adopted. 

The report of the nominating committee for officers of the Society 
was read by Will T. Beck: 



October 11, 1957. 
To the Board of Directors, Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report for officers 
of the Kansas State Historical Society: 

For a one-year term: Alan W. Farley, Kansas City, president; Richard M. 
Long, Wichita, first vice-president; and E. R. Sloan, Topeka, second vice- 

For a two-year term: Nyle H. Miller, Topeka, secretary. 
Respectfully submitted, 

WILL T. BECK, Chairman. 

The report was referred to the afternoon meeting of the board. 
The following resolution was presented by Charles M. Correll: 


Whereas, there is on the second and third floors of the Memorial Building 
in Topeka a large auditorium known as the G. A. R. Hall which occupies a 
substantial portion of said floors, and 

Whereas, said auditorium is seldom used because of its poor arrangements 
and acoustics, and 

Whereas, a smaller hall to be used for meetings and lectures is badly needed, 

Be it resolved by the directors of the Kansas State Historical Society, and 
it is hereby ordered: That the Secretary shall, as soon as practicable, request 
an opinion from the state architect as to the feasibility of remodeling the 
G. A. R. Hall with a view to constructing a smaller hall and utilizing the re- 
maining area more efficiently, and if such remodeling is found to be practical 
shall at an appropriate time petition the legislature of the State of Kansas for 
funds to accomplish said remodeling; 

And be it resolved by the directors of the Kansas State Historical Society: 
That the name of the Grand Army of the Republic, which the present audito- 
rium now bears, shall be suitably perpetuated by the Society in naming the 
new hall. 

And be it further resolved by the directors of the Kansas State Historical 
Society: That the Secretary shall cause copies of this resolution to be made 
and sent to the Governor and to each House of the Legislature. 

The resolution was explained and after discussion Charles M. 
Correll moved its acceptance. Alan Farley seconded the motion 
and the resolution was adopted. 

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned. 



A luncheon in the roof garden of the Jayhawk hotel opened the 
annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society at noon. 
About 200 members and guests attended. 

The invocation was given by the Rev. Ernest Tonsing, pastor of 
the First Lutheran church, Topeka, who is a grandson of Former 
Governor John A. Martin. 

Following the meal the secretary introduced the special guests. 
These included Governor and Mrs. Docking, Historical Society 
officers and their wives, Ray H. Mattison of the National Park 
Service, Omaha, Neb., and members of the Greater Kansas City 
Posse of the Westerners. 

After folk songs by Prof, and Mrs. William E. Koch of Manhattan, 
President Clymer addressed the meeting. 




KANSAS, pausing momentarily in its steady, forward stride, 
today harbors a stirring centennial sentiment. Three years 
ago, this state observed its territorial centennial anniversary. Four 
years from now, we will all be joyfully acclaiming the completion 
by Mother Kansas of a full 100 years of statehood. 

We who ponder the historical progress of our state need no 
formal reminder of the immensity of the task that was necessary 
to break open the hard shell of a rich and virgin land. Our mem- 
ories turn in constant tribute to those sturdy settlers who came in 
living flood a hundred years, and more, ago. These were the true- 
hearted who came and stayed who planted their pilgrim banner 
firmly upon the plains and prairies, and who eventually created 
from this lovely Kansas parallelogram the stronghold of their 
liberties and the domain of their dreams. 

It is strictly significant that in those dark and confused years, 
the printed word helped to keep alight the power of the spirit in 
Kansas. The first printing press and a few fonts of type followed 
closely the footsteps of the Rev. Jotham Meeker, 'lie that speaks 
good words," and of blessed memory, who appeared among the 
Shawnee Indians 20 years before the territorial act. 

The missionary's press was used primarily in the printing of 
religious matter, and it was not until two or three months after 
Kansas became a territory, when type for the Leavenworth Herald 
was set under a tree, that the first newspaper appeared. 

The Herald was quickly followed by the Herald of Freedom at 
Lawrence and by other vigorous specimens of their kind. Since 
those early beginnings, the newspaper has flourished in this state 
where both soil and climate seem to have contributed to its un- 
quenchable vigor. 

The early-day editors were both rugged and valiant. The times 
called for boldness and plain speech and they responded in kind. 
While it is not our purpose today to discuss them in detail, we are 
free to acknowledge that they were peculiarly gifted with the nec- 
essary elements to infuse the Kansas paper with the rare and dis- 
tinctive flavor it has borne ever since. 



Their papers, as the state grew in stature and sloughed off its 
pioneer traces, emerged from provincial mode and habit about the 
time the 19th century turned into the 20th. Therefore, in our life- 
times, many of us have seen the old flatbed press and movable types 
pushed into obscurity by the modern perfecting press and the swift, 
precise processes that feed it. 

In the early 1900's the average weekly newspaper owner in 
Kansas was taking less cash out of his enterprise than he paid his 
foreman, whose going wage was then about $12 a week. Fifty 
years later the printing and publishing industry has risen to such 
dimension in tangible value that it ranks among the state's first ten 
group enterprises. To point the startling change that has occurred 
in the newspapers' financial status, only a few months ago in this 
Year of Our Lord, the publisher of a daily paper in a moderate- 
sized Kansas town cheerfully invested a million dollars solely in 
the building necessary to house his plant. 

Thus, as Kansas has surged swiftly upward in its evolution in a 
fleeting half century of time, its newspapers have sped along with 
it and, more than that, their editors have provided counsel and 
color and leadership in many of its growing phases. 

Not many years after the 20th century rolled upon Time's stage, 
I was a stripling lad living with my parents in a little northern 
Kansas town. One day, without any rubbing of Aladdin's lamp, 
a kindly elf led me through the door into the mysteries of a country 
printing office. My legs were barely long enough to reach the 
pedals of a foot-powered press, but I was a willing neophyte and 
there I stayed. 

I have been there ever since if not in that particular office, at 
least in others of its kind, all the way. Printer's ink has been for 
me, I imagine, much as ambrosia and nectar were for the gods 
a lifting stimulant and it has never lost its allure. While I have 
been engulfed by its potent elixir, I have been in position to view 
at close range the Kansas newspaper men and women who have 
written a romantic chapter of history for their state and their pro- 

A stately procession of newspaper titans has marched across the 
Kansas scene in a span of 50 years. Perhaps no other state has had 
so many of them, or of such surpassing superiority, in any compar- 
able period. They came from no common source those titans. 
They were different in background and character and in personal 
traits but all of them were endowed, in one fashion or another, 
with the true newspaper touch. 


Theirs was the spirit of Kansas lifting its heavy head from the 
pioneer epoch behind it. Gone were the days of hardship and 
abject futility though abundance was not yet at hand. The signs 
were clear that ahead lay the witching reality of fulfillment. So 
these toilers at the tripod looking forward with inexhaustible zest 
set themselves to the work of their hands, and strode with Paul 
Bunyan tread upon the earth and the fulness thereof. 

And I I was a witness, playing a small role and a faint fiddle in 
the stirring drama but I saw it all. Today I offer my testimony 
before this high court neither as a witness for the plaintiff nor 
the defendant, but as a friend of the court. If I seem to have viewed 
these performers through rose-colored glasses, please remember 
that many of them helped to write imperishable pages of Kansas 
history, that the works of those who are dead have lived after 
them and that all are worthy of that supreme designation, "mag- 
nificent dust." 

Now the titans march again back across the stage where they 
wrought their handiwork, affording those who watch a fleeting 
glimpse of the traits and virtues they personified, which have been 
impregnated into the marrow of this state. 

First and foremost among them all was William Allen White of 
Emporia and probably every Kansan will agree with this estimate. 
He was unique in his mold; no other Kansas editor has matched 
him in sheer ability, in the depth of his wisdom and vision or in 
range of influence. A Kansan to the core and never departing 
from his home land as a base, he nevertheless exercised a powerful 
sway upon national thought. "As authentic a saint as ever wrote 
American/' declared Ellery Sedgwick in terse appraisal of his 

Mr. White gained eminence in the three fields of newspaper 
making, of creative literature and in politics and government. His 
contributions to any of these would have rendered him lasting 
fame; taken as a whole, they are prodigious in their sum. Coloring 
all these and endearing him to countless hundreds of people was 
his gay and infectious personality, and the tenderness of his heart. 

On his 65th birthday and ten years before he died he wrote 
that his life's motto had been the words he saw emblazoned on a 
large carnival banner at Coney Island one night, "Ain't it grand 
to be bughouse?" And then he quickly made the serious point that 
"there is no insanity so devastating in a man's life as utter sanity. 
It will get him quicker than whisky." 


His philosophy was broad and down to earth, and could be dem- 
onstrated by a myriad of examples. One day, when I was a reporter 
for his paper, he asked me if anyone had mentioned a particularly 
challenging editorial he had published the day before. Reluctantly, 
I said no. And then he declared, in that breezy and sincere way 
of his: "It doesn't matter. Always remember this you are not 
entitled to any favorable comment about anything you write. Your 
responsibility ends when you have published it. Your sole duty 
is to be absolutely certain that you did your dead, level best when 
you wrote it." 

In the more than 13 years that have passed since he left us, a 
great void has existed where he once stood, "thumbing his nose at 
the future, and throwing kisses at the past." 

Among the rare newspaper geniuses that Kansas has produced 
was Edgar W. Howe, of the Atchison Globe. He was doubtless 
the best straight-away reporter that this state ever had, and he 
built up the prestige of his paper on the power of the personal 
item. He was also an able business man; in the period around 1912 
when purse-proud editors were scarce, Mr. Howe was netting 
$20,000 a year from his newspaper without a job printing office. 

He retired from the paper in 1912, only to enhance his national 
reputation through the medium of Howes Monthly and gain stand- 
ing as the "Sage of Potato Hill." He wrote about a dozen books, 
The Story of a Country Town being a standout. But his fame 
mainly rests upon the thousands and thousands of short items which 
he wrote about folks and their foibles. Carl "Snort" Brown, who 
worked for the Globe for many years, once said that Howe was 
an unparalleled reporter because he "dug jokes, jests, useful infor- 
mation and cold facts, figures and fiction out of farmers, merchants, 
bankers, railroad men, preachers, peddlers, gamblers, hack drivers, 
janitors, doctors, dentists and blooming idiots. Mr. Howe, bless 
his gizzard, never acted like a journalist." 

Hundreds of Howe's paragraphs are still going the rounds, and 
here are some that reflect the universality of them all: 

"The Lord never intended that a father should hold a baby, or 
He would have given him a lap." 

"When you say 'everybody says so/ it means that you say so." 

Victor Murdock, the son of a famous sire Marsh Murdock of 
the Wichita Eagle was one of the most gallant figures of the past 
half century. Tall and of commanding presence, with a shock of 
bright red hair standing up like an oriflamme, enthusiastic, vocal, 


he embodied a fascinating personality. The fighting strain ran 
strongly in his blood, and he satisfied its urge in many epic struggles 
as an insurgent congressman battling against the forces of en- 
trenched conservatism. 

His political and public career was long and vivid, but he was 
a true newspaper man all the way. He was an indefatigible worker, 
who possessed the rare art of combining alliterative words into 
short sentences. His flair for human interest stories developed as 
a young reporter was still with him years later when he became 

He wrote with power and he had what was probably the most 
extensive vocabulary among all his contemporaries. Once, dis- 
embarking from a streetcar in the middle of a busy Wichita street, 
he held a small knot of friends spellbound for several minutes 
while traffic buzzed by with his vivid description of a word he 
had just found in the New York Times. This deponent was in that 
group and confesses with shame that he has forgotten what that 
word was but he can still see Murdock swinging away from the 
scene, slapping the paper against his leg, head up with the pride 
of discovery. 

He not only accepted life greedily, but he took life by the nape 
of the neck and shook it, thus gaining more than his share of thrills 
perhaps. Mentally and spiritually, he bowed to no man in this 

Charles F. Scott, of the Tola Register, was described by a con- 
temporary as being "one of the few living Kansans worthy to be 
called a gentleman." 

He engaged largely in public life, served as a Kansas congress- 
man and ran unsuccessfully for higher office. But his newspaper 
life was always the ruling passion for this gracious man, who wrote 
effortlessly with a smooth, pleasing, persuasive style. After his 
death, a friend wrote: 

"His literary style partook of the grace of his character. He wrote 
in repressed fashion but every sentence was a block that fit into 
a pleasing, well-considered whole. A gleaning of the Scott editorials 
over five decades would make a volume to add to the classical litera- 
ture of Kansas/' 

Here are illustrative lines taken from an address he delivered on 
Kansas Day, 1892: 

"Kansas does what she starts out to do. No weakness. No hesi- 
tation. No timorous shivering on the brink. No retreating. No 


whining. No cowardice. What she undertakes she does. The 
road she starts on is the road she travels. She is never discouraged. 
She never sulks. She never gets rattled. Steadily, buoyantly, with 
the keenest intelligence, with courage that no disaster can daunt, 
she is climbing to the shining stars. And the world loves her!" 

Charles F. Scott was a rare spirit in his sanctum, on the streets, 
in a group of his friends, on the public forum, in the church pulpit 
where he ably presided on occasion, on the golf course a man 
among men, and yet living zestfully in the charming sphere of his 
orderly mind's own making. 

Henry J. Allen was a bouncy and ebullient sort. No setback 
stopped him for long. He possessed in high degree that intangible 
known as color; he was both loved and hated. When he first ran 
for governor, he carried every county in the state; when he ran 
for election as senator, an office to which he had been appointed, 
he was badly beaten and particularly in his home precincts. 

Mr. Allen's newspaper experiences were varied. He was a first- 
class reporter, a persuasive editor and a successful publisher. He 
tried his hand at several Kansas newspaper properties before he 
paid $100,000 for the Wichita Beacon in 1905 an act that set the 
state by the ears. But he made that venture pay enormously. He 
was otherwise gifted. In a vocal age, his was a genuine silver 
tongue "the greatest orator Kansas has produced since John J. 
Ingalls," many said. No major conclave over many years was com- 
plete without his golden voice lifted in eloquent stanzas. 

He served as governor and senator, he was boomed for President 
and he came within an eye-lash of winning the Republican vice- 
presidential nomination in 1920. He kept ever busy at various en- 
deavors, not neglecting the Allen interests, and maintained a wide 
personal popularity. 

His flashing wit was famous. He and a friend were talking one 
day about a public figure. Said the friend, "I can't believe that 
man is honest." "Oh, yes," replied Henry comfortably, "he's honest 
all right, but he's not a fanatic about it." 

At a campaign meeting at Olathe in 1932, the chairman intro- 
duced Allen, saying: "Not since Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown 
has any man made such an impression on the U. S. senate as the 
junior senator from Kansas has achieved." 

When Henry took the floor, he exclaimed: "Some may think our 
chairman too enthusiastic, but I enjoyed every word of his intro- 
duction. So far as I am concerned, he could have gone back before 


Arthur Capper was not noted as a writer or a speaker, but as a 
publisher and statesman he was immense. By dint of his strict 
Quaker honesty and his unfailing diligence, he built up a publishing 
empire at Topeka that ranked with the greatest in the Mid-West. 
Through his confidence-inspiring personal traits, as well as the power 
of his papers, he gained an enormous following all over Kansas 
and wielded vast influence with the common folk for many years. 
As governor, and later during his long tenure as U. S. senator, he 
exercised a potent hand in public affairs and never let his constit- 
uency down. A soft-spoken, shy, and plain man, he nevertheless 
held his own with the bull-voiced and assertive paladins who sur- 
rounded him. 

No man in the newspaper field in Kansas in the past half cen- 
tury was held in greater respect than Charles Moreau Harger, of 
Abilene, who spent 68 years in editorial offices. He was a shrewd 
and talented man, achieving a multitude of accomplishments in 
newspaper making, in literary effort, Republican politics and the 
public service. He possessed a marked beauty of writing, and his 
style was terse and concise for that's the way he thought. 

He was the friend and confidante of many public men, including 
Dwight D. Eisenhower and several other Presidents. A year or 
two before his death, he was the recipient of the first annual award 
for journalistic merit by the William Allen White Foundation. In 
his modest acceptance of that award, he referred to his advanced 
age and said that life had led him on "into the 90's a restricted 
area in which few persons ever enter." He died at age 92. 

Among some of the enduring lines which he wrote were those 
of the "Kansas Creed" to which every succeeding generation in 
Kansas now pays tribute and beginning with the simple, stately 
words: "We believe in Kansas, in the glory of her prairies, in the 
richness of her soil, in the beauty of her skies, in the healthfulness 
of her climate." 

Over at Parsons was a handsome, jut- jawed man Clyde M. Reed 
who might well have served Kipling for the model of his toast 
" 'ere's to you Fuzzy- Wuzzy, with your 'ayrick 'ead of 'air" a first- 
class fighting man. He didn't exactly go out looking for trouble 
but he found plenty of it round and about and he never backed 
off one step from any battle. He had brains and the power of 
expression and in many of his editorials he ruthlessly tore down 
the veils hiding private and public iniquity. 

He was variously an ace in the postal service, a railroad tariff 
expert, governor, and U. S. senator, as well as an editor and pub- 


lisher of parts. It was natural that such a man as he would make 
enemies, and he made some powerful ones. At the same time, how- 
ever, he was also making friends and these were bound to him 
with cables of steel. No more intriguing figure than Clyde Martin 
Reed embellished the Kansas newspaper family during the past 
half century. 

George W. Marble, of the Fort Scott Tribune-Monitor, was a 
crusader who discerned and fiercely battled what he considered 
the evils of his time. He wrote scores of vigorous and slashing edi- 
torials, which were always on the liberal side of the fence in con- 
tent, and held his torch high for the greater uplift of humanity. A 
Democrat by political faith, he published an independent news- 
paper; only once was he persuaded to run for office, and that was 
for the United States senate. When he lost, he eschewed political 
participation forever. 

He was a sound business man whose hobby was cows; he per- 
sisted in his efforts for the upgrading of dairy cattle in Kansas to 
the point where one of the first milk condenseries in this section of 
the country was established in his home town. The career of this 
brilliant, fair-minded man who was highly esteemed by his news- 
paper associates was cut short when he died at age 59. 

W. Y. Morgan, gay and bright-eyed Welshman, gained fame as 
publisher of the Hutchinson News. His forte was zest and charm; 
he made friends easily and kept them; his hands were always busy 
in a spate of affairs; his undersized figure threw a long shadow in 
his day. 

He was a writer of parts and a shrewd and astute business man; 
his paper prospered and was respected. He held several state 
posts in which he served honorably, but when he essayed to become 
governor he suffered a painful defeat by Jonathan Davis. 

The grace of "Billy" Morgan shone round about and illuminated 
the court of the titans. 

Paul A. Jones was a full-fledged admiral of the Kansas navy 
and the rampant red-head from Lyons. He constantly kept the 
Kansas pot boiling with his provocative editorials and barbed para- 
graphs. His Lyons News normally a 4-page daily was eagerly 
sought in every newspaper office in the state to see what new form 
of hypocrisy and sham he had attacked. 

His salty observations left no lasting sting, for humor rode on 
all his words humor and a lasting love for humanity which was 
returned tenfold. A frolicsome caballero and a Democrat, he served 


as a sort of Daniel in a den of Republicans but he lambasted the 
New Deal along with the severest Republican critics. He was a 
student of the Spanish influence in the Southwest United States 
and wrote two fascinating books on the subject. When he died, 
now almost four years ago, a charm went out of the Kansas news- 
paper circle that has never been restored. 

Harold T. Chase, while not a publisher, achieved a wide follow- 
ing as an editorial writer for the Topeka Daily Capital over many 
years of stewardship. W. A. White once estimated that if Chase's 
editorial writings were compiled, they would make the equivalent 
of 131 full-sized novels, or 196 books on current history, and eco- 
nomic, political, and social topics. 

"His work was consistently honest, intelligent and courageous/' 
praised White. Mr. Chase's contemporaries cordially accorded him 
high professional ranking and the reputation he fairly won has 
carried his name into the Kansas Newspaper Hall of Fame. 

"Comrade" J. M. Mickey, another warrior who was among the 
most pungent and powerful writers of his era, served the Leaven- 
worth Times for many years and lived past his 97th birthday. A 
relentless fighter, he was a fit editorial functionary for some of the 
rough times that surged about him though he could also write 
with tenderness and compassion. 

A contemporary has testified: "A polemic by nature in thought 
and action, he never approached a question by sap or mine or 
encirclement. For him the assault on any position which did not 
meet his approval was by direct attack from the front." 

The procession of our titans grows long in passing. There was 
Jess C. Denious, of the Dodge City Globe, a mild but immensely 
substantial man who made a shining success with his newspaper 
as well as in the field of friendship. He might have won to almost 
any Kansas elective office, had he so desired, but was content to 
serve as state senator and lieutenant-governor. . . . And there 
was Jack Harrison, who for 15 years (from 1914 to his death in 
1929) made the Beloit Gazette a forceful voice in Kansas. A friend 
characterized him after his death as the "best historian, the most 
classical scholar and a constructive objector who asked no quarter 
and knew nothing of the meaning of fear." 

At Coffeyville, the eminently wise and sensible Hugh J. Powell 
held forth with his Journal whose editorial page got down to the 
meat of every matter every day, and which prospered under the 
astute touch of its owner. ... At Leavenworth, the son and 


grandsons of Col. Daniel R. Anthony have carried on the fame and 
fortune of the Times even unto the fourth generation. . . . Here 
marches the square-toed and combative Harry L. Woods of the 
Wellington New s; the industrious and always effective Roy F. Bailey 
of the Salina Journal; the able Gene Howe chip off the old block 
who forged his chief newspaper fame in Texas; the burly, bass- 
voiced and always lovable Carl "Snort" Brown, of the Atchison 
Globe; the solemn and plodding J. L. Bristow of Salina who became 
a U. S. senator; John Redmond, the busy and obliging publisher 
of the Burlington Republican, whose memory is still so green after 
his death four years ago that his name has been suggested for the 
new federal reservoir along the Neosho; John Mack, the Solid 
Muldoon of the Newton Kansan who might well be called the father 
of the modern highway system in this state; Will Townsley, of the 
Great Bend Tribune; Frank Motz, pepper pot of the Hays News; 
Charles S. Finch, of Lawrence; and J. L. Brady, both of Baldwin 
and Lawrence; Jackson T. "Doc" Moore, of the Pittsburg papers; 
Herb and Wilfrid Cavaness, Chanute; R. C. "Dick" Howard, of 
Arkansas City; W. G. Anderson, of the Winfield Courier. 

Among those who are still adding hugely to the laurels of the 
profession are Fred W. Brinkerhoff, the old master of the spoken 
and printed word who exerts powerful influence on public opinion 
through the Pittsburg Headlight and Sun, and whose place in the 
king row of the titans is already firmly established; John P. "J ac ^" 
Harris and Dolph Simons, of the Hutchinson News and other Harris 
papers and of the Lawrence Journal-World respectively. Both of 
these last are exceptionally gifted, inasmuch as they possess busi- 
ness genius of a high order, and also can write like angels. Then 
there are such sparkling scions of famous fathers as Clyde M. Reed, 
Jr., at Parsons; Angelo C. Scott at lola; Watson Marble at Fort 
Scott; J. C. Denious, Jr., at Dodge City, as well as Henry Jameson 
who is performing with distinction at Abilene. 

The steadily moving titans embody among their number a group 
of those who, with thorough understanding and regard of the news- 
paper function, have also exercised the Midas touch. Among these 
may be mentioned Frank P. MacLennan of the Topeka State Jour- 
nal, Oscar S. Stauffer, who heads an imposing assembly of news- 
paper properties and who has scored one of the signal successes 
of his generation; Fay N. Seaton, of Manhattan, who founded the 
Seaton newspaper dynasty; W. C. Simons, of Lawrence; Marcellus 
M. Murdock, of the Wichita Eagle; and the Levands Max and 
Louis and John, of the Wichita Beacon. 


No review would be complete without inclusion of Walt Mason, 
fat poet of the Emporia Gazette, who was also an editorial writer 
of vigor and skill, who read the dictionary through on occasion to 
enrich his already massive vocabulary, and who lived by the motto 
hung over his desk, "Cheer Up; there ain't no other heir; of Laura 
M. French, who ripped to shreds the copy of shrinking cub reporters 
and eventually made of them fitting graduates of the William 
Allen White "school of journalism"; or of Brock Pemberton, who 
had worlds of newspaper talent but left a lasting name in the field 
of drama. 

Topeka has contributed a vast number of capable and illustrious 
men to the newspaper ranks. Among these, whose names spring 
instantly to mind, are Arthur J. Carruth II, T. A. McNeal, A. L. 
"Dutch" Shultz, Jay E. House, Charles Sessions, J. Frank Jarrell, 
Henry S. Blake, Charles Trapp, Jay B. Iden, Walter A. Johnson, W. 
R. Smith, Oscar K. Swayze, Harvey G. Parsons, E. B. Chapman, 
Clif Stratton, Milt Tabor. 

Wichita has been distinguished by such worthies as Dave Leahy, 
Farmer Doolittle, J. Burt Doze, Charles Driscoll, Elmer T. Peterson, 
Sid Coleman, Bliss Isely, Hank Givens, Paul I. Wellman, Josh Wil- 
son, Lester F. Kimmel, Dick Long. 

Then, there was that trio the salty Fred Trigg, the affable Lacy 
Haynes and the industrious Alvin McCoy, a Pulitzer prize winner 
all of the Kansas City Star, which has been a staunch friend to the 
entire Kansas newspaper family. 

Women have also played a most helpful role in attainment of 
the high standards that the Kansas press has gained over past years. 
This record would be remiss without mentioning, at least, a few 
of the many whose contributions have been of marked value. 

One thinks of the sprightly Nellie Webb, of the Atchison Globe; 
of Marion Ellet, the talented sweet-singer of Concordia, whose 
spiritual-like description of Kansas wheat fields "a-moverin*, a-mov- 
erin', a-moverin' " under the wind's light feet, as well as many other 
of her charming and sentimental word pictures have thrilled her 
readers; Anne Searcy, of Leavenworth; Anna Carlson, of Lindsborg; 
Mrs. Cora G. Lewis, of Kinsley; Mrs. Zula Bennington Greene, 
Topeka, the "Peggy of the Flint Hills"; Bertha Shore, Augusta, the 
blithe and uninhibited spirit of the Walnut Valley; Jessie P. Strat- 
ford, of El Dorado; Mrs. Mamie Boyd, of Mankato and Phillips- 
burg, ageless and tireless worker in the vineyard and scores of 


Thus far in our accounting of the sterling figures who made a 
glory and an epic of the Kansas press in a fabulous 50 years, we 
have been mostly concerned with those who were affiliated with 
daily publications. But the weeklies, too, had their stars men of 
devotion, of energy and of perception and the array of them 
swirls as one of the brightest galaxies in the Kansas newspaper 

At least a dozen of these have won to lasting distinction by inclu- 
sion in the Kansas Newspaper Hall of Fame, which was started 26 
years ago. Their designation in that select company eloquently 
attests to the respect in which they were held in their lifetimes and 
afterwards, as well as to the enduring marks they left upon their 

We think first of one of them who is still, most fortunately, with 
us and still in the newspaper harness Will T. Beck, the grand 
gentleman of the Holton Recorder, who was the second recipient 
of the William Allen White Foundation award for journalistic merit. 

Closely following comes Gomer T. Davies, the vocal and brilliant 
Welshman who caused his beloved Concordia Kansan to move like 
an army with banners. Gomer, who lived well into his 90's, had 
lost half of one leg in a mining accident in Wales in his youth, and 
ever therafter wore an artificial peg. He was the object of much 
affectionate spoofing by his fellow scribes, who always sent the 
same paragraph on its rounds of the papers about February of each 
year to the effect that an early spring was in prospect because the 
sap was beginning to run in Comer's wooden leg. 

Then, there was Tom E. Thompson, the Polk Daniels of the 
Howard Courant and his Sophie and Pip Daniels, who made 
merry with their neighbors in every issue of their sparkling paper; 

E. E. Kelly, long of Toronto, later of Garden City, a schoolmaster 
turned editor, whose wit scintillated like a rapier in play; 

Leslie E. Wallace, the modest publisher of Larned's Tiller and 
Toiler, who possessed in superlative degree the true touch of the 
born newspaper man; 

O. W. Little, of Alma, whose Enterprise blasted with blizzard- 
like fury when any of his newspaper friends referred to a blizzard 
as a blizzard, who was the Kansas Press association's first secretary, 
and who was beloved by all; 

W. E. Blackburn, a serious and determined type whose "October 
in Kansas" still ranks with the best of any Kansas prose; 


W. C. Austin, courtly pilot of the Chase County Leader, who 
afterwards served long and faithfully as state printer; 

J. M. Satterthwaite, the saintly "Neighbor Joe" of the Douglass 
Tribune editor, state legislator, and churchman, who published 
papers in El Dorado and Douglass for 70 years and was near 95 
when he died; 

A. Q. Miller, the keen and enterprising Kansan who built his 
Belleville Telescope into one of the finest weeklies to be found any- 
where on the continent; 

Frank Boyd, staunch and steadfast in his ways, whose papers at 
Mankato and Phillipsburg gave him state-wide standing; 

B. J. Sheridan and W. D. "Billy" Greason, rivals whose papers at 
Paola were models of weekly publication; 

Seth Wells, the red necktie man from Erie, whose hustle and 
diligence was a parable in its time; 

Frank Henry Roberts, of the Oskaloosa Independent, who had the 
oldest paper owned by one family in Kansas, who also lived into 
the tenth decade of his life, who testified that he always had fun, 
and that he "just stood still while the years rolled by." 

Asa F. Converse, soft-spoken and admired editor of the Wells- 
ville Globe; W. C. Markham, the scholarly helmsman of the Baldwin 
Ledger; H. J. Cornwell, the solid man who owned and operated 
the St. John News for 44 years; the friendly Lew Valentine of Clay 
Center; George C. Adriance, of Sabetha; Ed Eaton, of the Gardner 
Gazette, much cherished all his days; Homer Hoch, of Marion, 
congressman and justice of the supreme court who wrote a Lincoln 
classic; Col. Charles H. Browne, of Horton; Ben Mickel, of the 
Soldier Clipper; Frank P. Frost, of the Eskridge Independent; J. E. 
Junkin, of the Sterling Bulletin; W. W. Graves, of the St. Paul 
Journal; Ewing Herbert, of the Brown County World at Hiawatha; 
Clark Conkling, of Lyons; Austin V. Butcher, of the Altoona Trib- 
une, who rollicked through life with his pals, "Mace Liverwurst," 
and "Kate Bender," the nudist queen; H. E. Brighton, of the Long- 
ton News; W. F. Hill of the Westmoreland Recorder; George Har- 
man, of Valley Falls; Drew McLaughlin, of Paola; Earl Fickertt, 
of Peabody; W. E. Pay ton, of Colony 

One might go on and on. Perhaps your chronicler may have 
overlooked some who justly deserve a place in this accounting 
yet whether they are specifically named or not, the records of them 
all, great and small, have been woven inextricably into the fabric 
that is Kansas. 


And so this "phantom caravan" has flowed along before us today 
a wondrous cavalcade of knightly spirits who left an indelible im- 
print upon the state which they cherished. Their return from out 
the mists and shadows if only for a fleeting instant assuredly 
brings back to us, in some degree, a perception of the discourage- 
ments and delights, the failures and the fortune, the trials and the 
triumphs that fell to their lot. 

These men and these women were the recorders and the inter- 
preters of the swiftly-changing and kaleidoscopic scene in their 
span. They not only set down, in buoyant, yet meticulous, fashion 
the narrative of the history in the making about them but they 
also helped to make that history. 

Their state was moving toward the stars and they moved with 
it always in the van and even out ahead on occasion. They were 
dreamers and prophets and seers and missionaries and crusaders, 
but always doers and while their heads may have been above the 
rose-tinted clouds at times, their feet were ever planted upon the 
solidity of Old Mother Earth. 

These were they who, by the labor of their hands and the valor 
of their hearts, brought to pass in Kansas during the first half of 
the 20th century what well may be called a Golden Era of Jour- 

The first five decades of this century have constituted a prodigious 
period the crucible of cataclysmic events and vast overturns in 
the mode and manner of the world. It has presented challenges 
to daunt the wisest and the bravest but these men and women 
of the Kansas newspapers have met them all with such valiance 
and such sagacity that today the good name of their product is 
glowing at its highest point in public estimation. 

For their deeds and their achievements we can freely offer the 
highest praise. For the lasting nature of what they have wrought, 
we can entertain the highest hope. Already the institutions they 
founded and the standards they set are undergoing subtle trans- 
formation. Already with the second half of the 20th century 
winging on its way newspapers are responding with altered 
format, content and methods though unchanged in their basic 
character of trustworthiness to the thrust of modern forces about 

The sons of many eminent editorial sires have taken over the 
reins bright, alert, confident young men of the modern persua- 
sion and others like them are entering the field. These are now 


engaged in pushing the service of their newspapers into countless 
virgin areas. They hold within themselves, and by the inestimable 
aid of newly-devised facilities, the power to generate from their 
mediums such all-embracing usefulness as their fathers never con- 

Thus, the Golden Era of the immediate past will make way for 
another golden age in Kansas newspaper circles and, after that, 
still others. But we who stand upon the tongue of time dividing 
these periods, may look back with affectionate gratitude upon these 
titans of bygone days who enhanced journalistic endeavor here by 
their mighty works and accord to them a never-ending tranquility 
in the "summer isles of Eden lying in dark-purple spheres of sea." 

Following the president's address, another group of folk songs 
was presented by Professor and Mrs. Koch. 

Ray H. Mattison, historian, Region Two, National Park Service, 
then addressed the meeting. 



DURING the past quarter of a century the interest in history of 
our country has been greater than ever before. This new 
consciousness of the nation's past has been reflected in many ways. 
For example, the new historical magazine The American Heritage 
with which you are all familiar has proved very popular. Visita- 
tion to the nation's historic shrines is exceeding all previous records. 
The American Association for State and Local History has stimu- 
lated great interest in history on both the state and local levels. 
Specialized groups, such as the various Civil War roundtables, have 
sprung up in many of the cities throughout the country. Various 
corrals of Westerners, which comprise people interested in Western 
history, have likewise been organized in many American cities and 
even in some foreign countries. Most of these have come into 
existence since World War II. 

The nation has also shown an increased interest in preserving 
its historic sites and buildings. These are an important body of 
source materials for reconstructing, understanding, and appreciating 
our country's past. A noted observer once appropriately wrote: 
"Poor is the country that boasts no heroes . . . but beggard 
is that people, who having them, forget/' We recognize more and 


more that historic sites and buildings are a national asset. They 
recall to us the most cherished of our national traditions such as 
pioneer courage, as are typified by such leaders as Washington, 
Jefferson, and Lincoln. 

The first of our national historical areas were established in the 
1890's. These included a number of Civil War battlefields, such 
as Chickamaugua-Chattanooga National Military Park, Shiloh Na- 
tional Military Park, Gettysburg and Vicksburg National Military 
Parks. Other national military parks, battlefield sites, national 
parks, memorials, national monuments, and cemeteries which 
totaled in all some 40 areas, were subsequently authorized and 
placed under the War Department jurisdiction. These were trans- 
ferred to the National Park Service in 1933. 

In 1906 congress authorized the President, through the antiquities 
act, to establish by proclamation national monuments on lands 
owned or controlled by the federal government, provided the areas 
in question possessed historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric 
structures, or other objects of scientific interest. Among the places 
saved under this act were the Tumacacori Mission, in southern 
Arizona, Inscription Rock and Gran Quivira in New Mexico, Scotts 
Bluff in Nebraska, and Castillo de San Marcos in Florida. 

Other areas were established by congressional action. Among 
the better known of these were Abraham Lincoln National Historical 
Park, Kings Mountain National Military Park, Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania County Battlefields National Military Park, and Co- 
lonial National Military Parks. At the present time, the Park 
Service has 82 federally-owned historical areas under its jurisdiction. 

Prior to 1935 the only way a historical area could become a part 
of the National Park System was ( 1 ) by Presidential proclamation, 
in case the historic site or building was on federal lands, and (2) 
by a special act of congress. 

In 1935 congress, by the national historic sites act, set up new 
machinery by which the federal government could take the initiative 
in selecting historic sites and buildings and objects of national sig- 
nificance for preservation by the federal government. It authorized 
the Secretary of Interior, through the National Park Service, to plan 
and execute a program for the survey, acquisition, development and 
operation of historic and archeological sites of exceptional value 
for commemorating and illustrating the history of the United States. 

Congress in the following year established a code of procedure 
to carry out the provisions of this act. This code directed the Na- 


tional Park Service to study and investigate historic and prehistoric 
sites and buildings throughout the United States, and to list, de- 
scribe, tabulate and evaluate such sites for the purpose of develop- 
ing a long-range plan for their acquisition, preservation and use. 
The National Park Service during the late 1930's began such a study, 
known as the National Historic Sites and Buildings Survey. Before 
the survey was completed, World War II brought it temporarily to 
an end. In 1936 also, the Secretary of Interior established an ad- 
visory board on national parks, historic sites, buildings, and monu- 
ments comprising 11 persons, including nationally recognized au- 
thorities in the field of history, archeology, architecture, etc., to 
advise the National Park Service in the conduct of the historic sites 
survey and other National Park Service matters. This board meets 
about three times a year in key cities of the United States. 

In classifying historic sites, the advisory board has grouped the 
history of the United States into 16 different themes, listed below: 
I. Spanish Exploration and Settlement. 

II. French Exploration and Settlement. 

III. Dutch and Swedish Colonial Settlements. 

IV. English Colonization to 1700. 

V. Development of the English Colonies, 1700-1775. 
VI. The War for American Independence. 
VII. Political and Military Affairs, 1783-1830. 
VIII. The Advance of the Frontier to 1830. 
IX. Political and Military Affairs, 1830-1865. 
X. The War Between the States, 1861-1865. 
XL Westward Expansion and the Extension of National 

Boundaries, 1830-1898. 
XII. Commerce, Industry, and Agriculture to Within Fifty Years. 

XIII. Travel and Communication. 

XIV. Development and Conservation of National Resources to 

Within Fifty Years. 

XV. The Arts and Sciences to Within Fifty Years. 
XVI. The United States as a World Power, 1898. 
Most of the historic sites in Kansas would probably fall in Theme 
XL This would likewise be true of most of the historic sites in 
Nebraska, Colorado and the Dakotas. 

To determine if a historical or an archeological area should be- 
come a part of the National Park System, the Service has set up 
criteria for selecting sites. 



The determining factor in the preservation of a historic area by 
the national government is that it must possess certain matchless 
and unique qualities which entitle it to a position of first rank 
among historic sites. The quality of outstanding national signifi- 
cance or uniqueness exists: 

( 1 ) In such sites as are naturally the points or bases from which 
the broad aspects of prehistoric and historic American life can 
best be presented, and from which the student of the history of 
the United States can sketch the large patterns of the American 
story. An example of an area of this type is Jefferson National Ex- 
pansion Memorial in St. Louis. As you know, St. Louis was a focal 
point in the Westward movement. It was the point from which 
many of the exploring expeditions, such as Lewis and Clark, Zebu- 
Ion Pike, the Astorians, and Stephen H. Long, set out. It was the 
center of the fur trade for the trans-Mississippi West. The city also 
played an important role in the overland migration over the Santa 
Fe and Oregon trails and the later military operations on the Mis- 
souri river. 

(2) An area is considered to have outstanding significance and 
uniqueness if it is associated with the life of some great American 
and which may not necessarily have any outstanding quality other 
than that of association. An example of an area of this type is the 
birthplace of George Washington Carver, famous Negro scientist, 
at Diamond, Mo. 

(3) A site also is considered to possess outstanding significance 
if it is associated with some sudden or dramatic incident in Ameri- 
can history, which is unique and symbolic of some great idea or 
ideal for the American people. The Perry Victory and International 
Peace Memorial, in Ohio, which commemorates Perry's naval victory 
during the War of 1812 and a century of peace between the United 
States and England is an area in this category. 

One might wonder why Mount Vernon, the home of George 
Washington, and Monticello, the home of Thomas Jefferson, are 
not national areas. I am sure that both would qualify. However, 
both these national shrines are being adequately preserved and 
interpreted by other agencies than the national government. When- 
ever a historic site or building is being satisfactorily preserved by 
a state or local, or quasi-public agency, the National Park Service 
gives every encouragement possible and in some instances provides 
technical assistance to those organizations to continue their good 


Unfortunately all sections of the country have not contributed 
equally to the history of our nation. As a result, some states have 
a number of national historical areas; others have none. Virginia, 
for example, has eight national historical areas. 

The National Park Service also endeavors to maintain a logical 
balance between the various historical themes so that a well- 
rounded pageant of America may be presented and undue emphasis 
not be placed on one particular epoch in American history. Some 
claim the Service has too many Civil War battlefields. There are 
24 of these in the Park Service. This is largely the result of the fact 
that many of these areas were established many years ago and 
they have since been transferred to the National Park System. 
Some themes, such as "French Exploration and Settlement" are not 
adequately represented. Others are not represented whatever. 

Integrity of a site or building is likewise an important factor in 
designating a national area. If a historic building has undergone 
considerable architectural changes or has been moved from its 
original setting, it will not be given as great a consideration as one 
which has undergone few alterations or is in its original location. 

However, consideration in the selection of sites for national 
designation must be given to practical as well as theoretical grounds. 
Unfortunately many historic sites and buildings are located in the 
heart of big cities. For example, it would be impossible to give 
the atmosphere of an early 19th century trading post in the heart 
of modern Kansas City. Abstract themes such as our cultural 
advancement are impossible to interpret in terms of historic sites. 
These are only a few of the more practical aspects in selecting a 
national area. 

In the MISSION 66 program, the National Park Service is pre- 
paring a comprehensive National Park System Plan which will 
point out areas needed to round out the System, and also to identify 
areas now in the Service which might be appropriately administered 
by other agencies. To implement this program in the field of his- 
tory, congress has voted funds to renew the National Historic Sites 
and Buildings Survey which the Park Service began in the late 
1930's and was brought to an end during World War II. We be- 
lieve that four years will be required to complete this work. Under 
this program, it will be the job of the Region Two Office, National 
Park Service, to inventory and evaluate the principal historic sites 
in ten states: Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, North and South Da- 
kota, Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, Iowa, and Missouri. The sur- 


vey of the Old Santa Fe trail in Missouri, Kansas, and Colorado, is 
a project of first priority. 

I might add that in the past several years many of us in the Na- 
tional Park Service have had occasion to visit a number of the 
historic sites which are being administered by the Kansas State 
Historical Society. The Society is to be congratulated for the ex- 
cellent work it is doing in preserving the areas which it administers 
and getting the maximum benefits for the funds it expends in this 

Following Mr. Mattison's address the report of the committee 
on nominations for directors was then called for and was read by 
Will T. Beck: 


October 11, 1957. 

To the Kansas State Historical Society: 

Your committee on nominations submits the following report and recom- 
mendations for directors of the Society for the term of three years ending 

in October, 1960: 

Bailey, Roy F., Salina. Long, Richard M., Wichita. 

Baughman, Robert W., Liberal. McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., 

Beezley, George F., Girard. Hutchinson. 

Beougher, Edward M., Grinnell. McCain, James A., Manhattan. 

Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 

Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. McGrew, Mrs. Wm. E., Kansas City. 

Brodrick, Lynn R., Marysville. Malone, James, Gem. 

Cron, F. H., El Dorado. Mechem, Kirke, Lindsborg. 

Docking, George, Lawrence. Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 

Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. Murphy, Franklin D., Lawrence. 

Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. Rogler, Wayne, Matfield Green. 

Hall, Fred, Topeka. Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 

Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. Simons, Dolph, Lawrence. 

Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. Slagg, Mrs. C. M., Manhattan. 

Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. Templar, George, Arkansas City. 

Hodges, Frank, Olathe. Townsley, Will, Great Bend. 

Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. Woodring, Harry H., Topeka. 

Respectfully submitted, 

WELL T. BECK, Chairman, 

Will T. Beck moved that the report be adopted. Motion was 
seconded by Wilford Riegle and the report was accepted. Members 



of the board for the term ending in October, 1960, were declared 

Reports of local societies were called for and given as follows: 
Lucile Larsen for the Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society; 
Mrs. Clyde E. Glandon for the Wyandotte County Historical So- 
ciety; and Mrs. C. M. Slagg for the Riley County Historical Society. 

There being no further business, the annual meeting of the So- 
ciety adjourned. Many of the members and guests then attended 
an "open house" at the Memorial building where refreshments 
were served. 


The afternoon meeting of the board of directors was called to 
order by President Clymer. He called for a rereading of the report 
of the nominating committee for officers of the Society. This was 
read by Will T. Beck who moved that it be accepted. Lloyd 
Chambers seconded the motion and the board voted to adopt the 
report. The following were elected: 

For a one-year term: Alan W. Farley, Kansas City, president; 
Richard M. Long, Wichita, first vice-president; and E. R. Sloan, 
Topeka, second vice-president. 

For a two-year term: Nyle H. Miller, Topeka, secretary. 

After the introduction of new officers, the meeting adjourned. 



Barr, Frank, Wichita. 
Berryman, Jerome C., Ashland. 
Brigham, Mrs. Lalla M., Pratt. 
Brock, R. F., Goodland. 
Charlson, Sam C., Manhattan. 
Correll, Charles M., Manhattan. 
Davis, W. W., Lawrence. 
Denious, Jess C., Jr., Dodge City. 
Godsey, Mrs. Flora R., Emporia. 
Hall, Standish, Wichita. 
Hegler, Ben F., Wichita. 
Jones, Horace, Lyons. 
Kampschroeder, Mrs. Jean Norris, 

Garden City. 

Kaul, Robert H., Wamego. 
Lillard, T. M., Topeka. 
Lindquist, Emory K., Wichita. 

Maranville, Lea, Ness City. 
Means, Hugh, Lawrence. 
Owen, Arthur K., Topeka. 
Owen, Mrs. E. M., Lawrence. 
Payne, Mrs. L. F., Manhattan. 
Richards, Walter M., Emporia. 
Riegle, Wilford, Emporia. 
Bobbins, Richard W., Pratt. 
Rupp, Mrs. Jane C., Lincolnville. 
Scott, Angelo, lola. 
Sloan, E. R., Topeka. 
Smelser, Mary M., Lawrence. 
Stewart, Mrs. James G., Topeka. 
Taylor, James E., Sharon Springs. 
Van De Mark, M. V. B., Concordia. 
Wark, George H., Caney. 
Williams, Charles A., Bentley. 




Aitchison, R. T., Wichita. 
Anderson, George L., Lawrence. 
Anthony, D. R., Leavenworth. 
Baugher, Charles A., Ellis. 
Beck, Will T., Holton. 
Chambers, Lloyd, Clearwater. 
Chandler, C. J., Wichita. 
Clymer, Rolla, El Dorado. 
Cochran, Elizabeth, Pittsburg. 
Cotton, Corlett J., Lawrence. 
Dawson, John S., Topeka. 
Eckdall, Frank F., Emporia. 
Euwer, Elmer E., Goodland. 
Farley, Alan W., Kansas City. 
Knapp, Dallas W., Coffeyville. 
Lilleston, W. F., Wichita. 
Lose, Harry F., Topeka. 

Malin, James C., Lawrence. 
May hew, Mrs. Patricia Solander, 


Menninger, Karl, Topeka. 
Miller, Karl, Dodge City. 
Moore, Russell, Wichita. 
Motz, Frank, Hays. 
Rankin, Charles C., Lawrence. 
Raynesford, H. C., Ellis. 
Reed, Clyde M., Jr., Parsons. 
Rodkey, Clyde K., Manhattan. 
Shaw, Joseph C., Topeka. 
Somers, John G., Newton. 
Stewart, Donald, Independence. 
Thomas, E. A., Topeka. 
von der Heiden, Mrs. W. H., Newton. 
Walker, Mrs. Ida M., Norton. 


Bailey, Roy F., Salina. 
Baughman, Robert W., Liberal. 
Beezley, George F., Girard. 
Beougher, Edward M., Grinnell. 
Bowlus, Thomas H., lola. 
Brinkerhoff, Fred W., Pittsburg. 
Brodrick, Lynn R., Marysville. 
Cron, F. H., El Dorado. 
Docking, George, Lawrence. 
Ebright, Homer K., Baldwin. 
Farrell, F. D., Manhattan. 
Hall, Fred, Topeka. 
Hamilton, R. L., Beloit. 
Harvey, Mrs. A. M., Topeka. 
Haucke, Frank, Council Grove. 
Hodges, Frank, Olathe. 

Woodring, Harry H., Topeka. 

Lingenfelser, Angelus, Atchison. 
Long, Richard M., Wichita. 
McArthur, Mrs. Vernon E., Hutchinson. 
McCain, James A., Manhattan. 
McFarland, Helen M., Topeka. 
McGrew, Mrs. Wm. E., Kansas City. 
Malone, James, Gem. 
Mechem, Kirke, Lindsborg. 
Mueller, Harrie S., Wichita. 
Murphy, Franklin D., Lawrence. 
Rogler, Wayne, Matfield Green. 
Ruppenthal, J. C., Russell. 
Simons, Dolph, Lawrence. 
Slagg, Mrs. C. M., Manhattan. 
Templar, George, Arkansas City. 
Townsley, Will, Great Bend. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


From The Kansas Weekly Herald, Leavenworth, April 17, 1858. 

A society of Free Lovers has been organized on the Neosho, in the Southern 
part of Kansas. It now comprises forty members, and active exertions are 
being made to extend the influence and numbers of the association. They 
all take the New York Tribune, and of course are in for Freedom. 


From the Junction City Statesman, October 13, 1860. 

BUFFALO HUNTING. This sport is becoming quite popular. Everybody and 
all their relations are indulging. Men and women, married and single, take 
to it like a duck to water, or a hog to a mud-hole. Junction is nearly depopu- 
lated and has been all the fall, caused by this unprecedented rush to see the 
"monarch of the prairies." There's no one seriously injured yet, but we have 
some hopes that the news of a fatal accident will reach us by the next express 
we mean, of course, fatal to the buffalo. They are grazing now within thirty 
miles of Junction just one-half day's ride. All who wish to get a glimpse 
had better go now. We shall start in the morning on bull back! Who wants 
to ride behind? 


From The Big Blue Union, Marys ville, June 11, 1864. 

We hear it whispered around that one of our merchants broke the solemn 
pledge, last Sabbath, entered into a few weeks ago, to do no business on Sun- 
day. We hope it is a mistake, and that the rumor is unfounded. The day was 
quiet here in town, the stores were closed, business suspended, and it really 
seemed like Sabbath, and as though we were becoming civilized. Let it con- 


From The Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, March 26, 1872. 

Paola can boast of a man a doctor, strange to say, who does not swear, 
drink, smoke nor chew; and, better still, he hasn't drank a cup of coffee for 
thirty-five years! 




From the Washington Republican, August 2, 1872. 


Last week, not a hundred miles from Washington, out on the broad prairie, 
and under the canopy of Heaven, two souls met and pledged heart and hand to 
love, cherish and obey each other through the remaining days of their lives. 
Heaven seemed to smile on the would-be happy couple, and they resolved to 
have their desires consummated. An ox team at their command, and the two, 
wishing to be one, vended their way to Washington. It was a happy journey. 
The trees even seem to bow their branches in congratulations as the oxen 
passed, and flowers by the roadside looked more beautiful than ever before. 
Washington loomed up in the distance, and after a due course of time, the 
oxen were stopped at the public square. After a new hat was purchased from 
our friend Williams for the intended husband, by the owner of the ox team, 
everything seemed then to be ready. 


Hon. Judge Wilson was never more sought for than on this occasion. A 
happy group assembled at the Court House. The bride and groom entered 
Judge Wilson officiating. The ceremony was said. The knot was tied. Two 
souls were made one. Congratulations and kisses were given. The wedded 
pair seemed to have a bright future in store for them. 


"The world is not what it seems." The happy pair bent their way to the 
ox cart. A start homeward was made. The husband not being a good ox 
driver, received angry words from the wife. Storms began to cross their 
pathway. Oxen received some fearful blows, and all looked dark. Storms 
and darkness set in around them. 


"Dark clouds sometimes have a silver lining." Not any of this in the case 
of our hero and heroine. Home was reached. Blows and angry words came 
in where connubial bliss should have ruled supreme. The wife declared her 
husband was one of the poorest ox drivers in Kansas, and threatened to dis- 
solve her allegiance to him forthwith. The husband possessed other qualities 
quite essential, yet she heeded them not. The farewell was uttered. The 
golden link of wedlock snapped asunder. With tearful eyes the husband saw 
the new made wife of the hour depart. He cast a last glance on the oxen 
and his departed, as they receded toward the setting sun. The new-made wife 
now is open to another engagement, but the husband of the hour, has fairly 
resolved never, never to marry a woman with a pair of horn cattle. 


From the Ellis County Star, Hays City, July 6, 1876. 

Running Antelope, a Sioux chief, says that when he learned that the white 
men had killed their Saviour, he was astonished, but he changed his mind when 
he got better acquainted with them. 

Kansas History as Published in the Press 

Publication of a 60-page Indian Peace Treaty special edition by 
The Barber County Index, Medicine Lodge, October 3, 1957, marked 
the approach of the seventh performance of the Indian Peace Treaty 
pageant and a three-day celebration at Medicine Lodge, October 
11-13. Among the historical articles in the edition were: "Forrest 
City Tells Sad Story of Birth and Death of Many Towns," "Battling 
Carrie's [Nation] First Raid," "Famous Men of Frontier Here for 
Treaty Meeting," "Suspicious Indians, and Wary Whites Gathered 
Here to Complete Peace," and "Work to Set Treaty Terms." 

Stories of pioneer life, by Orvoe Swartz, Oklahoma City, have 
been published in recent issues of the Bushton News, beginning 
August 22, 1957. Swartz was born on a Kansas homestead in 1878. 

Late in 1907 the Everest Christian church was organized, ac- 
cording to a history of the church, compiled by Lena Holley, in 
the Everest Enterprise, October 3, 1957. 

Biographical sketches of the 11 presidents of Kansas State Teach- 
ers College, Emporia, began appearing in Orville Watson Mosher's 
column, "Museum Notes," in the Emporia Gazette, October 5, 1957. 
Lyman B. Kellogg was the school's first president. 

Items of Doniphan county history were printed in the Highland 
Vidette, October 10, 1957, and on October 31 the Vidette published 
historical notes on the Highland Presbyterian mission and Highland 

A history of the pony express entitled "Rugged Riders Fathered 
Southwest Mail Service," by Beatrice Levin, was published in the 
Wichita Eagle, October 13, 1957. The Eagle also printed "Kansans 
Revive Pre-Civil War History," by Lynne Holt, the story of Fort 
Scott's campaign to preserve buildings and relics of old Fort Scott, 
November 10; and "Adventure, Peril Marked Santa Fe Trail," by 
Philip S. Edwards, January 19, 1958. 

Heinie Schmidt's column, "It's Worth Repeating," continues to 
appear regularly in the High Plains Journal, Dodge City. Included 
in recent months were: A biographical sketch of Richard L. Hall, 
Minneola pioneer, October 17, 1957; the story of the longhorns 
along the Dodge City-Ogallala trail, by Mrs. Cora Wood, October 



24; a biographical sketch of Benjamin L. Stotts, November 14; a 
biographical sketch of Hercules Juneau, November 21 and 28; 
"Homesteader's [Zacariah F. Hodson] Life Recalls 1874 Grasshop- 
per Plague," December 5; and "Christmas in 1884," December 26. 

Mrs. Ruth Jackson is the compiler of a Wallace county history 
which began appearing in The Western Times, Sharon Springs, Oc- 
tober 24, 1957. 

An 88-page "Abilene Has It" edition of the Abilene Reflector- 
Chronicle was issued October 30, 1957. Several articles reviewed 
phases of Abilene history and one summarized the history of the 
community of Holland. 

"Built in 1870's, Monrovia School House Still Serves," is the title 
of a short article by Charles Spencer in the Atchison Daily Globe, 
October 30, 1957, giving the history of the Atchison county school. 
On January 19, 1958, the Globe printed a history of Highland Col- 
lege, founded in 1858. 

Historical articles in recent issues of the Butler County News, El 
Dorado, included: a biographical sketch of Ella Shriver Otten, 
Towanda artist, October 31, 1957; "Life in Oil Fields," a history of 
the Midian community, by Mrs. Cyril L. Green, November 14 and 
21; and sketches of the Dr. L. A. Harper and Jedediah Hull families, 
December 26. 

A history of the Cedar Vale Methodist church was published in 
the Cedar Vale Messenger, October 31, November 7, 14, and 21, 
1957. The church had its beginning in 1871 as the Greenfield cir- 

The church history of the Mt. Pleasant community, Dickinson 
county, by Mrs. Frank Entriken, was printed in the Hope Dispatch, 
October 31, 1957. At least five congregations have been active in 
this area, first of which were the Fairview Methodist and Presby- 
terian churches. 

Garnett's First Christian church was organized in the autumn of 
1857 by John Ramsey in the Cornelius Anderson home, a history 
of the church in the Garnett Review, November 4, 1957, reports. 
Sam McDaniel was the first pastor. 

In observance of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the 
Ottawa United Presbyterian church, the Ottawa Herald printed a 
brief history of the church November 7, 1957. 


Horton's First Baptist church was organized November 16, 1887, 
it is related in a history of the church printed in the Horton 
Headlight, November 14, 1957. The Rev. W. A. Biggart was the 
first pastor. 

Articles of historical interest appearing in the Hutchinson News 
in recent months included: a description of the private museum 
established and maintained by Mr. and Mrs. Merle Young of Pretty 
Prairie, by Ted Blankenship, November 10, 1957; "Pretty Prairie 
Founded by Widow [Mary Newman Collingwood], Mother of 
Nine," by Blankenship, November 24; the reminiscences of S. F. 
Miller, November 28; and "Early Day Disasters Plagued Ellsworth's 
Survival," by Ruby Basye, December 15. 

Emporia's First Congregational church observed its centennial 
November 24, 1957, and histories of the church appeared in Em- 
poria newspapers: the daily Gazette, November 18; Weekly Gazette, 
November 21; and Times, November 28. Other historical articles in 
the daily Gazette recently included: a history of the First Chris- 
tian church of Emporia, September 28, 1957; the recollections of 
J. W. Bolton concerning Twin Mound school, October 18; a history 
of the Emporia First Presbyterian church, November 7; a series of 
articles based on reports made from Emporia during 1857-1858 by 
the Rev. Grosvenor C. Morse to the American Home Missionary 
Society, December 4, 5, 6; and the reminiscences of C. L. Soule in 
regard to the opening of the Cherokee Strip, January 21, 1958. 

Historical articles in recent issues of the Independence Daily 
Reporter included: "Cholera Epidemic in 19th Century Spread 
Much Like Asian Influenza," by Lily B. Rozar, November 18, 1957; 
a history of the Independence public library, November 24; the 
story of a battle between Indians and Confederate officers near 
Independence in 1863, by Lily B. Rozar, December 15; and a history 
of the Elk City Methodist church, January 26, 1958. 

"A Chapter of Rawlins County History," by Alfaretta Courtright, 
was published in The Citizen-Patriot, Atwood, November 21, 1957. 
Many early families, businesses, and schools are mentioned. 

Some of the early history of Neosho Falls, by Mrs. Belle Mefford, 
was published in die lola Register, November 27, 1957. The first 
settlers arrived in the area in the spring of 1857. 

A history of Arcadia, by G. W. Corporon, was published in two 
installments in the Fort Scott Weekly Tribune, November 28 and 


December 5, 1957. Arcadia, first called Findlay (or Finley) City, 
had its beginning in the early 1860*8. 

Harold O. Taylor has written a story about the Marais des Cygnes 
massacre of May 19, 1858, which was published in the Pittsburg 
Headlight, Topeka State Journal, and Newton Kansan, November 
30, 1957; and the Manhattan Mercury, December 1. 

A history of the First Baptist church of Fredonia appeared in the 
Wilson County Citizen, Fredonia, December 5, 1957. The church 
was organized December 18, 1882, and the first minister was the 
Rev. A. E. Lewis. 

Scott City's history was reviewed in a six-column article published 
in the News Chronicle, Scott City, December 12, 1957. Portions of 
the article are quoted from a brochure published in the middle 
1880's to promote settlement in the Scott City area. Scott City was 
chartered in 1885. 

Mrs. Hal Russell has recalled some of her experiences as an early- 
day school teacher in the Bird City area in a two-column article 
published in the Bird City Times, December 26, 1957. 

An article entitled, "William Dean Howells, Ed Howe, and The 
Story of a Country Town," by James B. Stronks, was published in 
American Literature, Durham, N. C., January, 1958. 

Publication of Virginia Johnson's series, "Gardner Where the 
Trails Divide," in the Gardner News, has continued in recent issues. 
Gardner's history also appeared in a 73-page booklet by Mrs. John- 
son and under the same title, as a centennial publication. 

Kansas Historical Notes 

Burlington celebrated its 100th anniversary September 28-Octo- 
ber 3, 1957. Events during the period included a centennial ball, 
special religious services, historical pageant, parade, and other 
appropriate features. 

More than 300 persons attended the annual Kiowa county old 
settler's reunion in Greensburg, October 3, 1957. Mrs. Mernie Ely 
was chosen president of the group. Other officers are: Mrs. E. E. 
Davis, vice-president; Mrs. B. O. Weaver, secretary; and Mrs. Jessie 
Keller, treasurer. 

Angelo Scott addressed the annual meeting of the Allen County 
Historical Society in Tola, October 8, 1957, on the life of Frederick 
Funston. The following directors were elected during the business 
session: Lewis Drake, W. C. Caldwell, and Nat Armel, Humboldt; 
R. L. Thompson and Stanley Harris, Moran; Mrs. Mary Ruth Car- 
penter, Mary Hankins, Spencer Card, and Angelo Scott, lola. 

The seventh quinquennial presentation of the Indian peace treaty 
pageant was held at Medicine Lodge, October 11-13, 1957. The 
outdoor pageant is presented every five years in observance of the 
1867 treaties between the government and Indians made near 
Medicine Lodge. However, the pageant is scheduled to be given 
next in 1861, the year of the state's centennial. 

Robert Jennison, Healy, was elected president of the Lane County 
Historical Society at its meeting in Dighton, October 14, 1957. 
Other officers elected were: Walter Herndon, vice-president; Mrs. 
Arle Boltz, secretary; Mrs. Dale Jewett, treasurer; and Frank Vyci- 
tal, A. R. Bentlcy, and Mrs. W. A. Charles, directors. The featured 
speaker at the meeting was Lea Maranville, president of the Ness 
County Historical Society. 

Homer D. Cory was named president of the Leavenworth County 
Historical Society at a meeting in Leavenworth, October 17, 1957. 
James E. Fussell was elected first vice-president; Mrs. Jesse M. 
Jones, second vice-president; Mrs. Gorman Hunt, secretary; and 
Col. Ralph Stewart, treasurer. Re-elected to the board of directors 
were: E. Bert Collard, Sr., D. R. Anthony, III, Byron Schroeder, 
Ruth Burgard, Hans Freinmuth, George S. Marshall, and J. V. Kelly. 
Mrs. Jones was the retiring president. 



Re-elected for two-year terms at the annual meeting of the Dick- 
inson County Historical Society at Mount Pleasant church, near 
Abilene, October 17, 1957, were: B. H. Oesterreich, Woodbine, 
president; Mrs. A. W. Ehrsam, Enterprise, first vice-president; and 
Mrs. Carl Peterson, Enterprise, secretary. Other officers are: Mrs. 
Ray Livingston, Abilene, second vice-president; Mrs. Walter Wil- 
kins, Chapman, treasurer; and Marion Seelye, Abilene, historian. 

Dr. C. W. McCampbell was the principal speaker at the annual 
meeting of the Riley County Historical Society October 18, 1957, 
in Manhattan. Officers elected included: Wm. E. Koch, president; 
N. D. Harwood, vice-president; Sam Charlson, treasurer; Homer E. 
Socolofsky, recording secretary; Mrs. C. M. Correll, membership 
chairman; Mrs. G. B. Harrop, corresponding secretary; Ed Amos, 
historian; Mrs. C. M. Slagg, curator; Mrs. Max Wolf, publicity 
secretary; and Mrs. C. B. Knox, James Carey, and Earl Ray, direc- 
tors. Mrs. Slagg was the retiring president. 

Mrs. Yolande M. Smith was installed as the new president of the 
Shawnee Mission Indian Historical Society, October 28, 1957. Other 
new officers are: Mrs. Roy E. Boxmeyer, first vice-president; Mrs. 
Robert F. Withers, second vice-president; Mrs. Eugene Kotterman, 
recording secretary; Mrs. W. A. Carr, corresponding secretary; Mrs. 
John L. Smith, treasurer; Margaret Hopkins, historian; Mrs. E. H. 
Walmer, curator; Mrs. John Barkley, member-in-waiting; Mrs. G. W. 
McAbee, chaplain; and Mrs. Percy M. Miller, parliamentarian. 
Lucile Larsen was the retiring president. 

Mrs. Donald Booth was re-elected president of the Comanche 
County Historical Society at the annual meeting November 6, 1957, 
in Coldwater. Mrs. George Deewall was elected vice-president; 
Mrs. Ben Zane, recording secretary; Mrs. Dan Crowe, corresponding 
secretary; and F. H. Moberley, treasurer. 

Tescott's history was featured at the meeting of the Ottawa 
County Historical Society in Minneapolis, November 9, 1957. At 
the business session Fred Miller was elected president; Ray Halber- 
stadt, vice-president; Mrs. Myrtle Thompson, secretary; Mrs. Fred 
Jagger, treasurer; and Mrs. C. G. Heald, reporter. Marshall Con- 
stable was the retiring president. At a meeting of the society De- 
cember 14, the history of the Niles area was presented, and the his- 
tory of Culver was the feature of the January 11, 1958, gathering. 

The annual meeting and pioneer mixer of the Clark County His- 
torical Society was held in Ashland, November 23, 1957, with over 
130 persons in attendance. New officers chosen at the business ses- 


sion included: Mrs. Venna Vallentine, president; Mrs. Florence 
Walker, vice-president; Sidney Dorsey, first honorary vice-president; 
Chester L. Zimmerman, second honorary vice-president; Mrs. Mel- 
ville C. Harper, recording secretary; Mrs. Kathryn B. Seacat, assist- 
ant recording secretary; Rhea Gross, corresponding secretary; Wm. 
T. Moore, treasurer; Mrs. Dorothy B. Shrewder, historian; Leo 
Brown, curator; and Willis A. Shattuck, auditor. Dorsey was the 
retiring president. 

The Kearny County Historical Society was organized at a meet- 
ing in Lakin, November 25, 1957, and Mrs. Virginia Hicks was 
elected its first president. Other officers are Mrs. Helen Rardon, 
vice-president; Mrs. Edith Clements, secretary; Foster Eskelund, 
treasurer; and Margaret Hurst, historian. Vivian Thomas was ap- 
pointed custodian at a later meeting. 

Tecumseh was the theme of the annual meeting of the Shawnee 
County Historical Society in Topeka, December 5, 1957. Dr. Giles 
Theilmann, director of curriculum for the Topeka public schools, 
was the principal speaker. The following trustees were re-elected 
for three-year terms: J. Glenn Logan, Maude Bishop, Mrs. Harold 
Cone, Charles E. Holman, Tom Lillard, Helen McFarland, A. J. 
Carruth, Jr., J. Clyde Fink, Mrs. Frank J. Kambach, and Leland H. 
Schenck. The trustees met February 4, 1958, and elected Louis R. 
Smith, president; Robert H. Kingman, vice-president; Mrs. Cone, 
secretary; and Mrs. Kambach, treasurer. 

Mrs. Harry M. Trowbridge was elected president of the Wyan- 
dotte County Historical Society at a meeting of the society January 
9, 1958. Other officers chosen included: Harry Hanson, vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. Hazel Zeller, secretary; Raymond Lees, treasurer; Harry 
M. Trowbridge, historian and curator; and Mrs. James L. Gille and 
Henry Gauert, trustees. Mrs. Clyde Glandon was the retiring pres- 
ident. The society's annual Kansas day dinner was held January 
23. Fred Brinkerhoff, Pittsburg editor, was the principal speaker. 

Elected to the board of directors of the Old Fort Hays Historical 
Association, Inc., at a meeting of its sponsoring group, the tourist 
and convention committee of the Hays Chamber of Commerce, 
January 24, 1958, were: Paul Ward, Austin Evans, Gene Baird, 
Clarence Isbell, and Dale Dunn. Bylaws for the association were 
adopted and plans were made for membership promotion. 

Roy L. Bulkley, Topeka, was named president of the Native Sons, 
and Mrs. Hobart Hoyt, Lyons, president of the Native Daughters at 
the business meeting of the Native Sons and Daughters of Kansas 


in Topeka, January 28, 1958. Other officers selected by the Native 
Sons included: Wayne T. Randall, Osage City, vice-president; 
Dean Yingling, Topeka, secretary; and Floyd R. Souders, Cheney, 
treasurer. Evelyn Ford, Topeka, was elected vice-president; Mrs. 
J. C. Tillotson, Norton, secretary; and Mrs. Chester Dunn, Oxford, 
treasurer, of the Native Daughters. The Rev. Dale Emerson Turner, 
pastor of the Plymouth Congregational church, Lawrence, was the 
principal speaker at the dinner meeting of the organization. Mrs. 
Olive Ann Beech, president of the Beech Aircraft Corporation, 
Wichita, was presented the "Kansan of the Year" award. 

"Prominent Women of the Last Quarter of a Century" was the 
theme of the annual meeting of the Woman's Kansas Day Club in 
Topeka, January 29, 1958. The president, Mrs. Edna Peterson, 
Chanute, presided and gave a report of the year's work. Mrs. Lu- 
cile Rust, Manhattan, was elected president for the new year. 
Other officers elected include: Mrs. Harry Chaff ee, Topeka, first 
vice-president; Mrs. Eugene McMillin, Lawrence, second vice-pres- 
ident; Mrs. Paul Wedin, Wichita, recording secretary; Mrs. Claude 
Stutzman, Kansas City, treasurer; Mrs. J. Raymond Smith, Parsons, 
historian; Mrs. McDill Boyd, Phillipsburg, auditor; and Mrs. Marion 
Beatty, Topeka, registrar. District directors are: Mrs. Lawrence 
Gabel, Topeka, Mrs. L. B. Gloyne, Kansas City; Mrs. Vincent Mc- 
Cune, Chanute; Mrs. Larry Vin Zant, Wichita; Mrs. Clyde Lillard, 
Great Bend; and Mrs. Rosemary Siebert, Beloit. 

Directors elected for two-year terms by the Finney County His- 
torical Society at the tenth annual meeting in Garden City, February 
11, 1958, were: Edward E. Bill, John R. Burnside, C. H. Cleaver, 
A. M. Fleming, Abe Hubert, Clifford R. Hope, Jr., Mary Hope, 
Lester McCoy, Delia Gobleman, Will Renick, and Cecil Wristen. 
Amy Gillespie was elected to fill an unexpired term. R. G. Brown 
is president of the society. 

Kinsley has a new building a 34- by 15-foot sod house. Built as 
a tourist attraction, the "soddy" is the result of the combined efforts 
of the Kinsley Booster Club, the Chamber of Commerce, and city 

A private museum has been opened to the public at the bank 
building in Scottsville. Items were collected and the display ar- 
ranged by Mr. and Mrs. Carl Cox as a hobby. A description of the 
museum and of some of the articles on display, by Cosette Mclntosh, 
appeared in the Beloit Gazette, December 26, 1957. 



Summer 1958 

Published by 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 


WAR AND POLITICS: The Price Raid of 1864 . Albert Castel, 129 

With three water colors, by Samuel J. Reader, illustrating incidents of the 
Price Raid, frontispiece. 



CAPPER PUBLICATIONS Homer E. Socolofsky, 151 

With an illustration of an 1878 printed letter from Arthur Capper, facing 
p. 160, and photographs of Arthur Capper and the Capper building, 
facing p. 161. 


EDWARD SCHILLER James C. Malm, 168 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part Two, 

1858-1861 Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 198 


Compiled by Alberta Pantle, Librarian, 227 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth, Topeka, Kan., and is distributed free to 
members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be sent to the manag- 
ing editor at the Historical Society. The Society assumes no responsibility for 
statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


"The Battle of the Big Blue, October 22, 1864," 
an 1897 painting in oil by Samuel J. Reader of Topeka. 
The picture is in the museum of the Kansas State His- 
torical Society. 


Volume XXIV Summer, 1958 Number 2 

War and Politics: The Price Raid of 1864 


THE people of Kansas early in the fall of 1864 probably felt 
more secure than at any time since the beginning of the war. 
To the south, the Confederate Trans-Mississippi armies were deep 
in Arkansas and Texas. To the east, QuantrnTs bushwhackers had 
been forced by Order No. 11 into central Missouri where they no 
longer threatened the border. 1 Only in the west did the Plains 
Indians continue to disturb the outer fringe of settlements, but they 
did not constitute a serious menace to the state as a whole. Conse- 
quently, Kansans were inclined to regard the war as being prac- 
tically over so far as they were directly concerned. Aside from the 
usual subjects of crops and the weather, their chief interest was 
the forthcoming state election. 2 

This election was being contested by the rival Republican fac- 
tions of Sen. James H. Lane of Lawrence and Gov. Thomas Carney 
of Leavenworth; the Democrats, a hapless and persecuted minority, 
had found it "inexpedient" to nominate candidates of their own. 
Governor Carney, a rich wholesale merchant, owed his office to 
Lane's influence, but had quarreled with him over patronage mat- 
ters, and now desired to supplant him as senator. Lane, for his 
part, was desperately resolved to secure re-election and so main- 
tain his long-held domination of state politics. Under the name of 
"The Union Party," the Lane Republicans met at Topeka on Sep- 
tember 8 and nominated Col. Samuel J. Crawford of Garnett for 
governor and Sidney Clarke of Lawrence for congressman. Five 
days later the Carney wing, calling itself "The Regular Republican 
Union Party," likewise assembled in Topeka and named a slate 

DR. ALBERT CASTEL, a native of Kansas, is an instructor in history at the University of 
California, Los Angeles. 

1. Order No. 11, issued by the Union military authorities on August 25, 1863, required 
all the inhabitants of the Missouri border counties of Jackson, Cass, and Bates, with the 
exception of those living in certain specified towns, to evacuate their homes by September 
9. The order was occasioned by the Lawrence massacre of August 21, 1863, and was 
intended to deprive QuantruTs guerrillas of the support of the population of the area. 

2. The above descriptions concerning the attitude of Kansans in the fall of 1864 are 
based on a study of the surviving newspapers, journals, and letters of the period. 



headed by Judge Solon O. Thacher of Lawrence and Gen. Albert 
L. Lee of Doniphan county. A victory by the Union party would 
mean Lane's re-election when the legislature convened in January, 
whereas a Thacher-Lee success would result in the legislature elect- 
ing Carney. 

In the fierce campaign which followed, Lane enjoyed the power- 
ful advantages of President Lincoln's support and of control of the 
regular state Republican organization. However, he had accumu- 
lated many influential enemies during his stormy career, was blamed 
in some quarters for unpopular military and railroad policies, and 
had alienated Leavenworth, then the state's most populous town, 
because Rep. A. Carter Wilder of that city had not been renom- 
inated for congress. 3 As the election drew near, the Carney faction 
was confident of victory, while Lane was so despondent over his 
prospects that a friend found him suffering from "appalling" melan- 
choly, even "aberration of mind/' 4 

Before the election could take place, however, the political sit- 
uation was radically altered by a series of military events over 
which neither Lane nor Carney had any control, but which were 
to be very helpful to the former and extremely harmful to the 
latter. On September 19, a Confederate army of 12,000, mostly 
cavalry, marched northward into Missouri. In command was Maj. 
Gen. Sterling Price, a former governor of that state. With him were 
the hard-riding Missourians of Gens. Jo Shelby and John Marma- 
duke, and the Arkansas troops of Gen. James Fagan. Price was 
determined to make one final effort for the Confederate cause in 
Missouri. He planned to strike at St. Louis and Jefferson City, 
march up the Missouri river to Kansas City, and withdraw south- 
ward by way of Kansas and the Indian territory. Recruits, plunder, 
and the encouragement of Confederate adherents were his main 
objectives. 5 

Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans, federal commander of Mis- 
souri, had been aware for some time of Price's intentions, but had 
relied on the Union forces of Maj. Gen. Frederick Steele in Arkan- 
sas to contain the Confederates. Steele, however, had remained 
behind the fortifications of Little Rock and had done nothing to 

3. See Albert Castel, "A Frontier State at War: Kansas, 1861-1865" (Ph. D. disserta- 
tion, University of Chicago, 1955), pp. 351-356, 377, 383-385, 388, 389. 

4. Letter of Charles Robinson to Mrs. Sara T. Robinson, October 16, 1864, "Charles 
and Sara T. Robinson Papers," manuscript division, Kansas State Historical Society; White 
Cloud Kansas Chief, September 1, 8, 1864; John Speer, Life of Gen. James H. Lane 

(Garden City, Kan., 1897), pp. 333, 334. 

5. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and 
Confederate Armies (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1881-1901), Series I, v. 41, 
pt. 1, pp. 626, 627; pt. 2, pp. 1023, 1024, 1040, 1041. (In subsequent references this 
work will be cited as Official Records. ) 


halt Price. This failure left Rosecrans in an extremely perilous 
situation. His army of about 17,000 men was scattered throughout 
Missouri fighting guerrillas, and a large portion of it consisted of 
militia and recruits. As soon as he learned that Price had evaded 
Steele he began hurriedly concentrating all available troops, and 
at the same time obtained permission to use Maj. Gen. A. J. 
Smith's veteran infantry corps, then at Cairo, 111., en route to Sher- 
man's army. 

Definite information as to Price's movements was lacking, and 
Rosecrans at first thought that his destination was western Mis- 
souri. Therefore, when he received word on September 24 that 
Shelby was near Pilot Knob, in the southeastern corner of the state, 
he ordered Brig. Gen. Thomas Ewing, Jr., to go there and ascer- 
tain whether Price was moving in that direction. If so, Ewing was 
to delay him as long as possible in order to gain additional time 
for strengthening the defenses of St. Louis. 6 

Ewing arrived at Pilot Knob on September 26 and on the follow- 
ing day was attacked by Price. Although the Confederates heavily 
outnumbered his garrison, Ewing beat off the assault and retained 
possession of the fort. However, he lost nearly one fourth of his 
command, and realized that another Confederate attempt would 
be successful. Hence, under cover of night, he evacuated the fort 
and slipped away to the northwest. By this gallant stand at Pilot 
Knob, called by one writer "The Thermopylae of the West," Ewing 
accomplished his mission of developing Price's plans and delaying 
his advance. Moreover, he inflicted heavy casualties on Price's 
army, blunting its fighting edge for the remainder of the campaign. 7 

Price merely demonstrated against St. Louis and Jefferson City, 
as both towns were now too heavily garrisoned to be attacked suc- 
cessfully. On October 10 he reached Boonville, on the Missouri 
river, where he remained nearly four days. During this period 
1,200 to 1,500 Missourians, including Bill Anderson's bushwhackers, 
joined his army. He also sent orders to Quantrill to raid the Han- 
nibal and St. Joseph railroad, but Quantrill did not receive the or- 
ders and took no part in the campaign. On October 13, after a 
skirmish with the advance elements of Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleason- 
ton's cavalry division, which had been sent by Rosecrans in pur- 
suit of the Confederates, Price left Boonville and headed west 
toward Kansas. 8 

6. Ibid., pt. 1, pp. 307-309, 447; pt. 2, pp. 717, 967; pt. 3, pp. 82, 83, 113. 

7. Ibid., pt. 1, pp. 446-450, 628-630, 679, 680, 709. 

8. Ibid., pp. 340, 345, 387, 388, 630-632. 


The commander of the Department of Kansas was Maj. Gen. 
Samuel R. Curtis. A West Point graduate, amiable and likable, he 
had commanded the victorious Union forces at the important battle 
of Pea Ridge, Ark., fought in March, 1862. Later on, however, he 
had become so deeply involved on the radical side in the factional 
politics of Missouri that Lincoln was forced to remove him from 
the command in that state. He owed his present post to the influ- 
ence of Lane and other Western radicals, and to the personal 
friendship of the President. 9 

Curtis first received word on September 13 when he was at a 
camp on the Solomon river, where he had gone to supervise opera- 
tions against the Indians, that Price had crossed the Arkansas river 
and possibly would invade Kansas. With less than 4,000 regular 
troops under his command, he realized that if Price did attempt to 
enter the state he would have to rely largely on the militia to stop 
him. Therefore he hurried to Fort Leavenworth and on September 
20 requested Governor Carney to alert the militia. Carney replied 
that he would do so, but indicated an unwillingness to have the 
militia serve in the field. Curtis thereupon assured him that if at 
all possible the militia would be employed solely in garrison duty. 

For a while Curtis was under a misconception as to Price's move- 
ments. Initially he thought that Price was in the vicinity of Fort 
Gibson, in the Indian territory. Then a dispatch from Fort Scott 
caused him to believe that Price was at Cane Hill, Ark., advancing 
from there on southern Kansas. Not until September 29 did he 
receive positive information in the form of a telegram from Rose- 
crans telling him of the battle of Pilot Knob and stating that "the 
question of Price's being in Missouri is settled." Even then he was 
unsure whether Price would march toward Kansas, but when a re- 
port arrived on October 5 that the Confederates were 15 miles be- 
low Jefferson City he concluded that the danger was real, and asked 
Carney to call out the entire state militia. 10 

At this juncture Curtis encountered serious opposition from the 
governor. Carney, like many other Kansans, believed it unlikely 
that Price would invade the state. Moreover, also like many other 
Kansans, in particular those of the anti-Lane faction, he regarded 
Curtis as being the mere tool of Lane. Consequently he suspected 
that Curtis' intention to mobilize the militia was simply a political 
trick cooked up by Lane, with the purpose of taking and keeping 
the voters away from their homes and the polls until after election 

9. Castel, "Frontier State at War," pp. 343. 344. 

10. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 523, 524; pt. 3, pp. 279, 290. 


day, thus either preventing an election or making it possible for 
the Lane faction to win it. On the very day that Carney received 
the request from Curtis to order out the militia, his newspaper or- 
gan, the Leavenworth Times, openly voiced this suspicion, while on 
the following day Sol Miller, anti-Lane editor of the White Cloud 
Kansas Chief, proclaimed: 

People of Kansas, do you know that Gen. Curtis has entered into a con- 
spiracy with Lane, to call out the entire Kansas Militia, to compel their ab- 
sence at election time? It is the only hope Lane has of succeeding. They 
admit that the danger is remote, but are determined to make Price's move- 
ments a pretext for taking the voters away into Missouri, or from their homes. 

Past political tricks by Lane, and his unscrupulous reputation, 
made it easy for his opponents to believe that he was capable of 
anything, even this. 11 Therefore, instead of complying with Curtis' 
request, Carney asked that the call be deferred pending the receipt 
of more information regarding Price's movements. He also sug- 
gested that the western counties of the state share more of the bur- 
den of supplying the militia, since the border ones had been called 
on many times before, the interior ones hardly at all. 12 Inasmuch as 
Carney's political strength lay in the eastern, Lane's in the western, 
counties, the possible ulterior motive behind this proposal is ob- 

Carney's reluctance to order out the militia was intensified when 
on October 8 Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt arrived in Leavenworth to 
replace Maj. Gen. George Sykes as commander of the District of 
Southern Kansas. Blunt was the military and political henchman 
of Lane, and Carney correctly believed that Sykes' removal was 
made by Curtis at the prompting of Lane, who wanted Blunt to be 
in a position to control the Kansas troops and militia. 13 Further- 
more, Carney and Blunt were bitter personal enemies. 14 But on 
October 9 word came from Rosecrans that Price had left the Jeffer- 
son City area and was moving westward in the direction of Leaven- 
worth. This left Carney little choice except to issue a proclamation 
calling the militia into "the tented field until the rebel foe shall be 

11. On one occasion Lane allegedly gained control of a Free-State convention by falsely 
reporting that the Proslavery party was attacking Free-State settlers. George W. Brown, 
Reminiscenses of Goo. R. /. Walker, With the True Story of the Rescue of Kansas From 
Slavery (Rockford, 111., 1902), pp. 129-131. On another occasion, his supporters are said 
to have attempted to prevent the state legislature from voting on a matter to which he was 
opposed by falsely reporting that Quantrill was about to attack Topeka. See Troy Kansas 
Chief, February 7, 1889; House Journal of the Legislative Assembly of the State of Kansas, 
1864, pp. 297, 298. 

12. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 3, pp. 650, 651. 

13. Charles Robinson to Mrs. Robinson, October 9, 1864, "Robinson Papers"; James G. 
Blunt, "General Blunt's Account of His Civil War Experiences," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, Topeka, v. 1 (May, 1932), p. 252; Speer, op. cit., p. 286. 

14. During the summer of 1863 Blunt on one occasion threatened to challenge Carney 
to a duel. See Official Records, Series I, v. 53, pp. 565-567. 


baffled and beaten back." At the same time Curtis placed the state 
under martial law and directed "all men, white or black, between 
the ages of eighteen and sixty," to join some military organization. 15 

Intense excitement now gripped the state. Rumors circulated 
that Price was already above Kansas City. In Lawrence an acci- 
dental discharge of firearms created a near panic. At Leavenworth 
the sound of bells ringing and cannon firing to summon a citizens' 
defense rally caused "wild anxiety" as the townspeople thought 
that the rebels were upon them. All business halted throughout 
the state, and every man capable of bearing arms marched or rode 
in wagons to the threatened border. Those who remained behind, 
the very young and the extremely old, organized home guard units. 16 

Carney placed Gen. George Deitzler in command of the militia. 
Deitzler's "staff" consisted exclusively of prominent anti-Lane poli- 
ticians: Gubernatorial Candidate Solon Thacher, Charles Robin- 
son, D. W. Wilder, John Ingalls, and Mark Parrott. At first the 
militia concentrated at Olathe, but when the water supply proved 
inadequate, moved on to Shawneetown. By October 16 about 
10,000 militiamen were assembled near the border, with another 
2,600 stationed at interior points. Nearly all the militia were poorly 
equipped and armed, and badly deficient in training and discipline. 
Their only uniform was a red badge pinned to their hats. 

Curtis divided his forces, which he entitled "The Army of the 
Border," into two divisions. The first he assigned to Blunt, who 
organized it into three brigades under Cols. Charles Jennison, 
Thomas Moonlight, and Charles Blair. Blunt advanced his divi- 
sion to Hickman Mills, Mo., on October 14, where it formed the 
right wing of Curtis' army. The other division, composed entirely 
of militia, was commanded by Deitzler and constituted the left 
wing. In all, Curtis had approximately 14,000 men in the field. His 
plan was to make a first stand along the Big Blue river in Missouri, 
then in front of Kansas City, and finally, if overpowered, at Wy- 
andotte. Accordingly he had field works constructed at all these 
places by colored troops and civilian volunteers. 17 

Day after day passed, however, without any sign of Price's army 

15. Ibid., v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 467-470; pt. 3, pp. 762-765. 

16. Wiley Britton, The Civil War on the Border (New York, 1904), v. 2, p. 437; 
Richard Cordley, Pioneer Days in Kansas (Boston, 1903), p. 242; S. W. Eldridge, Recottec- 
tions of Early Days in Kansas (Publications of the Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, 
v. 2, 1920), pp. 199, 200; Richard J. Hinton, Rebel Invasion of Missouri and Kansas, and 
the Campaign of the Army of the Border Against General Sterling Price, in October and 
November, 1864 (Chicago, 111., and Leavenworth, Kan., 1865), pp. 38, 54. Hinton was 
a newspaper correspondent and served on Blunt's staff during the campaign against Price. 

17. Charles Robinson to Mrs. Robinson, October 16, 1864, "Robinson Papers"; Official 
Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, p. 473; pt. 3, p. 897; Blunt, "Civil War Experiences," loc. 
cit., p. 253; Hinton, op. cit., p. 60. 


or authentic news as to its location and movements. A great many 
Kansans decided that Price was not coming or had retreated south, 
and that there was no actual peril of invasion. 18 In particular the 
suspicions of the anti-Lane men became rearoused, and by October 
15 they were almost convinced that the mobilization of the militia 
was a political trick of the wily senator after all. The pro-Carney 
Oskaloosa Independent of that date expressed this view, and on 
the following day ex-Gov. Charles Robinson, Lane's archenemy, 
wrote his wife from Shawneetown that: 

It is beginning to be thought that our being called out is all a sham & trick 
of Lane & Curtis's to make political capital. We cannot hear anything of 
importance as to the movements of Price. We think that we are kept in 
ignorance of the true condition of affairs in order to keep the people out as 
long as possible. Steps are being taken to ascertain all the facts. I have no 
doubt Price has gone South & that there are only a few guerrillas prowling 
about. Nobody thinks we shall have anything to do but go home in a few 
days & attend to our business. 19 

At Hickman Mills on October 16 a serious disturbance occurred 
among the militia in Blunt's division. Lt. Col. James D. Snoddy, 
a pro-Carney newspaper editor from Mound City, asked Blunt to 
permit his regiment to return to Linn county. Blunt of course 
refused, whereupon Snoddy started to march home anyway. Backed 
by another regiment, Blunt personally blocked the attempted de- 
sertion and placed Snoddy and Brig. Gen. William H. Fishback of 
the militia, who was also involved in the mutiny, under arrest. 
Blunt's action, however, did not prevent numerous desertions by 
the militia several days later when his division moved to the Big 
Blue. 20 

The Leavenworth Times, the Lawrence Journal, and other anti- 
Lane papers soon began declaring that Price was no longer in Mis- 
souri and that the campaign against him was "an egregious hum- 
bug." 21 Carney adherents circulated copies of these publications 
among the militia, who increasingly manifested a desire "to go home 
and attend to their fall plowing." Many of the militia regiments 

18. O. E. Learnard to Mrs. Learnard, October 15, 1864, "Oscar Eugene Leamard 
Collection," University of Kansas, v. 4 (Learnard was on the staff of Deitzler); Cordley, 
op. cit., pp. 245, 246. The telegraph lines east of Leavenworth were broken on October 
7. Leavenworth Daily Conservative, October 8, 1864. 

19. Charles Robinson to Mrs. Robinson, October 16, 1864, "Robinson Papers." A week 
previously Robinson had been sure that Price was coming toward Kansas. See Robinson 
to Mrs. Robinson, October 9, 1864, ibid. 

20. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 572, 619, 620; pt. 4, pp. 18. 22, 23, 57. 
58, 94, 97; Hinton, op. cit., pp. 65, 66. Fishback, who was also a pro-Carney politician, 
apologized for his part in the mutiny, and was restored to duty. 

21. Leavenworth Daily Times, October 18, 19, 1864; White Cloud Kansas Chief, 
October 13, 20, 1864; Oskaloosa Independent, October 22, 1864. The Western Journal of 
Commerce, Kansas City, Mo., October 22, 1864, stated that the general opinion was that 
Price had gone south. On this very date he was well within the present city limits of Kansas 
City, Mo.! 


refused to cross the state line into Missouri, or if they did so, to go 
any distance. Deitzler, who believed that Price was south of the 
Arkansas river and had so told his troops, supported them in their 
refusal. The Leavenworth militia in particular were recalcitrant. 
On October 19 they burned Lane in effigy and paraded a jackass 
with Blunt's name on it through the camp at Shawneetown. And 
when, on the following day, they were ordered to march into Mis- 
souri, over one half of them went back to Leavenworth. Political 
speeches at the Shawneetown camp by Lane and Blunt did not im- 
prove matters. 22 

By October 20, Carney had about decided that the danger of an 
invasion had ceased to exist, if in fact it had ever existed. He 
therefore asked Curtis to revoke martial law and, according to a 
subsequent charge by his opponents, prepared a proclamation dis- 
banding the militia. 23 The Leavenworth Times of that date, in an 
editorial captioned "How Much Longer," also demanded that mar- 
tial law be lifted, and declared that the militia should be permitted 
to go home. But at this juncture, before a real crisis involving the 
militia could develop, definite news as to Price's whereabouts at 
last arrived. An advance detachment of Blunt's division had en- 
countered Shelby at Lexington, Mo., on the 19th. Heavy skirmish- 
ing had followed, with Lane in person participating with a carbine. 
Blunt immediately reported the action, and slowly fell back toward 
Independence, Mo. There was no longer any doubt, even among 
the most skeptical Carney supporters, that Price was coming. 24 

Blunt continued to retreat before the advancing squadrons of 
Shelby until he arrived, on the morning of October 20, at the Little 
Blue, nine miles east of Independence. He decided that this stream 
would be the best place to make a stand against the enemy, and 
hence called on Curtis to send him reinforcements. Curtis, how- 
ever, refused to abandon his plan of fighting the main battle at the 
Big Blue. Carney and the militia generals were unalterably op- 
posed to having the state troops serve more than a few miles be- 
yond the Kansas border, and he believed that in choosing a battle 
line it was necessary "to have united councils as well as a strong 
position." Therefore he ordered Blunt to conduct only a delaying 
action at the Little Blue with Moonlight's brigade. 

22. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 4, pp. 96, 118, 144; Kansas Weekly Tribune, 
Lawrence, October 27, 1864; Oskaloosa Independent, October 29, 1864; Hinton, op. cit., 
pp. 80, 81; Samuel J. Crawford, Kansas in the Sixties (Chicago, 1911), pp. 143, 144; 
Blunt, "Civil War Experiences," loc. cit., p. 253; Cordley, op. cit., pp. 245, 246. 

23. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 4, pp. 142, 143; Leavenworth Daily Conserva- 
tive, October 26, 27, 1864; Kansas Weekly Tribune, Lawrence, November 3, 1864; Blunt, 
"Civil War Experiences," loc. cit., p. 256. 

24. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 574, 633; Leavenworth Dotty Times, 
October 20, 1864; Hinton, op. cit., p. 52. 


At noon on the 21st, Marmaduke's division appeared and en- 
deavored to force its way across the bridge that spanned the Little 
Blue. Moonlight's troops were strongly posted behind stone walls 
overlooking the river and were armed with repeating rifles and a 
battery of howitzers. They held off the Confederates for several 
hours, and finally Price had to bring up Shelby's division to assist 
Marmaduke. This added pressure was too much, and Moonlight 
was obliged to give way. He retreated in good order through In- 
dependence and on to the Big Blue. The Confederates followed 
only as far as Independence, where they went into camp for the 
night. 25 

Curtis now had his entire army, including the militia, in posi- 
tion behind trenches and barricades along the Big Blue. He hoped 
to hold Price at this line until Pleasonton could close up from the 
rear and destroy him. But when Price attacked at midday on Oc- 
tober 22 he broke through the Union defenses with ease. Shelby 
crossed the river above and below Byram's Ford and turned the 
right flank of the Army of the Border, forcing it to fall back north- 
ward to Westport. Several regiments of raw militia tried to stem 
Shelby's advance on the prairies south of Westport, only to be 
ridden down and captured "en masse." According to Confederate 
sources Shelby could have kept on going, but withdrew on his own 
accord with the approach of darkness. Federal accounts, on the 
other hand, state that Curtis' troops rallied and drove Shelby back, 
after which they voluntarily retired again to Westport. 26 

Meanwhile, to the east, Pleasonton's cavalry division was over a 
day's march behind the Confederates, not having reached Lexington 
until the morning of October 21. Pleasonton was ignorant of Curtis' 
plans and movements and feared that the Kansas troops were not 
yet ready or able to co-operate effectively with his force. But on 
the night of October 21 Daniel Boutwell, a volunteer scout from 
Curtis' army, contacted Pleasonton after a daring journey through 
guerrilla infested country and told him that Curtis was preparing to 
withstand Price on the Big Blue. Upon receiving this information 
Pleasonton quickened his pursuit. At four P. M., October 22, he 

25. Official Records, Series 1, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 476, 683; pt. 4, p. 145; Blunt, "Civil 
War Experiences," loc. cit., pp. 254, 255; Brttton, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 448, 449. 

26. For Confederate accounts of the Battle of the Big Blue, see Official Records, Series 
I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 634, 635, 658; John N. Edwards, Shelby and His Men: or, The War in 
the West (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1867), p. 425; Joseph O. Shelby, "Price's Raid," Kansas City 
(Mo.) Journal, November 24, 1881. For the Union versions, see Official Records, Series I, 
v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 478-485, 526, 575, 584, 585, 593; Thomas Moonlight, letter of December 
5, 1881, unlabeled newspaper clipping in "Kansas in the Civil War" clippings, v. 1, Kansas 
State Historical Society library; Hinton, op. cit., pp. 128-132; Crawford, op. cit., pp. 146- 
148. See, also, the diary of Samuel J. Reader, October 21, 22, 1864, in manuscripts divi- 
sion, Kansas State Historical Society. 


reached Independence, where he engaged Price's rearguard under 
Marmaduke. By nightfall he had driven Marmaduke to the Big 
Blue and inflicted heavy losses on his division. 27 

Messengers from Pleasonton saying that he had closed up with 
Price reached Curtis and Blunt at sundown the first intelligence 
they had received in three days of his movements. Yet, notwith- 
standing this heartening news, Curtis ordered Blunt's division to 
fall back to Kansas City. But Blunt countermanded the order and 
backed by Lane, Samuel J. Crawford, and other members of Curtis' 
staff, persuaded Curtis to retain the army in front of Westport. 28 
During the night Curtis and Blunt withdrew Deitzler's militia from 
the northern portion of the front and placed them in the trenches 
south of Kansas City as a reserve. Large numbers of the militia 
discovered a "peculiar attraction" in the north side of the Kansas 
river, and the staff officers had to threaten, then plead, to keep 
them in line. 

The morning of Sunday, October 23, dawned clear and cold. On 
the prairie in front of Westport both Blunt and Shelby advanced 
to attack. At first the battle went in favor of Shelby, as his men 
forced Blunt almost into the streets of Westport. Shelby, however, 
was fighting only to cover the retreat of the rest of Price's army. 
Up to this point, he later declared, the campaign had been a "walk- 
over," but now the Confederates were in danger of being sur- 
rounded. Hence Price's only desire now was to escape to the 
south with his immense train of plunder. 

At this juncture disaster struck the rear of the Confederate army. 
Price had assigned Marmaduke's division to protect the train, 
which he had sent off to the southwest along the Fort Scott road. 
Marmaduke endeavored to prevent Pleasonton from crossing the 
Big Blue at Byram's Ford, but a savage onslaught by Pleasonton 
drove him back. Price, fearful for the safety of his train, ordered 
Shelby to come to Marmaduke's assistance. But as Shelby started 
to do so the Union forces at Westport, heavily reinforced with 
militia, counterattacked. Soon Shelby was not only withdrawing 
to aid Marmaduke, but was being driven back by Curtis and Blunt. 
Pleasonton's troopers intercepted him, and his men had to fight 

27. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 340, 683; pt. 4, pp. 163. 183, 184; 
Hinton, op. cit., pp. 117-119. 

28. Blunt, "Civil War Experiences," loc. cit., pp. 258, 259; Moonlight, letter on the 
Price raid, loc. cit.; Crawford, op. cit., pp. 148-150. Crawford asserts that Curtis wanted 
to retreat all the way back to Leavenworth, that he abandoned this intention only when the 
staff officers threatened to depose him and put Blunt in command. This is undoubtedly 
greatly exaggerated. Blunt, who had little respect for Curtis, does not mention any such 
threat in his account, and states that Curtis wished to fall back only as far as Kansas City, 
which would have been in accordance with his original plan. 


their way through the Union lines. They then retreated till they 
caught up with the remainder of Price's army, now in full flight to 
the south. 29 

Blunt and Curtis pushed on till they met Pleasonton at a farm 
house ten miles south of Westport. The generals held a conference 
and determined to pursue Price in order both to destroy him and 
protect southern Kansas. Pleasonton, however, wanted to return 
to Missouri. He maintained that Curtis had enough men to take 
care of Price, whereas his horses and soldiers were exhausted from 
30 days of constant marching. Carney and Deitzler, who were also 
present, objected. They argued that the Kansas militia should be 
allowed to go home first. Curtis and Blunt supported this view, 
and Pleasonton finally acquiesced. Curtis then rescinded martial 
law in northern Kansas and ordered the militia from that area mus- 
tered out. He retained the militia from southern Kansas since that 
section was still threatened. These matters settled, the conference 
ended, and the combined forces of Curtis and Pleasonton continued 
on to Little Santa Fe (ten miles south of Westport in Johnson 
county, Kansas ) , where they encamped for the night. 30 

At sunrise on October 24 the Union forces were on the march. 
Curtis was in command, with Blunt's division in advance and 
Pleasonton's following. A separate column under Moonlight moved 
parallel to Price's right flank in order to prevent him from raiding 
Mound City and Fort Scott. Price had retreated all night, but was 
less than five miles ahead. The country along the line of march was 
entirely desolate. Here and there were the stark chimneys of 
burnt houses called by Missourians "Jennison's monuments," in 
reference to the border raids allegedly perpetrated by Kansas Jay- 
hawkers led by that commander. The road was littered with broken 
wagons, caissons, rifles, blankets, bits of harness, and other debris. 
The Union troops captured many Confederates who had fallen by 
the wayside, sick, wounded, or exhausted. 

The day's march ended near Trading Post, Kan. The advance 
guard found the body of an elderly preacher lying in a field, shot 
by some of Price's men. His family was "frantic and crazed with 
terror and grief," his cabin plundered and afire. A dead horse had 
been dumped into the well. The Confederates had robbed and 

29. The above account of the Battle of Westport is based on the following sources: 
Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 486, 576, 635, 658, 659; pt. 4, p. 209; Hinton, 
op. cit., pp. 144-181; Shelby, "Price Raid," loc. cit.; Crawford, op. cit., pp. 150-152; Blunt, 
"Civil War Experiences," loc. cit., pp. 258-260. Again there are differing Confederate and 
Federal versions, and even these versions contradict themselves. It would require a special 
monograph to collate them. 

30. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 341, 491, 492; Hinton, op. cit., pp. 175- 


murdered three other settlers in the neighborhood and shot at sev- 
eral more. 31 These and other atrocities were probably committed 
by Shelby's Missourians, in whose ranks were numerous bush- 
whackers. Shelby's chief of staff, Maj. John N. Edwards, wrote a 
few years later: 

Shelby was soothing the wounds of Missouri by stabbing the breast of Kan- 
sas. ... He was fighting the devil with fire and smoking him to death. 
Haystacks, houses, barns, produce, crops, and farming implements were con- 
sumed before the march of his squadrons, and what the flames spared the 
bullet finished. ... If the crows could not fly over the valleys of the 
Shenandoah without carrying rations, the buzzards of the prairies had no need 
of haversacks. . . , 32 

During the day the Union forces had gained ground on Price 
and were within striking distance. Blunt, "with great pertinacity," 
urged Curtis to move around Price's western flank so as to block 
his retreat, thereby compelling him to fight or surrender. Cur- 
tis, however, thought that this plan was impracticable and rejected 
it. He then proceeded to waste several hours shifting Pleasonton's 
division to the front. At daybreak Sanborn's brigade of Pleason- 
ton's division attacked the Confederates in their camp south of 
Trading Post. They offered little resistance but simply resumed 
their retreat, departing in great haste and leaving behind cattle, 
captured Negroes, and partially cooked provisions. They at- 
tempted a stand at the ford of the Marais des Cygnes, only to 
abandon the position quickly when Sanborn again charged their 

Price continued to retreat until he reached Mine creek. Here 
he was forced to halt, for his train had become bogged down in 
the ford and blocked the crossing. In order to save the train he 
turned back with Pagan's and Marmaduke's divisions and prepared 
to give battle. But before he could complete his dispositions 
Pleasonton's troopers were upon him. They thundered across the 
plain at a gallop and struck Price's lines with a terrific impact. 
Panic broke out among the Confederates. Men and regiments 
threw away their guns and fled across Mine creek like a "herd of 
buffalo." Pleasonton's troops captured over 500 Confederates, in- 
cluding General Marmaduke. Only the timely intervention of 
Shelby's division, frantically summoned to the front by Price, saved 
the Confederate army from complete rout and destruction. 

Price made another stand two miles north of the Marmaton river. 
The fighting that followed was neither vigorous nor important. 

31. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, p. 492; Hinton, op. cit., pp. 183-190. 

32. Edwards, op. cit., pp. 447, 448. 


Only one of Pleasonton's brigades, NcNeil's, attacked, and a Con- 
federate countermove nearly flanked it. The rest of Pleasonton's 
division was strung out over the countryside, badly disorganized, 
both men and horses exhausted. Blunt's division had failed to 
catch up with the battle, and could not be expected to come up 
before nightfall. Consequently Pleasonton turned his division west- 
ward to Fort Scott to secure food and rest. Blunt, by some mix-up, 
did not receive orders sent him by Curtis to keep after Price, but 
also marched to Fort Scott. As a result Price continued his re- 
treat unpursued. 33 

Soon after arriving at Fort Scott, Curtis abolished martial law 
in southern Kansas and relieved the militia of that section from 
further duty. He felt that the danger to the state was over, and 
that the regular troops would now be sufficient to dispose of Price. 
At noon on October 26 his army resumed the pursuit, stopping for 
the night at Shanghai, Mo. The next day, however, Pleasonton 
notified Curtis that he was withdrawing himself, one of his brigades, 
and his artillery from the army. He gave personal illness and the 
great fatigue of his troops and horses as the reason. Curtis pro- 
tested, but since the army was now in Missouri, Pleasonton was 
subject only to the orders of Rosecrans, who telegraphed him per- 
mission to do as he desired. Pleasonton left the brigades of San- 
born and McNeil with Curtis. Probably the real reason he de- 
parted was because he had quarreled with Curtis over the credit 
and spoils of the victories at Westport and Mine creek. 

Curtis took up the march again and on the morning of October 
28 reached Carthage, Mo. Blunt pushed on ahead with his di- 
vision and came upon the Confederates at Newtonia. Although 
he had only 1,000 men and was far in advance of the rest of the 
army, he attacked, in a desperate personal gamble to win the glory 
of an independent victory. But a Confederate counterattack led 
by Shelby soon placed Blunt in a perilous situation. His troops, 
however, held on until Sanborn's brigade arrived. The combined 
forces of Sanborn and Blunt then forced Price to retreat once more, 
and that evening the Army of the Border occupied Newtonia. 34 

Before Curtis could follow Price any farther, Rosecrans, who 
regarded Curtis as incompetent, ordered Sanborn and McNeil back 
to their districts in Missouri. This left Curtis with only Blunt's de- 
pleted command and therefore with no alternative except to break 

33. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 335, 341, 493-496, 502, 503, 559, 637, 
659, 660, 684, 700; Edwards, op. cit., pp. 450-455; Hinton, ov. cit., pp. 179-238. 

34. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 314, 342, 504-507, 547-549, 577, 638; 
Blunt, "Civil War Experiences," loc. cit., pp. 262, 263; Edwards, op. cit., pp. 455-459; 
Hinton, op. cit., pp. 266-275. 


off the pursuit. Much disappointed, he was in the course of re- 
turning to Kansas when he received instructions from Grant, su- 
preme commander of the Union armies, to keep after Price until 
he was driven south of the Arkansas river. Backed by this higher 
authority he countermanded Rosecrans' orders and regained con- 
trol of 1,800 of Pleasonton's troops. He then turned about and 
again resumed the pursuit. 35 On November 6, after a march in 
a snowstorm through the rugged country of northwestern Arkansas, 
he reached Cane Hill, which had been evacuated by the Confeder- 
ates two days previously. Two days later his advance guard rode 
up to the banks of the Arkansas river at Pheasant Ford, only to 
find that Price's army had already passed over. One of the Union 
batteries fired a parting salvo across the river and the campaign 
came to an end. 36 

The same day that Curtis terminated his pursuit of Price the 
voters of Kansas went to the polls. For awhile the Leavenworth 
Times, whistling in the political dark, claimed a victory for the 
anti-Lane Republicans, but it was soon apparent that the regular 
Republican ticket had won a complete and decisive triumph. Craw- 
ford received 13,387 votes and carried 28 of the state's 35 counties. 
Thacher got only 8,448 votes and lost even in his home county. 
Lee came much closer to defeating Clarke, losing by only a little 
over 1,000 votes. Most importantly, nearly all of the new mem- 
bers of the legislature were committed to Lane's re-election as 
senator. On January 12 a joint session of the legislature, on the 
first ballot, by a vote of 82 to 16, named Lane to another term in 
the U. S. senate. Carney was not even nominated. 37 

Although Lane possibly would have been triumphant in any 
event, owing to Lincoln's backing and his control of the Repub- 
lican organization, both his adherents and his opponents were of 
the opinion that the Price raid "made Lane successful." 38 Carney's 
unwillingness to call out the militia, the foolish statements of the 
Times, the White Cloud Kansas Chief, Deitzler, and other Carney 
supporters that Price was not in Missouri, the mutinies and de- 
sertions in the militia traceable to these statements, and Carney's 
probable intention to disband the militia when Price was only a 

35. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 511-514. Rosecrans' action in with- 
drawing the troops from Curtis was in direct violation of the orders he had received from 
Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, chief of staff of the Union army, and Maj. Gen. E. R. S. 
Canby, commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi. See Canby to Halleck, 
October 15, 1864, ibid., pt. 3, p. 879; and Halleck to Rosecrans, October 27, 1864, ibid., 
pt. 4, p. 274. 

36. Ibid., pt. 1, pp. 516, 517; Hinton, op. cit., pp. 292, 293. 

37. D. W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), pp. 398-404; Leavenworth 
Daily Conservative, January 14, 1865. 

38. Wilder, op. cit., p. 406; Speer, op. cit., p. 334. 


few miles from the state, all combined to make the governor and 
his faction appear not only unpatriotic but fatuous. The Lane 
newspapers did not fail to make the most of these errors by 
"Carney and his bolting copperhead crew," and to contrast them 
unfavorably to the supposedly heroic exploits of Lane and Craw- 
ford in repelling Price and saving Kansas. 39 Charges of blatant 
corruption against Lane by the Carney press had little effect. As 
one editor expressed it in a post-mortem on the election, if the 
people of Kansas "cannot have an honest man in the Senate they 
prefer that the rascal who represents them, should be a man of 
brains/* 40 

None of the major commanders who participated in the cam- 
paign against Price emerged from it with credit. Grant angrily 
removed Rosecrans and Steele for what he deemed to be their 
gross incompetence in permitting Price to march clear through 
Arkansas and Missouri, and he shunted Curtis, who had at least 
won a nominal victory, off to the Department of the Northwest, 
with headquarters at Milwaukee, Wis. 41 As for Price, he was being 
tried by a court of inquiry when the end of the war brought an 
abrupt termination to its proceedings. 42 His army had been com- 
pletely shattered, and along with the other Southern forces in the 
Trans-Mississippi it could only await the coming of spring and the 
inevitable collapse of the Confederacy. Militarily, the Price raid 
culminated the Civil War in Kansas and the West. 

39. Freedom's Champion, Atchison, January 19, 1865; Leavenworth Daily Conserva- 
tive, October 26, 27, November 2-4, 6, 1864; Kansas Weekly Tribune, Lawrence, Novem- 
ber 3, 1864. 

40. Troy Investigator, quoted in Leavenworth Daily Conservative, November 24, 1864. 

41. Official Records, Series I, v. 41, pt. 4, pp. 126, 673, 674, 811; v. 48, pt. 1, pp. 
656, 780. 

42. Ibid., v. 41, pt. 1, pp. 701-729. 

The Sacking of Lawrence 


IN 1841 the Rev. Benjamin Williams became the minister of Taber- 
nacle Baptist Church in Merthyr Tydfil, South Wales. Fourteen 
years later his son, Peter Williams, became founder, publisher, 
printer, and editor of the Merthyr Telegraph, a weekly penny news- 
paper which lasted until 1881. The paper was violently anti- 
Catholic and fairly radical in its political ideas. When the Civil 
War broke out in the United States, the initial reaction was 
strangely cautious; whilst unable to support the South on account 
of slavery, the paper adopted a chiding tone towards the North on 
account of its failure to come out immediately in favour of emanci- 

If there is any one thing which would weaken the South and strengthen 
sympathy for the North it would be the determination of the latter to in- 
corporate with . . . the preservation of the union, the abolition of slav- 
ery. ... 

But the North refuses to exercise the power placed in its hands. The rank 
fumes of slavery will still contaminate the nation and the Southern plantations 
re-echo the shriek of the tortured negro. The bloodhound's bay will still pro- 
claim the abhorred institution's existence and the crack of the driver's whip the 
domineering tyranny of the white man over the black. . . . War may rav- 
age and desolate North and South, hundreds of thousands of gallant citizens 
may fall, millions of money may be expended, the union must be preserved, 
and with it slavery. This is the text of Mr. Lincoln's policy. Who will justify 
it? ... The North requires a better cause than that of honour. . . . 
Let the emancipation of the negro be her battle cry . . . and then every 
patriot, every freeman, every lover of liberty will say, go on and conquer 
for the redemption of the slave. 1 

Like many others, however, Peter Williams had to wait for Lin- 
coln's Emancipation Proclamation but in his New Year editorial of 
1863 he declared his intention to destroy, if at all possible the sym- 
pathy among his countrymen for the "vile, tyrannical South" 
created by the agents of the Confederacy with the co-operation of 
the London Times. 2 

The opportunity to deal a telling blow in this direction occurred 
in September, 1863, when an eye-witness account of the sacking of 

ALAN CONWAY is a lecturer in American history at the University College of Wales, 
Aberystwyth, Wales, U. K. 

1. Merthyr Telegraph July 27, August 10, 1861. 

2. Ibid., January 3, 1863. 



Lawrence came into his hands. Together with a violent diatribe 
against the South he printed the letter as coming from the Rev. 
Samuel Roberts. The latter was a Congregational minister from 
Llanbrynmair in Montgomeryshire, a man of great influence and 
known throughout Wales as "S. R." Considerably troubled by the 
difficulties of the Welsh tenant farmers, he organized a company 
which bought 100,000 acres of land in east Tennessee in 1856 for 
the purpose of founding a Welsh settlement. Disputed titles to the 
land, court cases and finally the Civil War rendered the project 
virtually still born and eventually Samuel Roberts followed the ma- 
jority of those who had emigrated with him in 1857 to the North. 

The editor of the Merthyr Telegraph, by attributing the author- 
ship of the letter to Samuel Roberts, was, however, wielding a dan- 
gerous two-edged weapon. Undoubtedly the latter still had great 
influence in Wales but to many of the Welsh both in the United 
States and in Wales itself, deeply concerned over the abolition of 
slavery, Samuel Roberts was suspect, firstly on account of his at- 
tempt to establish a settlement in Tennessee and secondly be- 
cause he had shrewdly, if unwisely, pointed out that the abolition 
of slavery could create as many problems as that of slavery itself. 
Typical of such feeling was a letter written in June, 1861, from Ohio 
by Humphrey and Sarah Roberts to their family: 

The Welsh in America have worshipped Samuel Roberts, Llanbrynmair like 
Great Diana of Ephesus. He sent a letter here to the North recently Baying 
that he had swallowed the accursed doctrine of the Slave dealers in Tennes- 
see. . . . If he came with his letter, the preachers of the North would 
give him the coat of tar and feathers which he deserves. 3 

Whether the editor was aware of this feeling towards Samuel 
Roberts or whether he felt his residual prestige justified the printing 
of the letter is problematic. 

Unfortunately, he would seem to have been mistaken on this 
question of authorship, because a study of the papers of Samuel 
Roberts in the National Library of Wales 4 indicates that at the 
time of the raid he was travelling in Ohio and Pennsylvania. More- 
over there is no knowledge of Samuel Roberts ever having been in 
Lawrence, let alone the eight years mentioned in the letter, as he 
did not leave Wales until 1857. 

As a result of the researches of the editorial board of the Kansas 
State Historical Society, the identity of the writer has been estab- 
lished as that of Samuel Reynolds. The U. S. census for Kansas, 

3. National Library of Wales Ms. 2600 E. 

4. National Library of Wales "S. R.," Tennessee papers. 



1860, shows that one T. Reynolds, age 32, a native of England, was 
farming in Wakarusa township of Douglas county, and S. Reynolds 
held agricultural lands in the same township, although apparently 
out of the county at the time the census was taken. In the Kansas 
state census, 1865, Thomas Reynolds, age 37, is listed in the city 
of Lawrence as a tailor, and Samuel Reynolds, a native of England, 
age 40, is shown as a farmer of Wakarusa township. Samuel's fam- 
ily included a child, age 9, born in Kansas, which would put him 
in the area at the latest by 1856. 5 The fact that the men's birth 
places are listed as "England" does not preclude the probability 
that they were emigrants from Wales. 

An examination of the Merthyr parish records for the period 
1824-1826 shows a family by the name of "Reynolds" living in the 
Merthyr area but the baptismal records make no mention of either 
Samuel or Thomas. They may well have been born in another 
parish as the sending of the letter to the Merthyr Telegraph is no 
guarantee that they were originally from Merthyr. It is, therefore, 
virtually certain that the true writer of the letter was Samuel 
Reynolds but the historian is left to speculate whether Peter Wil- 
liams, the editor, over-hastily jumped to the conclusion that "S. R." 
could only be Samuel Roberts or whether, in his eagerness to damn 
the South, he changed the authorship of the letter on the basis that 
the name of Samuel Roberts, famous throughout Wales despite a 
decline in prestige, would carry more weight than that of the un- 
known Samuel Reynolds. The first explanation is the more likely 
and the more charitable but why were no protests forthcoming 
from Reynolds' brother to whom the letter was sent or from those 
who knew that Samuel Roberts had never lived in Lawrence or, 
if received, why were they not published? 

Nevertheless the following editorial comment and letter on the 
"Tragedy of Lawrence," published in the Merthyr Telegraph on 
October 3, 1863, undoubtedly had considerable influence on the 
attitude of many Welshmen towards the Civil War and provided 
a formidable stick with which to beat the Confederacy. 



A letter from the Rev. Samuel Roberts (late of Llanbrynmair ) 
now residing in Lawrence, a town in Kansas, one of the Western 
States of America. 

5. The Kansas State Historical Society has a Douglas county map of 1857, compiled by 
T. Cooper Stuck from field notes in the Surveyor General's Office at Lecompton, which shows 
that S. Reynolds occupied the NE 1 ^, Sec. 13, T 13 S, R 19 E, and T. Reynolds occupied 
the SW 1 ^, Sec. 7, T 13 S, R 20 E. 


Horrible as are the details of the following letter, their correct- 
ness is beyond question, as they are written by a gentleman known 
throughout Wales, not only for his eloquence as a minister, and 
pre-eminence as author of some of the best hymns of our Welsh 
Sanctuary but for his undoubted Christian character. Much has 
been said by the sympathizers of the South, and we regret to know 
that some of these may be found in Merthyr, that the army of the 
Confederacy is composed of men moved exclusively by patriotic 
feelings and that in the prosecution of the war, it is they only who 
practice what are called the amenities of modern warfare. The 
"Tragedy of Lawrence'* will show the falsity of this, and will prove 
if anything is capable of proof that this army is a herd of as- 
sassins and that in their raids among unarmed people, neither the 
cries of women and children, nor the entreaties of old age, have 
any influence in staying their hands from shedding innocent blood. 
There is no doubt that for years past the cruelties of these pro- 
slavery people have been such as to call forth, by means of this 
rebellion, the vengeance of Almighty God upon them and that in 
His good time unnumbered hosts of these cut-throats, cowards, off- 
scourings of Europe and the American Continent, which now com- 
pose the Southern army, will be drained away from the face of 
the earth and that with their ignominious end will dawn an era of 
liberty and justice for the oppressed negroes, as well as many 
politically enslaved whites of the Southern States of America. 

May God strengthen, say we, the arms of the noble army of the 
North, to bring about such a noble consummation and the world 
will be better by being rid of men whose conduct like that in Law- 
rence, is a reflection on our common humanity. 


LAWRENCE, 23 August 1863. 

You have doubtless heard before this will reach you of the dread- 
ful calamity that has befallen Lawrence and vicinity, by the sack- 
ing and burning of the town and the indiscriminate slaughter of its 
citizens, on Friday, the 21st inst. by Quantrell and his band of 
incarnate demons (Flying cavalry in the Confederate service). 
The record will make a page in the history of America alike hu- 
miliating to every American who has a spark of manhood left 
within him, and disgracing, insulting and outraging to common hu- 
manity. Such a record would degrade the wildest savage tribe of 


our Western plains; and yet these beings, animals (for I cannot call 
them men) are said to be our "erring brethren" whose rights have 
been invaded and whose institutions have been trampled upon. 

What rights has a murderer, an assassin, a highway-man, but the 
right to be shot whenever and wherever found? The issue is forced 
upon us, the people of Kansas. These bushwhackers will kill us or 
we must kill them. They have proclaimed this policy for some time, 
and now they have practically and fully adopted it; and by the 
blessing of God, the issue shall be met by us, as men and patriots, 
firmly, quickly and, I hope, courageously. 

Language fails me to depict the scenes enacted on last Friday. 
May I never behold the like again. But I must give you some idea 
of the raid and its dire results. 

About sunrise, or a little before, on the 21st ult., four men forcibly 
entered the house of a Rev. Mr. Snyder, living about a mile south- 
west of Lawrence, and pierced him through and through with balls 
from their revolvers, while lying in bed by the side of his wife. At 
the same time, a body of about three hundred well mounted beings 
in the shape of men, and armed to the teeth, dashed into the town 
and spread themselves instantly over the whole business part of the 
place, shooting down every man who dared to show himself. 

In this dash, two small camps of recruits on Massachusetts 
street ( one of white, and the other coloured ) were surrounded and 
the poor defenceless fellows, without a gun in camp and begging 
most piteously for their lives, were pierced through and through 
with bullets and all but four of the two unfilled companies [sic] 
left mangled corpses on the ground. One of these poor fellows 
thus barbarously murdered for daring to become a Union soldier 
was a nephew of mine, the sight of whose bleeding, mangled body 
I shall never forget. 

The armoury was cut off from the citizens, pickets stationed 
around the town and no chance whatever of concentrating even 
twenty men with arms. The people were completely paralysed 
by this sudden and audacious dash; indeed the most of them were 
still in their beds when the work of murder commenced. The 
banks were robbed, safes broken open, stores ransacked and the 
best of everything taken, and then the buildings fired. Every man 
that was encountered was met by them with "Your money or your 
life" and with few exceptions the poor victim would be shot dead 
after handing over his purse and answering what questions they 
chose to put to him. 

In several instances they ordered men to get water for them and 


wait upon them in various ways, pledging themselves if they would 
do so their lives should be spared, and as soon as they had done 
with them, would turn round and shoot them down like mad dogs. 
One little child they shot dead because it cried. There were those 
with them who were evidently well acquainted with the town, as 
the places and persons of active and prominent Union men were 
made the special marks of vengeance. 

General Lane's residence was among the first, and he himself had 
a narrow escape. The editors of the several papers were objects of 
special vengeance and two of them were caught and murdered. I 
shall not attempt to give you a list of the precious lives taken, nor 
shall I attempt to make an estimate of the property destroyed. This 
will be done through the papers more correctly than I can do it. 
I believe, however, that half our business men were either shot 
down or burnt alive in their houses; and out of the fine blocks of 
stores of every description only two solitary buildings remain and 
they were sacked. The rest is a mass of blackened ruins, under 
which lies, I fear, many a charred body, as many were shot down 
while attempting to escape from the burning buildings. I fear the 
dead will foot up nearly, or quite, two hundred. Nearly every 
house was fired and the best ones fired; but owing to the very 
stillness of the air at the time, the flames were extinguished in many 
of the houses as soon as the rebels would leave, and as they had 
such a large programme before them, the[y] could not repeat any 
of the performance. The work of murder, arson and robbery lasted 
about two hours and a half, in which time they had sent over 100 
innocent men to the eternal world deprived a large number of 
families of food, raiment, house and home and destroyed about two 
million dollars' worth of property. They then took up their line 
of march due south, detailing squads of men on either side of the 
road to burn every house and murder every man. Family after 
family would slip out into their cornfields to watch their houses 
burned by these invaders, without being able to offer the least 
resistance; and woe to any man who had the hardihood to remain at 
his house and offer remonstrance. 

I live but two miles south of Lawrence, and three men were shot 
between Lawrence and my place for daring to remain in sight 
all of them quite peaceable men, and two of them too old to be 
called upon to do military duty. And now comes the practical ap- 
plication of my own case. A squad of six men were sent from the 
main body to visit my house. With guns cocked and eyes glaring 
more ferociously than a tiger's, they dash up to the buildings, apply 


the match to a large stack of Hungarian, then to the outbuildings, 
the barn and sheds and while these are rolling up their volumes of 
smoke and flames, the house is visited, trunks burst open, drawers 
and shelves ransacked, all valuables that could be crammed into 
pockets or strapped on their horses, taken and the rest enveloped 
in flames. 

In a little longer than it has taken me to write this, everything 
inflammable was consumed houses, furniture, bedding, clothing, 
books, provisions, outbuildings all, all utterly destroyed. The 
work of eight years hard toil gone in as many minutes and another 
family thrown out of house and shelter. 

By the time the flames began to recede the next house south of 
mine is rolling up dense volumes of smoke and soon the next, and 
next and next; and now they visit the house of the old greyheaded 
Dunkard, who, alas, thought that his age and religion would pro- 
tect him, but the infuriated demons, thirsting for blood, shot him 
down regardless of the poor old man's cries and entreaties to spare 
his life. The track by fire and sword of these murderous villians 
was made through the valleys and over the hills as far as the eye 
could reach. 

I cannot refrain from giving you an instance or two of the sav- 
age barbarity practised by these demons. They brought Mr Trask 
to the door of his house and told him if he would give up his money 
they would not shoot him, but as soon as he had given it up, he 
was instantly shot he then tried to escape by running, but they 
shot him dead. 

Dr Griswold was in his house when they attacked him. His wife 
ran and put her arms around him and begged most piteously for 
his life, when one of them passed his arm holding a revolver, 
around her and shot him dead. 

Mr Fitch they shot in his house and his wife while running to his 
rescue was dragged away, the house fired and poor Mr Fitch 
burned up, it may be, alive. 

A gentleman by the name of Palmer and his son were burnt up in 
their shop before dying from their wounds. 

Mr Allison of the firm of Duncan and Allison, crawled out from 
under the burning ruins and they threw him back again into the 

But the heart sickens. I can write no more. Oh! God! who shall 

Your brother. S. R. 

The Evolution of a Home Grown Product, 
Capper Publications 


THE recent purchase of Capper Publications by Stauffer Pub- 
lications reveals again the size of the enterprise to which Arthur 
Capper devoted his business career. 1 This transfer of ownership 
involved buildings and business equipment, two daily newspapers, 
a monthly home magazine, a weekly newspaper, a printing com- 
pany, an engraving company, a farm monthly, five state farm papers, 
two radio stations and a television station. 2 

Arthur Capper, the son of Herbert and Isabella McGrew Capper, 
was born in Garnett on July 14, 1865. 3 Except for a brief sojourn 
in Elk county, Capper's youth was spent in Garnett where he be- 
gan selling and delivering the Kansas City (Mo.) Times at ten 
years of age. 4 At 13 he began his first real newspaper work as 
"devil" on the Garnett Journal. For a while he edited a young 
folks department in the newspaper and he had letters published in 
American 'Young Folks, a monthly periodical in Topeka. 5 The seri- 
ous and intent interest of the young Capper in a career in journal- 
ism is shown in these letters. During his high-school years Capper 
continued his work at the Journal and learned the printing trade. 
Upon graduating in 1884 he set out to look for work which he 
hoped to find in one of the larger towns of the Kansas river valley 
or farther upstream at Salina. After stopping at Lawrence, and 
finding no opening for a young printer, he went on to Topeka. 6 
There he was befriended by Will Scott, foreman in the composing 
room of the Capital, who put him to work on May 16, 1884. 7 As 

DR. HOMER E. SOCOLOFSKY is an assistant professor of history in the department of 
history, government and philosophy at Kansas State College, Manhattan. 

1. Capper had no other business interests and owned no other real estate than that re- 
lated to his multimillion dollar business and his home. 

2. Radio station KCKN of Kansas City, Kan., was sold by Stauffer before the final 
transfer was completed. 

3. Letter from Earl L. Knauss of the Garnett Review, n. d., to Clif Stratton, in the 
"Capper Collection" in the Kansas State Historical Society, tells that Mary, another sister, was 
born in 1863 and died the next year, so Arthur was considered the oldest child. The births 
and deaths of the other members of the family were: Herbert Capper, 1833-1897; Mrs. 
Herbert Capper, 1841-1903; Mary May Capper, 1866-1939; Bessie Capper Myers, 1870- 
1909; Benjamin Herbert Capper, 1874-1887; Edith Capper Eustice, 1879-1953. Herbert 
Capper was one of the founders of Garnett. 

4. Copy of letter from Capper to J. Howard Rusco, July 27, 1946. "Capper Collec- 

5. American Young Folks, Topeka, July and December, 1878. 

6. Zula Bennington Greene, "As Peggy of the Flint Hills Sees It," Topeka Daily 
Capital, July 14, 1944; Boonville (Mo.) Weekly Advertiser, November 3, 1911; interview 
with F. D. Farrell, July 10, 1952. Dr. Farrell, the former president of Kansas State College, 
heard the story from Capper on at least three occasions. 

7. Topeka Daily Capital, February 28, 1909. This friendly act was important in con- 
tributing to Capper's later feeling that he, too, should help young people. 



a printer, Capper continued to learn his trade and when he heard 
a newly elected official declare in a speech that he would enforce 
the law against the Topeka "jointists," he wrote up the story and 
followed through to see that it was printed in the next morning's 
paper. As a result, publisher J. K. Hudson encouraged Capper to 
accept a job as reporter even though it meant a reduction in weekly 
salary. After working a short time as a cub reporter Capper be- 
came city editor of the Capital on June 9, 1885, a job which re- 
quired that he gather news from business and governmental estab- 
lishments and report the meetings of the legislature when it was in 
session. 8 

In the early summer of 1887 Capper visited Hugoton, in south- 
west Kansas, with every intention of buying the Hugoton Hermes. 
Stevens county was just being settled and State Representative 
John L. Pancoast wanted a newspaper to compete with "Colonel" 
Sam Wood's paper in nearby Woodsdale. Wood suspected Cap- 
per's mission and tried to point out the difficulties and disadvan- 
tages of settling in Hugoton. Capper's brief encounter with the 
boisterous, raw frontier soon ended his intention of becoming a 
western Kansas editor. 9 

Back home on the Capital, Capper's fortunes continued to rise. 
In a reorganization of the newspaper company, he became a di- 
rector, but his ambitions extended beyond the Capital alone. 10 
He took a leave of absence from the Topeka paper and went to 
New York, where he obtained a reporting job on the Tribune, under 
the editor, Whitelaw Reid. After a time in New York he moved to 
the Mail and Express, and then on to Washington in 1892 where he 
reported the activities of the Kansas delegation for the Capital. 11 

8. Ibid., February 28, 1909; Jewell County Record, Mankato, December 27, 1951. 

9. C. C. Isely, "Senator Capper Once Almost Became Hugoton Editor," Wichita 
Evening Eagle, March 2, 1945; See, also, Topeka State Journal, October 28, 1911. 

10. Reprint from Brown County World, Hiawatha, in "Biographical Scrapbook C," 
v. 1, Kansas State Historical Society; stock certificates in the vault of the Capper building 
show that one share of stock, apparently the qualifying share as director, in the Topeka 
Capital Company was made out to Arthur Capper on July 1, 1890. Four other stock cer- 
tificates were assigned to him on July 2, 1890, for a total transfer of ownership of 19 
shares from J. K. Hudson. Attached to the last ten shares is a promissory note for $3,000 
"payable in one year from July 2nd 1890 bearing 8 per cent interest." This amount was 
paid June 1, 1892. Par value of a single share was $500. Another stock certificate of 22 
shares in the company was transferred to Capper on March 23, 1894. This was some six 
months after Capper had purchased the Mail. By that time he had a total of 42 shares 
or about eight per cent ownership in the Topeka Capital Company. The presence of these 
stock certificates in the vault of the Capper building is a mystery to Capper's associates 
for they had never heard him mention them. The Topeka Capital Company went bankrupt 
in 1895 and Capper, no doubt, lost money in this investment. "Corporation Charters 
(official copybooks from office of secretary of state, now in Archives division, Kansas State 
Historical Society)," v. 40, p. 299, show that the charter of the Topeka Capital Company 
was filed June 6, 1890, and that Capper was one of six directors. 

11. Anne Hard, "Printer's Devil to Fame," New York Herald Tribune, May 20, 1928. 
Some of the stories were also used by the Tribune; the Topeka Daily Capital of January 
29, 1892, is a typical issue in promoting Capper's efforts in Washington. The Kansas dele- 
gation in the house had been enlarged as a result of the 1890 census, and such men as 
"Sockless" Jerry Simpson and Sen. William A. Peffer were now in Washington. The 
Capital, as a Republican paper, was probably more concerned with reporting every ac- 
tivity of the Populists in hopes of discrediting them. 


After congress adjourned, Capper returned to Topeka to his job 
on the Capital. He was married to Florence Crawford, the only 
daughter of the third governor of Kansas, Samuel J. Crawford, on 
December 1, 1892. After a wedding trip he began to look for a 
newspaper and in 1893 the North Topeka Mail looked like a good 
buy at $2,500. 12 Capper was able to borrow $1,000 from the Citi- 
zen's Bank of North Topeka, which together with his own $1,000 
savings in building and loan stock, enabled him to complete the 
transaction. In buying a newspaper he did not have to depend 
upon the plentiful financial resources of his father-in-law at this 
time nor in the future. 13 

Capper had very little help when he began the operation of the 
M ail. He spruced up the first page of his paper and actively sought 
advertising among Topeka merchants. He was soon receiving 
pleasant notices of his new venture in the state press. New features, 
including articles written by distinguished Kansans, were used to 
promote circulation. He continued to study trade journals to see 
what was new in journalism and who was doing it, but he seem- 
ingly had no definite long-term policy other than to get out a good 
paper. 14 Unsuccessful competitors apparently offered to sell out 
to him so that they could escape the burden of refunding subscrip- 
tion money. Capper maintained years later that he had been asked 
to buy all his papers except one; that exception was presumably the 
Mat! 15 

In 1895 Thomas A. McNeal approached Capper with an offer to 
sell his paper a proposition which resulted in the consolidation on 
September 5 of the Topeka Mail and the Kansas Breeze. McNeal's 
publication is said to have cost Capper $2,500 and the consolidated 
paper, under McNeal as editor, had the largest circulation of any 
weekly newspaper in Kansas. 16 

The Mail and Breeze moved gradually in the direction of agri- 
cultural journalism during the next decade. In the meantime new 
features were introduced in the paper to attract new subscribers. 

12. A photostat of the three-page contract in Capper's handwriting on the Topeka 
Mail stationery is in the "Capper Collection." Payment of $200 sealed the bargain and 
$1,600 was to be paid to Frank Root, the owner, on the date of transfer, September 21, 
1893. Of the remainder, $500 was to be paid in 90 days and $200 worth of advertising 
was due Root. Root retained his railroad pass and visited the Chicago World's Fair and 
his mother in Pennsylvania. 

13. Notes on Capper's speech at the E. H. Crosby dinner on the occasion of the first 
50th business anniversary in Topeka, n. d., ca!930, "Capper Collection"; interview with 
Marco Morrow, June 16, 1952. Capper always expressed such sentiments with pride. 

14. Interview with Marco Morrow, August 1, 1952. 

15. Interview with F. D. Farrell, July 10, 1951. 

16. Reprint from Brown County World, Hiawatha, in "Biographical Scrapbook C," v. 1, 
Kansas State Historical Society. McNeal and F. C. Montgomery were the owners of the 
Breeze and they presumably were not aggressive in gaining advertising support. 


One of the first of these was the series of political cartoons by Al- 
bert T. Reid, then a young man from Clyde, Kan. 17 

The growth of his paper caused Capper to obtain new quarters 
at 501-503 Jackson street, nearer the principal business district in 
Topeka. New printing equipment was added and the Mail Print- 
ing House was established early in 1897. 18 

In April, 1900, with the purchase of the Missouri Valley Farmer, 
Capper stepped into the field of agricultural journalism. 19 Changes 
were immediately made to departmentalize the journal and a wider 
circulation was obtained. 

In the meantime the Topeka Daily Capital, with its weekly paper 
the Kansas Weekly Capital, was having serious financial difficulties. 
John R. and David W. Mulvane, Topeka bankers, became owners 
in 1895 and operated the newspaper until 1899 when a newly 
organized Capital Publishing Company took over. 20 It was during 
ownership by this company that Charles M. Sheldon, of In His 
Steps fame, engaged in his famous experiment as editor of the 
Capital. But financially the Capital was still in poor shape, so 
the Bank of Topeka sought a new buyer for the publishing firm. 
On March 23 and May 10, 1901, contracts were made for the sale 
of the Capital Publishing Company stock for $56,529 of which 
$5,000 was a down payment. The new owners were Arthur Capper 
with majority control, his wife, Florence, Harold T. Chase, R. L. 
Thomas, and W. B. Robey. 21 Capper took over complete control 
of the company by December 30, 1904. 22 In his quiet way Capper 
led his papers into the fight, along with other Kansas newspapers, 
against railroad domination of state government. He lost railroad 
advertising and eventually his own railroad pass because of his 
campaign but he did not permit this to disrupt his personal friend- 
ship with many Topeka railroad officials. 

Although he was greatly interested in politics Capper's growing 

17. Albert T. Reid, "Friends Continue to Praise Arthur Capper's Character," Topeka 
Dailti Capital, December 25, 1951. Reid dated the regular use of his cartoons in the Matt 
and Breeze from August, 1896. 

18. Topeka Daily Capital, July 16, 1939. A three-way partnership of Capper, Mary 
May, his sister, and George H. Crawford, his brother-in-law, made up the organizers of the 
new business. It was not Capper's practice to bring relatives into his business but this 
may have been his way of providing extra income for his closest relatives. 

19. No figures on the cost of the Missouri Valley Farmer have been discovered. There 
is a general feeling among many Capper employees that this monthly magazine, with a 
circulation of about 16,000 was run-down at the time of the sale. 

20. The Topeka Matt and Kansas Breeze, November 15, 1895; Topeka Daily Capital, 
February 28, 1909. The directors of the new company were Fred O. Popenoe, Chas. L. 
Holman, Dell Keizer, Harold T. Chase, Richard L. Thomas, and Col. A. S. Johnson. 

21. The contract for the purchase of the Capital is in the vault of the Capper building. 
This purchase set no precedent for future Capper newspaper purchases as each transaction 
was an individual matter. Chase, Thomas, and Robey were all employees of the Capital. 

22. Notes in the "Capper Collection" indicates that Thomas' shares were purchased 
August 10, 1904, and those of Chase and Rob^y on December 30, 1904. Mrs. Capper re- 
tained ownership of a single share. 


publishing business required a considerable amount of his time. 23 
One of his acquisitions was a little publication, named Push, which 
Tom McNeal and Albert T. Reid began as a non-partisan, literary, 
fun-and-art magazine, in September, 1902. They were interested 
in presenting material of the nature of the defunct Kansas Magazine 
or of Agora but were unable to obtain sufficient advertising and 
circulation to sustain their publication. So they sold out to Capper 
in 1903. 24 In February, 1904, Household, successor to Push, made 
its appearance with the volume number of the preceding journal. 
Circulation was expanded and "Arthur Capper, Publisher," along 
with a stated advertising policy appeared for the first time in 
Household in the issue of April, 1906. 

The oldest Capper paper, the Mail and Breeze, continued its no- 
ticeable evolution in the direction of a strictly agricultural pub- 
lication after the purchase of the Capital and the Kansas Weekly 
Capital. Capper then had two weekly newspapers which caused 
advertisers to consider carefully before using both of them. While 
Capper maintained that his papers "don't compete" he made 
changes in the Mail and Breeze to make the differences more evi- 
dent. 25 

By October 1, 1904, the Mail and Breeze had a subtitle of "An 
Agricultural and Family Journal for the People of the Great West," 
but the change in character to a farm paper was not generally 
known to national advertisers. 26 So a new name, Farmers Mail 
and Breeze, appeared on the paper with the issue of February 17, 

By 1906 Capper was solidly established as a Kansas publisher 
with his publications, except for Household and the Missouri Val- 
ley Farmer, still confined primarily to Kansas. 27 In anticipation of 
future growth of his business and to bring his widespread organi- 
zation under one roof, the publisher ordered the construction of 
the Capper building at the southeast corner of the intersection of 
Eighth and Jackson streets in downtown Topeka. Construction 
began in 1907 and the five story, fireproof, stone, terra cotta, and 

23. Capper was frequently mentioned as a choice for state printer, then an ap- 
pointive position made by the legislature. 

24. The transfer of ownership probably came with v. 1, No. 8 (April, 1903), the first 
issue which did not have a Reid cartoon on the cover and a named editor on the masthead. 
The cost, presumably low, has not been determined. 

25. Interview with Marco Morrow, August 1, 1952. 

26. Ibid., Morrow, then in the agricultural advertising business in Chicago, did not 
know of the change until 1905, when he made a business trip to Salina. 

27. N. W. Ayer and Son's American Newspaper Annual . . . (N. W. Ayer and 
Son, Inc., Philadelphia, 1907), 1907, pp. 1186, 1187. Total circulation amounted to al- 
most one half million. Of political importance was the fact that Capper published Topeka's 
largest daily and it was one of the largest dailies in the state. 


reinforced-concrete building was completed and occupied by De- 
cember 10, 1908. The first new executives from outside the organi- 
zation, Marco Morrow in the advertising department and Frank 
Ball in the circulation department, were also added in 1908. 

The next new Capper publication, in April, 1908, was Poultry 
Culture, the official organ of the Kansas State Poultry Association. 
This journal was published in the interests of the specialized poul- 
try raiser and as such was different from the usual Capper paper 
which attempted to satisfy wider and more general interests. Prob- 
ably because of these characteristics, Poultry Culture was sold on 
February 1, 1916, to Victor O. Hobbs of Trenton, Mo. 28 

The expansion of Capper's publishing business had been limited 
to journals that had a large Kansas circulation until August, 1908, 
when he bought the Nebraska Farm Journal from W. T. Laing of 
Omaha. 29 The Capper policy toward this Nebraska paper was to 
stress the interests of Nebraska agriculture and to identify the 
paper closely with the state by maintaining editorial and business 
offices in Omaha. But the paper was printed in Topeka. 

In 1910 Capper bought The Ruralist of Sedalia, Mo., from W. E. 
Hurlbut. The initiative for this purchase was probably taken by 
Col. Ed R. Dorsey of Topeka because he received a letter from 
Hurlbut early in June, enclosing a complete inventory and an offer 
to sell the paper and its assets for $10,000. 30 Since Capper pur- 
chased the paper before the end of June and renamed it Missouri 
Ruralist, this letter presumably played a part in the negotiations. 31 
The formula for close identification with the local area, as used 
in Nebraska, was applied in Missouri. Department editors and 
editorial contributors, mostly Missourians, were obtained and a 
circulation drive netted many new subscribers. Part of the in- 
crease in circulation was due to the purchase of the Breeders 
Special, of Kansas City, on August 16, 1910, and its consolidation 
with the Missouri Ruralist on December 10, 1910. 32 The editorial 
office was moved to Kansas City at that time, and in 1914 to St. 

28. Winifred Gregory, editor, Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States 
and Canada, 2d ed. (The H. W. Wilson Company, N. Y., 1943), pp. 2246, 2848. This 
journal was subsequently known as Useful Poultry Journal; see, also, "First Things," a 
manuscript copy of changes around Capper Publications, in the "Capper Collection." 

29. Ayer, op cit., 1909, next to p. 1233; interview with Marco Morrow, April 7, 1953. 
Laing had been struggling to keep his paper going so he sold it to Capper and got a job 
with Capper Publications. 

30. Letter from W. E. Hurlbut to Col. Ed R. Dorsey, June 10, 1910. "Capper Col- 

31. Missouri Ruralist, Sedalia, Mo., August 20, 1910. Capper's name does not appear 
in the paper until this issue, but letters congratulating him for purchasing the paper were 
dated as early as June 23, 1910. 

32. Ayer, op. cit., 1911, p. 501. There were no reports on the circulation of Breeder's 
Special, which was presumably very small. 


Louis, where John F. Case, for years identified with the Missouri 
Ruralist, became its editor. 

The Capper invasion of Oklahoma was announced in the April 1, 
1912, issue of the Oklahoma Farmer, of Guthrie. In this sale the 
Farmer Publishing Company sold the paper to M. L. Crowther, a 
former Osage City, Kan., newspaperman, for $1,000 in cash and 
$2,000 in notes. Crowther then transferred the Oklahoma paper 
to Capper. 33 In Oklahoma, as in Missouri, Capper set about to 
gain circulation, to consolidate with other papers and to employ 
local editors for the special departments. A consolidation was 
made with the Oklahoma State Farmer on May 1, 1912, and with the 
Oklahoma Farm Journal on December 25, 1915. 34 

Meanwhile the name of the Kansas Weekly Capital was changed 
on September 6, 1913, to Cappers Weekly The change in name, 
which came after Capper's narrow defeat in 1912 as a candidate 
for governor of Kansas may have been politically inspired by a de- 
sire for greater recognition, but the justification for the new name 
was that 

The Kansas Weekly Capital has outgrown the title given it years ago in 
its infancy. ... Its growth was so rapid that the realization that it had 
so far outstripped its name came as a surprise. The word "Kansas" didn't 
cover the field at all. ... "Capper's Weekly" seemed better suited than 
any other name proposed and was adopted. 36 

Prolonged negotiations with Charles W. Bryan of Lincoln, Neb., 
in 1915 resulted in Capper's purchase of The American Homestead, 
a monthly farm magazine. 37 Capper agreed to send his own pub- 
lications to each subscriber turned in by Bryan, at no extra cost, 
until the number of subscriptions at a low pre-determined rate 
(12/2^ per year for the Missouri Valley Farmer) would amount to 

Other developments in the composition of Capper's papers came 
after his first election to the United States senate in 1918. The 
Missouri Valley Farmer became Cappers Farmer on April 21, 1919, 
and the first issue under the new title was in June. The change, 
which could have been politically motivated in a desire for more 

33. The contract and bill of sale transferring Oklahoma Farmer to Crowther and the 
acceptance by Capper are in the vault at the Capper building. 

34. Oklahoma Farmer, Guthrie, Okla., May 1, 1912, and December 25, 1915. The 
price of the State Farmer has not been determined, but Capper paid $24,000 for the Farm 
Journal, a price that included some equipment. 

35. Capper's Weekly, September 6, 1913. 

36. Ibid.; Capper's first public office was membership on the board of regents of Kansas 
State Agricultural College in 1909. See Topeka State Journal, March 4 and 6, 1909. 

37. Letters from Charles W. Bryan to Capper, October 26, and November 1, 1915. 
"Capper Collection." The major source of income for farm papers was through advertising 
and as far as Capper was concerned, subscription departments never made money on the 
first subscription. 


widespread recognition of the Capper name, was warranted by the 
same reason for renaming the Kansas Weekly Capital?* Announce- 
ment was made that the circulation of Missouri Valley Farmer 
has not been confined to the valley of the Missouri River nor has the paper 
editorially limited itself to the peculiar farm problems of the Missouri Valley; 
hence it is apparent that we should not retain a name local in character. In 
selecting a new name we are happy in being permitted to identify the paper 
with the owner and publisher, a man who is a champion of the rights of com- 
mon people in general and the farmers in particular. 

We shall not handle any subject, agricultural, economical or political, with 
gloved hands or in a hesitating manner. . . . Capper's Farmer will al- 
ways endeavor to recognize the light ahead that will brighten and make more 
perfect a life on the farm, realizing in full measure that here is the foundation 
of all true prosperity and national existence. 39 

Another change in 1919 resulted in the purchase of the Kansas 
Farmer and its consolidation with the Farmers Mail and Breeze 
as the Kansas Farmer and Mail and Breeze* The sale of the Kan- 
sas Farmer, according to its last independent issue, December 6, 
1919, was reputed to have resulted from a "deplorable scarcity" of 
print paper. There was a paper shortage, but due to agreements 
within the agricultural press, 16-page papers such as the Kansas 
Farmer were not reduced in size by governmental restrictions 
which were placed on farm publishers as a group. Most pub- 
lishers had presses with a minimum press capacity of 16 pages. 41 
A glance at the issues of Kansas Farmer during 1919 show a deplor- 
able lack of revenue-producing advertising matter. 42 Circulation 
had reached a high point of 63,071 in 1913 but declined to 20,728 
by 1919. 43 The entire Kansas Farmer staff was offered employment 
with Capper Publications. Thus, through purchase and consolida- 
tion Capper cleared the field of competition for his old Mail and 

Long hours and intensive labor helped Capper become the head 
of a large business early in the 20th century. His employees con- 
sidered him a prodigious worker. 45 The usual routine, before the 
construction of the Capper building, would find Capper at the of- 

38. See above. 

39. Capper's Farmer, June, 1919. 

40. Ever since the formation of the Farmer's Mail and Breeze, the Capper paper had 
circulated two to three times as many papers each week than did the Kansas Farmer. 

41. Interview with Marco Morrow, November 28, 1953. The purchase price has not 
been determined. 

42. Kansas Farmer, January 4 to December 6, 1919. 

43. Ayer, op. tit., 1914, p. 339; ibid., 1920, p. 351. 

44. There was a national trend for a slight increase in the number of agricultural pub- 
lications from 1910 to 1920 with a sharp drop in the next few years. Competition still 
existed with such papers as the Weekly Kansas City Star, now the Weekly Star Farmer, 
but there was no state farm competition. 

45. Interviews with Marco Morrow and Leland Schenck, April 7, 1953. 


fice of the Daily Capital on East Eighth street during the mornings. 
Afternoons were spent five blocks away in the office of the Mail 
and Breeze at 501-505 Jackson street. After dinner, almost every 
evening, including Sunday, he would again be at the office of the 
daily, thus working six full days and Sunday evening each week. 

On the surface, Capper seemed to have few rules to guide him. 
In some matters he was inclined to go into great detail. After ob- 
taining heads for the advertising and circulation departments in 
1908, Capper stopped looking at mail relating to those fields, ex- 
cept that he had a policy to read all pro-and-con comment about 
his papers. After becoming governor of Kansas he requested that 
none of his employees come to the governor's office to talk business. 
As a rule, he stopped at his own business office in the Capper build- 
ing, after five o'clock to take care of business matters. When he 
left Topeka for Washington after his election to the senate, he found 
it necessary to turn over more control of his business to employees. 
His publications by 1919 were Capper's Farmer, Topeka Daily Cap- 
ital, Cappers Weekly, Household, Kansas Farmer, Missouri Ruralist, 
Oklahoma Farmer, and Nebraska Farm Journal. 4 

The pent-up demand of the war years caused expectations for 
widespread sale of American farm products in 1919 and 1920. 
Plans were formulated at Capper Publications to make use of the 
newly enlarged Topeka plant, to increase circulation and to im- 
prove the reading matter and format of various papers. 47 To fa- 
cilitate this expansion Capper made use of the good will and pres- 
tige of his name and papers among his subscribers. In July, 1920, 
subscribers were offered "Capper Certificates" in denominations of 
$100 and $500 with seven percent interest payable semiannually. 
These were a kind of promissory note backed by Capper's personal 
pledge. Interest rates were later lowered and by 1937 the aggre- 
gate amount of these unsecured demand notes was $3,952,400. 4S 

Almost immediately after the first sale of the certificates, Capper 
purchased Field and Farm, a Denver, Colo., farm journal. 49 The 
general Capper formula for operation of the new journal was made 
to direct its appeal to the diversified farming interests of Colorado, 

46. A four story, 75-foot addition, at a cost of $300,000 for the building and equip- 
ment, was constructed east of the original structure in 1919. Other publications, used 
mostly for advertising publicity, were published irregularly under such titles as the Capper 
Bulletin and Rural Trade. 

47. Copy of a letter from Capper to Ralph W. Mitchell, January 3, 1919. "Capper 

48. From the prospectus of Capper Publications, Inc., which was sent to the Securities 
and Exchange Commission, ca!952, p. 8. There was no particular objection to other 
sources of capital but Capper felt he had more freedom in this financing method. 

49. Field and Farm, Denver, Colo., September 25, 1920. 


Wyoming, Utah, and New Mexico. 50 Prices of agricultural com- 
modities took such a precipitous decline during the last quarter of 
1920 that Capper became alarmed over possible injury to his busi- 
ness. A cutback in costs was almost immediately achieved in De- 
cember, 1920, by having the subscription list of Field and Farm 
absorbed by the Kansas Farmer. 51 

Retrenchment in Missouri resulted in Capper's purchase of the 
Missouri Agricultural Publishing Company, and its paper, the Jour- 
nal of Agriculture, from John M. Branham for $86,500. 52 Thus, 
Capper cleared away all Missouri competition through consolida- 
tion in the same way that he had done earlier in Kansas. How- 
ever, the mechanical work, as well as the editorial, advertising, 
and circulation offices were located in the building of the Missouri 
Agricultural Publishing Company in St. Louis. To save expenses 
the printing of Missouri Ruralist was transferred to Topeka on Jan- 
uary 1, 1933. 53 

Capper's empire expanded greatly in 1922 with the surprise pur- 
chase of the Lawrence Publishing Company, the owner of the Ohio 
Farmer, Michigan Farmer, and Pennsylvania Farmer. 54 Capper 
paid $594,550 for most of the stock of this company. The sale was 
culminated on January 12, 1922, and the Lawrence farm journals 
announced the change in ownership in their January 28, 1922, is- 
sues. Newspaper wire services picked up the story under a Janu- 
ary 31 date line. 55 Editorial employees of Lawrence Publishing 
Company had fully expected to have a chance to "buy in" to the 
company when their publisher was ready to sell his stock. 56 Some 
of them were minor stockholders and Capper offered to buy their 
shares then or in the future at the current price. 

Thus far, purchases of newspapers and magazines had been ac- 
complished in spite of no over-all Capper plan for increasing his 
holdings. After buying the Lawrence papers considerable time 
was spent investigating the Indiana Farmers Guide, the Rural New 
Yorker, the Florida Farmer, and perhaps other journals. 57 Though 

50. Letter from Marco Morrow to agencies and advertisers, October 22, 1920. 
"Capper Collection." 

51. Interviews with Marco Morrow, June 16, August 1, 1952, and April 7, 1953. The 
last issue of the Field and Farm was December 5, 1920. 

52. Missouri Ruralist, St. Louis, February 1 and 15, 1921; "First Things." 

53. "First Things." The St. Louis building was sold for $40,000 on October 5, 1944. 

54. Pennsylvania Farmer, Philadelphia, January 28, 1922. 

55. "First Things"; Topeka State Journal, January 31, 1922; additional material about 
this sale is found in Topeka Daily Capital, July 16, 1939, and in the prospectus of Capper 
Publications, Inc., which was sent to the SEC. 

56. Interview with Marco Morrow, June 16, 1952. 

57. Interviews with Marco Morrow, April 7, 1953, Leland Schenck, April 7, 1953, 
and Rod Runyan, April 7, 1953. 

'^jou will permit younchool 10 rtfcidf by labile ballot, within Itn diyi after rooflpl of tbi* paper who i Ibi- 
BEST SCHOLAR Deportment, riinciimlii* nd r*r/W. Ic.ion. to bo con.iderrd , u d ..nd br Icilor or poTf I . ", I 
r ^ JL?5.1^f y'.J.J'l!l? ffl ^*; _V. *'!! P r ' n "j' cbolr - njmcjmoim "THE PR1ZK SCHOLARS/ nil .end ii 

A Journal for the Amuioment and Instruction of the Boyi and Olrli of Amcrirt. 

ItL'DSON & EWINC. EJaots and Proprieloil ] TOI'EKA. KANSAS. DECEMBER |3;6. 

1 \ \\ 

.uotRtf have Kur^ friends. 

Arthur talks In a business-like manner, and Aunt' Mary 
feels quite sufc in predicting that printing will not turn out 
to be the Avorst trade In America; no trade would in the 
hands of a boy who makes such sensible calcu'ations. and 
such good resolutions. 

" 6porJ- 

Excerpts from the American Young Folks, Topeka, December, 1878, when 
13-year-old Arthur Capper of Garnett early broke into print. 

Arthur Capper 


Famed Kansas Publisher, Governor 
and U. S. Senator. 

Erected in 1908 at Eighth and Jackson in Topeka, this building was long the 
main office of Capper Publications, and is now headquarters for the Stauffer 



tempted, Capper never again went into a new state to buy a news- 
paper. Instead he seemed inclined to withdraw. On May 21, 1924, 
he sold the Oklahoma Fanner to the publishers of the Oklahoma 
Farmer-Stockman. 58 The following month the Nebraska Farm 
Journal was purchased by Samuel R. McKelvie, owner of the Ne- 
braska Farmer. 59 

In keeping with the trend towards consolidation of state farm 
papers throughout the country, the two leading state farm journals 
in each of the states of Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania were 
consolidated in September, 1928. 60 The names of his Eastern farm 
papers were retained and Capper owned 60 per cent of the stock of 
the new company, Capper-Harman-Slocum, Inc. 61 

In the nonagricultural part of Capper Publications there was con- 
siderable change just as there had been with the farm journals. 
Beginning on January 31, 1921, the Kansas City Kansan, a daily, 
was published in Kansas City, Kan., under Capper's auspices. 62 
The Kansas city had found it difficult to support a daily because of 
the local strength of the Star and Times. Kansas City, Kan., had 
the dubious distinction of being the largest city in the United States 
without a daily newspaper. Previous publishers had failed to de- 
velop a paper which would do much more than carry the legal 
advertising of the city. In hopes of promoting more community 
spirit the Chamber of Commerce sent representatives to Capper to 
persuade him to sponsor a Kansas City paper. In spite of his efforts 
to retrench elsewhere, Capper agreed to take over the name and 
good will of the old Kansan, if the Chamber would guarantee 15,000 
subscribers and obtain pledges of $200,000 in advertising for the 
first year. 63 The Kansan failed to show a profit during its first three 
years of operation. Nevertheless, it obtained a position of influence, 
for the Kansas City Star Company shifted its policy to carry news 
about Kansas City, Kan., rather than about the "West end/' and 
special editions were delivered to the Kansas City, Kan., reader. 64 

Another expansion of the Capper papers was the extensive pro- 

58. The handwritten contract of the sale on stationery of the New Willard Hotel, 
Washington, D. C., is on file in the vault at the Capper building. The price was $85,000. 
The last issue of Oklahoma Farmer was May 25, 1924. 

59. Interview with Marco Morrow, June 16, 1952. The last issue of Nebraska Farm 
Journal was June 15, 1924. 

60. Ohio Farmer, Cleveland, September 22, 1928. 

61. Topeka Daily Capital, July 16, 1939. 

62. "First Things." 

63. Elbert B. Macv, "Former Educators Among Kansas Editors and Publishers," M. S. 
thesis, Kansas State College, 1939, pp. 54-57. 

64. Ibid.', interview with Marco Morrow, June 16, 1952. Capper invested $350,000 
in the Kansan in getting started and he arranged the business so that he expected a six per 
cent profit. He was cautious in his Kansas City venture so that he would offer no serious 
competition to the Star and Times. 



motion of several journals designed for readers in the Eastern 
United States. Cappers Weekly began operation of an Eastern 
edition, published from Washington, D. C., on January 6, 1923. 65 
It was identified as a political publication and was organized for 
the purpose of enhancing Capper's political career by making his 
name more widely known in the East. 66 The circulation of all 
editions of Cappers Weekly increased rapidly, but financial losses 
were great and the Eastern edition ceased publication with the 
issue of June 6, 1925. 67 In its place, Cappers Magazine, a monthly, 
made its first appearance the following month with no greater 
monetary success, and it suspended operations on January 1, 1927. 68 

Still interested in offering a journal that would appeal to the 
businessmen and businesswomen who wanted to keep informed on 
public matters, Capper took over the publication of Public Affairs 
in January, 1929. 69 This was a short-article magazine, which pre- 
sented the news in a factual, readable manner, and was printed in 
Topeka. 70 In September, 1929, the journal's name was changed to 
Cappers Magazine and it ceased publication after continued losses, 
in October, 1931. 71 

The radio activities of Capper Publications were closely related 
to the publishing media of the company. Capper obtained a li- 
cense for WJAP, one of the nation's pioneer stations, in 1922, only 
to have it leave the air in 1924. In 1927 he sponsored the move of 
WIBW, originally intended for Loganport, Ind., to Topeka. By 
September, 1928, he had controlling interest in the station and in 
1934 the studios and business offices were housed in the Capper 
residence at 1035 Topeka boulevard. 72 WIBW-FM operated as a 
sister station for a short time after World War II. KCKN of Kan- 
sas City, Kan., was acquired on November 13, 1935, and operated 
in close harmony with the Kansas City Kansan. 73 

Although plans for incorporation of Capper Publications were 
begun in 1935, the business did not begin operations as a corpora- 
tion of the state of Kansas until October 9, 1937. All but 114 of the 

65. "First Things." 

66. Interview with Marco Morrow, April 7, 1953; Topeka Daily Capital, July 16, 1939. 
Carl Sandburg described Capper's Weekly as the folklore publication of American jour- 

67. Aver, op. cit., 1923, p. 377; ibid., 1924, p. 386; ibid., 1925, p. 394; "First 

68. "First Things." 

69. Topeka Daily Capital, August 25, 1929. 

70. Ibid. This magazine had been published from Washington, D. C., for 11 years. 

71. "First Things"; according to Marco Morrow, interview, April 7, 1953, Capper's 
Magazine was suspended without saying anything to its subscribers. 

72. Topeka Daily Capital, June 7, 1953. 

73. "First Things." The option for purchase of KCKN was signed December 26, 
1934, and was extended three times. 


100,000 shares, which were issued to 114 individuals, were retained 
by Capper. 74 

The Capper Printing Company, Inc., was chartered at the same 
time. Capper, his sister, Mary, and his sister-in-law, Mrs. George 
M. Crawford, held all but two of the 10,000 shares. 75 

When Oscar S. Stauffer purchased the Topeka State Journal early 
in 1939 an opportunity to make changes in the Topeka newspaper 
field seemed to present itself. Negotiations between Stauffer and 
the management of the Topeka Daily Capital were begun almost a 
year later to determine the advisability of some sort of consolida- 
tion. 76 Much study was made of the possible methods of con- 
solidating. 77 There was a general consensus that Topeka could 
not support two papers such as the Journal and Capital except in 
above average times. A schedule of prospective savings to the 
Capital of such a merger was developed. In general, discussion 
seemed to bog down on the division of ownership of the new con- 
solidation. Stauffer seemed willing to give Capper Publications 60 
percent ownership while Capper seemed to feel that a more equita- 
ble division would give two thirds ownership to Capper Publica- 
tions. 78 One of the big questions was the political consequence of 
such a move. Capper received advice that the two papers should 
be autonomous; that they should be as independent of each other 
editorially as they could be, without having the public say, "Capper 
is straddling the fence. He blows hot and he blows cold." 79 

Finally after prolonged study, the business, advertising, circula- 
tion, and mechanical departments of the Topeka Daily Capital and 
the Topeka State Journal were combined to form the Topeka News- 
paper Printing Company, Incorporated, on July 31, 1941. 80 The new 
joint publishing operation was patterned after the plan of develop- 
ment of the Nashville Printing Company in Tennessee. 81 The Journal 
moved its offices into the Capper building. Both papers maintained 
separate editorial expressions and independent news policies. 82 
Capper Publications held two thirds of the stock in the new com- 

74. "Amendments and Miscellaneous Charters (official copybooks from office of sec- 
retary of state, now in the archives division of the Kansas State Historical Society)," v. A-44, 
pp. 432-436. 

75. Ibid., pp. 436, 437. The Capper Engraving Company that was located in Wichita 
was sold on April 16, 1937, for $25,000. 

76. Letter from H. S. Blake to Capper, January 17, 1940. "Capper Collection." 

77. Letters from H. S. Blake to Capper, February 8, 1940, and from Marco Morrow 
to Capper, March 22, 1940. Ibid. 

78. Letter from Marco Morrow to Capper, March 22, 1940. 

79. Ibid. 

80. "First Things"; Topeka Daily Capital, August 1, 1941. 

81. Editor and Publisher, New York, August 2, 1941, p. 18. 

82. Printers' Ink, New York, August 8, 1941, p. 65. 


pany and was responsible for two thirds of the members of the new 
board of directors. 83 Profits or losses were to be divided on the 
basis of ownership. 

Expansion of business activities after 1920 made it impossible to 
accommodate the entire staff and necessary equipment in the Cap- 
per building. Especially after World War II, Capper Publications 
employees worked in buildings which were often some distance 
from the Capper building. Changes in magazine publishing also 
made greater use of color so that much of the mechanical work for 
Household and eventually Cappers Farmer was shifted to Louis- 
ville, Ky., where it was printed and mailed by Bearing Company. 84 

In 1949 Capper returned to Topeka, after 34 years in public 
service. Though actively interested in his business, his long im- 
mersion in politics had seen control of business decisions pass to 
other hands. 85 He enjoyed coming to his office each day to be 
among his employees. And he greatly appreciated the recognition 
received from many organizations, for it gave him an additional 
opportunity to be among friendly people. 86 

Capper died December 19, 1951, at the age of 86 years. 87 Presi- 
dent Harry S. Truman wired that "it may almost be said that an 
era in the history of the old Midwest came to a close with the 
passing of Senator Capper." 88 Capper was honored while he lived, 
and he was honored and remembered at his death. 

Capper's ten-year-old will was filed in the Shawnee county pro- 
bate court on December 27, 1951. 89 The major bequest was $250,- 
000 for the Capper Foundation for Crippled Children. Thirteen 
Topeka charities were named to receive $1,000 each and $10,800 
in cash was bequeathed to relatives. 

Provision was made for the perpetuation of Capper Publications, 
Inc., under the same managers who had operated the company for 
many years. Mrs. Edith Capper Eustice, Capper's surviving sister, 
and 29 employees, on condition that they were living at the time of 
his death and in his employ or that of Capper Publications were 
to receive stock in the company. 90 About half of the named em- 
ployees were able to qualify for their bequests. 

83. Topeka Daily Capital, August 1, 1941. 

84. Letter from H. S. Blake to Capper, March 21, 1947. "Capper Collection"; 
Capper's Farmer, February, 1953. 

85. Interview with Arthur Capper, April 7, 1950. 

86. Interview with Julia McKee, Capper's private secretary, April 7, 1950. 

87. Topeka Dotty Capital, December 20, 1951. 

88. Capper's Weekly, December 29, 1951. 

89. Kansas City Times, December 28, 1951; Topeka Daily Capital, December 28, 1951. 
The will was executed March 19, 1941, and the witnesses were Frank Carlson, Clifford R. 
Hope, Thomas D. Winter, and W. P. Lambertson, who were all members of the Kansas 
delegation to congress. 

90. Topeka Daily Capital, December 28, 1951. 



Capper's plan for his company was probably influenced by the 
development of the Kansas City Star Company but the manner in 
which his ownership was transferred was more like developments 
in the Milwaukee Journal. There was no provision requiring the 
new owners of Capper Publications, Inc., stock to dispose of their 
ownership upon retirement from the business, but the new owners 
made private arrangements for maintenance of ownership by active 
stockholders. 91 Henry S. Blake, long a vice-president in the com- 






2, 500, 000 









S > 





















er F 

rm P 










1895 tfOO 1505350.0 

1520 1525 1500 1535 l&O && 1550 1555 

This chart was compiled from figures found in N. W. Ayer and Sons, Directory of 
Newspapers and Periodicals, 1894 to 1957. 

The lower line shows the development of the Capper Farm Press while the upper 
line shows the total circulation of all Capper Publications. The difference between the 
upper and lower lines is the circulation of the non-agricultural Capper Publications. 

pany, was named executor to serve without bond. Blake also be- 
came president of Capper Publications. 

In June, 1953, a construction permit was obtained by Capper 
Publications for the erection of facilities for WIBW-TV. 92 A 
Columbia Broadcasting System hookup was obtained and the main 
studio was housed in the old school building on the grounds 
of the Security Benefit Association, located just west of Topeka. 
Operations on a daily schedule began in November, 1953. 98 

91. Ibid., AprU 24, 1956. 

92. Ibid., June 7, 1953. 

93. Ibid., November 11, 1953. 


Final settlement of the Capper estate was not completed before 
the death, in March, 1956, of Blake. 94 Under Blake's tenure as 
executor the Shawnee county probate court agreed to use 25,000 
shares of stock in Capper Publications to satisfy the bequest for the 
Capper Foundation for Crippled Children. 95 But after Blake's 
death a new petition was filed with the court asking that the earlier 
ruling be set aside and the Capper Foundation bequest be handled 
with cash rather than stock. The petitioners held that the trustees 
of Blake's estate, who were also directors of the Capper Founda- 
tion, were in a position whereby they could control the majority of 
the publishing company's stock. Litigation over the disposition of 
Capper Publications' stock continued through the summer of 1956 
only to cease with the announcement in mid-September that Stauffer 
Publications, Inc., had purchased all stock in the company. 96 The 
formal transfer of ownership, delayed because of required Federal 
Communications Commission approval over the radio and television 
properties, took place February 1, 1957. 97 Stauffer Publications 
paid $2,498,675 for the stock in Capper Publications. 98 In addition, 
the purchaser assumed obligations amounting to four and one half 
million dollars making the total transaction in excess of seven 
million dollars. 99 

New press facilities, to greatly enlarge the printing capacity of 
the Topeka plant, were purchased for the joint Stauffer-Capper 
companies. Personnel changes were made gradually. Phil Zach, 
for a short time the Capper Publications president, announced that 
Oscar S. Stauffer, the president of Stauffer Publications, Inc., was 
a "logical and worthy successor to Arthur Capper as the owner of 
this business." 10 Stauffer in his statement said, 

Capper Publications, through its many years under the leadership of the 
late Senator Capper and his associates, has a heritage of which Kansans can 
be proud. 

It shall be the aim of the new owners, insofar as possible, to live up to 
these traditions, ideals and standards. 101 

The Capper enterprise showed an extensive growth by almost any 
measure. At least 20 publications were purchased or consolidated 
by 1930. The staff had increased greatly. The number of com- 

94. Ibid., March 10, 1956. 

95. Ibid., April 24, 1956. March, 1953, was the time of the court ruling. 

96. Ibid., September 16, 1956. 

97. Ibid., February 2, 1957. 

98. Ibid., December 21, 1956. 

99. Editor and Publisher, September 22, 1956, p. 9; November 17, 1956, p. 42; 
December 22, 1956. 

100. Ibid., September 22, 1956, p. 9; Topeka Daily Capital, September 16, 1956. 

101. Topeka Daily Capital, September 16, 1956. 


munication media had grown. Circulation had increased from 
1,600 for the Mail in 1893 to more than 5,000,000 for ten varied pub- 
lications in 1956. 102 These were Household, Cappers Farmer, To- 
peka Daily Capital, Capper's Weekly, Kansas City Kansan, Kansas 
Fanner, Missouri Ruralist, Ohio Farmer, Michigan Farmer, and 
Pennsylvania Farmer. In addition, the radio stations, WIBW in 
Topeka, and KCKN in Kansas City, and WIBW-TV in Topeka 
claimed an extensive although unnumbered audience. 

102. See the chart for circulation of the Capper periodicals, p. 165. 

Kansas Philosophers, 1871 
T. B. Taylor, Joel Moody, and Edward Schiller 



THE material interests of Fort Scott were intimately involved in 
the successful exploitation of the mineral resources of the area 
and in relations with neighboring communities. This meant the 
discovery and development of deposits of coal, oil, gas, hydraulic 
cement, paint, lead, and zinc. The press gave attention to such sub- 
jects as news. The state geological surveys of Mudge and Swallow 
were studied and private surveys were always a source of interest 
for what promise they would turn up. Thus an amateur interest 
in the sciences of geology and paleontology was widespread, and 
some acquired a certain competence in that field. When the Rev. 
Jacob B. Saxe preached on "Geology and Revelation/' some, at 
least, in his audience, and among the readers of the Monitor, which 
reported the discourse, possessed some scientific background for 
an appreciation of the issues. It was a subject that came up fre- 
quently, because the controversies precipitated by geological and 
biological science over evolution of the human species were known 
and discussed. 

Neither Kansas as a state nor Fort Scott, one of the lesser cities 
of the state, is usually considered a philosophical or theological 
center. Yet, after their peculiar fashion, both gave a rather courage- 
ous account of themselves during the decade of the 1870's. On 
July 22, 1871, D. W. Wilder wrote an editorial "Who Reads a Kan- 
sas Book?" of which this is the final paragraph: 

Within five months, four citizens of Kansas have published books Joel 
Moody, the "Science of Evil," Edward Schiller, "Progressive Philosophy," C. C. 
Hutchinson, "Resources of Kansas," and T. B. Taylor, "Old Theology/' Mr. 
Schiller's book was printed in New York, the others in this State. It is not 
a little singular that three of these books are on religious topics, and that 
they all agree in rejecting the common theological notions. Is Kansas to be 
as radical on religions as she has been on political questions? 

The only feature of this paragraph that was strange was the 
failure to point out that two of the three books on "religious topics" 

DR. JAMES C. MALIN, associate editor of The Kansas Historical Quarterly, is professor 
of history at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, and is author of several books relating to 
Kansas and the West. 



were written by Fort Scott men Schiller and Taylor that Moody 
was a close neighbor and had been intimately identified with Fort 
Scott, and that Taylor's book had been printed by the Monitor com- 
pany. One objection might have been raised by a purist whether 
or not these books were on religious topics; possibly "philosophical" 
would have been a more accurate term, at least for two of the three. 

In these several works and commentary upon them science occu- 
pied a conspicuous role. As the word was used it was too inclusive 
except as the concept of science was associated with an emphasis 
upon the inductive method conclusions drawn from an array of 
established facts. The new disciplines of psychology, archeology, 
anthropology, geology, and biology, along with a new critical 
spirit in history derived especially from the German historian 
Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), provided new intellectual tools 
that were being brought to bear upon all areas of knowledge, and 
especially as they related to the role of man on the earth. That 
they should be applied also to religion was only normal procedure. 
But like all new instruments they might be subject to misuse. Also, 
legitimate applications might be misunderstood and arouse hostility 
when they ran counter to established tradition. 

The English historian, Henry T. Buckle (1821-1862), in his book 
A History of Civilization in England ( 1857-1861 ) , had viewed his- 
tory as determined by natural phenomena; physical agencies such 
as climate, soil, food, etc. David Friederich Strauss (1808-1874), 
a German theologian and philosopher, wrote Das Leben Jesu 
(1835), translated into English and published in the United States 
as The Life of Jesus, in 1855. Ernest Renan (1823-1892), a French 
philologist and historian, published Vie de Jesus ( 1863 ) , translated 
and issued in the United States as The Life of Jesus, in 1864. These 
books and other publications in the same vein as these authors 
represented Jesus as a mortal man, a historical character as other 
men, stripped of the supernatural. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), 
English sociologist, published Social Statics, in 1851, an essay on the 
development hypothesis in 1852, in which organic evolution was 
stated seven years prior to Darwin's Origin of Species, and several 
other works on science and psychology. Charles Darwin's (1809- 
1882) Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871) 
formulated the doctrine of evolution of man from lower forms of 
life. Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895), also an English biologist, 
did not accept fully the Darwinian doctrine, but wrote that: "of 
moral purpose I see no trace in nature. This is an article of exclu- 
sive human manufacture." His early books which were widely read 


by the public included Zoological Evidences as to Mans Place in 
Nature ( 1863 ) , and On the Physical Bases of Life ( 1868 ) . He gave 
currency to the term "agnostic" that "the existence of anything be- 
yond and behind material phenomena is unknown and (so far as 
can be judged ) unknowable. . . ." 1 

All these names appeared repeatedly in the news articles printed 
in the Fort Scott Daily Monitor during the year 1871, and reap- 
peared from time to time during the next five years. How accurately 
the issues raised by these men were understood by Kansans is an- 
other question. Nevertheless, the pros and cons were discussed in 
Fort Scott, sometimes intellectually in good temper, and sometimes 
emotionally in anger. And the Daily Monitor reported them, but 
not always sympathetically or accurately. 


The book by the Rev. T. B. Taylor, carried a long descriptive 
title: "Old Theology Turned Upside Down or Right Side Up; by a 
Methodist Preacher; or Eight Lectures: Six on the Resurrection of 
the Dead, One on the Second Coming of Christ, and One on the 
Last Judgment Showing From the Standpoint of Common Sense, 
Reason, Science, Philosophy, and the Bible, the Utter Folly There 
Is in the Doctrine of the Literal Resurrection of the Body, a Literal 
Coming of Christ at the End of the World, and a Literal Judgment 
to Follow. By Rev. T. B. Taylor, A. M., author of 'The Inebriate/ 
'Death on the Plains/ and one anonymous work." 2 The author's 
advertisement appeared in the Daily Monitor, July 14, 1871, and a 
young woman was to start canvassing the city for sales. 

In his introduction Taylor explained the origin of the book, a series 
of lectures delivered at the Methodist church in Fort Scott during 
the previous winter "to crowded audiences, such as had not been 
witnessed in that city, on ordinary occasions of religious worship at 
any previous time; thereby evincing the interest the people were 
taking in the subject. . . ." The publication of the lectures was 
alleged to have been undertaken at the instance of S. T. Armstrong 
and others who heard them, the letter of request and Taylor's reply, 
both dated February, 1871, being reproduced in full. The critical 
resurrection question was discussed briefly, calling upon St. Paul 
(I Corinthians 15:44) for support: "There is a natural body, and 
there is a spiritual body" the resurrection was of the latter. This 
introduction was dated May 4, 1871. Then, prior to going to press 

1. The Oxford English Dictionary (1933), under "agnostic." 

2. The present writer has not found copies of either of the Taylor books, The Inebriate, 
or Death on the Plains. 


a note, or postscript, was added below the date: "The lectures were 
given while yet the author was a member of the Methodist ministry: 
hence the title of the book." 

A brief examination of the contents of Taylor's book is in order. 
He insisted that "the fog, rubbish, nonsense, absurdity" which dog- 
matists "during the past days of ignorance and creed worship, 
gathered around this profoundly interesting subject" must be 
cleared. Taylor insisted that he had believed for years, "that Re- 
ligion and Science were twin sisters, and ought to stand up proudly, 
side by side," but he suggested to religious teachers that "when a 
well established fact of science comes in contact with a theory of 
religion, let the theory in religion, quietly, but as speedily as pos- 
sible, be remodeled. . . ." He concluded the admonition by 
asserting "that the facts of science, when once established, are 
. . . unalterable; and as quiet as the goddess of science seems 
to stand, when she does strike at false theories, it is with a most 
crushing power." 

Taylor's argument is a reminder of a dictum that once upon a 
time religion was the chief source of error, but in recent times sci- 
ence has assumed that unenviable role. He did not differentiate 
facts, theories, and philosophical speculation, and did not explain 
how affection could survive between the loving "twin sisters" if re- 
ligion must always submit abjectly to science. Taylor did not ex- 
plain who was to act as umpire in disputes about whether facts, the- 
ories, and philosophical speculations of either religion or science 
were "well established." He did raise the question in his first lecture, 
however, about the status of difference of opinion in religion: 
"Are opinions, when honestly entertained, either criminal or vir- 
tuous? If so, what, or who, is to be the umpire?" His answer 
was that among Roman Catholics the church decided, and among 
Protestants, the Bible was the arbiter: "But [unfortunately for 
certainty] the believers in the Bible have as many phases of belief 
as Proteus had shapes." And then he admonished his Methodist 
brethren to have "patience with, and charity for those who differ 
with us in matters of opinion, inasmuch as there is and can be no 
absolute standard of human opinions." Taylor's confusion about 
absolutes and relativism was not new in his time and has not been 
resolved since. 

In Taylor's eight lectures dealing directly with the resurrection 
theme he recognized three main views: (1) outright denial; (2) a 
general literal resurrection of the physical body, judgment, and re- 
ward and punishment, followed by destruction of the world; (3) 


immediate resurrection of everyone who dies. Taylor defended a 
version of the third view in which he held that the resurrection was 
of the spiritual body, and not of the natural or physical body "which 
we wear as we do our clothes, and which we lay off in death as we 
do our clothes when we retire." 

On the subject of the judgment, Taylor argued that it began as 
soon as man was created and became a responsible moral agent, and 
would continue until men and angels cease to be created. The 
umpire in this judgment was not God or Christ in person, but "the 
word of eternal truth, addressed to man's intelligent understanding, 
whether written in a book with pen and ink, or upon the never- 
ending pages of man's own conscience by the spirit of God, or 
upon the ever-unfolding pages of nature. . . ." In another 
place the working was somewhat different each was judged "ac- 
cording to the principles of progress and development," and that 
"judgment commences in their state of probation, and ends in 

In a final lecture, "The Magnetic Forces of the Universe," not 
numbered into the series of lectures, Taylor elaborated more fully 
upon the points suggested in the final numbered lecture. Of all the 
natural forces, he asserted that "electricity, or the Magnetic Forces of 
the Universe is the most wonderful. . . ." This he associated 
with man's mind and nervous system. After referring to strange 
religious experiences, observed during his 23 years as an ordained 
minister, and his service during 1868-1869 on a committee of 
scientific men who investigated spiritualist phenomena that excited 
Ohio and Indiana about that period, Taylor concluded that all such 
phenomena could be explained upon purely natural and scientific 
principles electricity and magnetic force and the more "the oc- 
cult and hidden forces of nature" were understood, the less the 
occasion "to look to the supernatural for a solution. . . ." 

These preliminaries prepared the way for an application to "the 
domain of futurity, of spirituality and religion." Taking the prin- 
ciple of action and reaction from natural science as his point of 
departure Taylor suggested that every act of man had its repercus- 
sions, not only throughout the world, but throughout the universe, 
and, for better or worse, these constituted the irrevocable record of 
every man's life; and conscious beings in other worlds might possess 
perceptions so acute that they could read the records of men on 
earth; and furthermore, after this life of men on earth was over 
each might read the other's history. Thus, every man was his own 
recording angel, and "every man must see in eternity ... his 


own most truthful record written, signed and sealed with his own 
hand, not on paper or parchment, but upon the more durable ma- 
terials of the material, though spiritualized universe/' 

Strictly speaking, all this was not new. In the course of the 
discussion Taylor quoted from a Dr. Hitchcock as an authority but 
without citation of the full name of the author, or of the title of the 
work in question. The reference was, however, to Dr. Edward 
Hitchcock, president of Amherst College, and professor of natural 
theology and geology, and to his book of lectures The Religion of 
Geology and Its Connected Sciences (Boston, 1852). In Hitch- 
cock's preface, besides pleading for theologians trained in the 
sciences and in natural theology, he recounted that these lectures 
had first been written eight to ten years earlier, or about 1842-1844, 
and had been delivered before many audiences prior to publication. 
The one from which Taylor quoted was the 12th: "The telegraphic 
system of the universe." A comparison of the Hitchcock and Taylor 
printed lectures reveals the fact that Taylor, except for his own 
autobiographical introduction had not only quoted from Hitchcock, 
but had done little more than condense, at times in close paraphrase, 
the Hitchcock lecture. In this perspective, the question occurs; 
why all the controversy about Taylor's ministry in Fort Scott? The 
ideas were not new in fact, but were new only to the local audience. 

The crisis which terminated Taylor's ministerial career occurred 
between the time of his commitment to the Monitor company for 
printing the book of lectures and the actual presswork. The fore- 
shadowing of it can be seen in an exchange of letters in the Daily 
Monitor, February 25 and 26, 1871. A letter to the editor signed 
"Chairman" called attention to Taylor's sermon scheduled the com- 
ing Sunday evening on the "Effects of Anger," and recounted the 
advance notice by Taylor the previous Sunday intended to arouse 
the interest of his listeners. A hypothetical case was described: if 
Taylor was unexpectedly struck by one person, arousing anger, and 
at the same instant, he was killed by an accidental shot of another 
person, "where would I go?" "Chairman" insisted that the answer 
was simple under such circumstances anger was an instinctive 
reaction associated with self defense, and "the conscience would go 
free," even if a blow was instantly struck in return before reason 
acted. "Chairman" continued by asserting that this simple case in 
Taylor's opinion involved such metaphysics and theology that he 
would devote a whole evening to it, and what he would make of it 
"Chairman" did not know, but as he had upon other occasions 


shown himself "wiser than the Scriptures," on this "he may be able 
to give it a Spiritual meaning. But we are weary of Spiritualism, 
Swedenborgianism and skepticism from a Methodist pulpit." 

Taylor replied "in anger" in the Sunday morning Monitor de- 
nouncing the anonymous attack, which he compared with a snake 
in the grass, or a skunk behind a stump, and yet "Chairman" claimed 
to be a Christian. Taylor insisted that "Chairman" had not learned 
the first law of Heaven: "Harmony is Heaven; discord is Hell" a 
soul in anger was not in harmony with the element that is heaven. 
At the Methodist church, that evening, Taylor insisted he would 
"put a little common sense, reason and Scripture into the discussion 
of this subject. . . ." 

The meeting of the Methodist conference at Paola which dis- 
missed Taylor had occurred shortly thereafter. On Sunday, 
March 26, Taylor spoke at McDonald Hall on the subject of "In- 
tolerance," even standing room being occupied. The writer of the 
Monitor article, probably Wilder himself, admitted he had not 
heard Taylor before, and went in a frame of mind not favorably dis- 
posed toward him. But Taylor's conduct made a favorable impres- 
sion, the sermon being such as might have been heard elsewhere: 
"but very little was said about his own case. He did not charge 
the Methodist Church with intolerance in expelling him." His one 
witticism, which brought laughter and applause, was that "he had 
lately attended a diet of the worms at Paola, and been consumed by 
the worms. Perhaps the laughter aroused by this was heightened 
by the fact that Mr. Taylor was so lately a 'worm' himself, and that 
he may want to consume other worms which would be intolerance 

At the close of the meeting a subscription was raised to employ 
Taylor as pastor of 

The Independent Congregation of Fort Scott. The man and his friends are 
plainly in earnest, and the movement will succeed. Fort Scott is large 
enough and liberal enough to sustain an independent church, and we hope 
there are very few here who are not willing to let the worship of God be 
free republican and democratic in the highest sense of those words. The 
world is large enough for us all, but life is too short to be spent in abusing 
all who differ from us in opinion. 

The temper of the times was such, however, that some took 
offense at the Monitor's comment, and the next day an explanation 

We did not say yesterday, and no one ought to infer from what we said, 
that the Methodists had persecuted Mr. Taylor. . . . Republicans cease 
to elect men to office who do not stand on the party platform, and that is 


precisely what the Methodists have done. . . . Our remarks were on the 
general question of toleration.3 

On April 1, at Institute Hall, "The First Independent Society of 
Fort Scott" was organized, and the necessary machinery of operation 
set up. Each Wednesday evening, a sociable of the society was to 
be held. On Sundays, morning and evening sermons were sched- 
uled, and on Sunday afternoons a service for the children. Meeting 
places caused some trouble, but when summer came the sociables 
were held at the residences of the pastor and members. 4 Theological 
conflict was not at an end, however, one instance being an invita- 
tion extended to the Rev. Mr. Saxe, Universalist minister, to occupy 
the pulpit on Sunday evening, April 22, on the subject "Resurrection 
of the Dead," intended as a reply to the sermons of the Rev. 
A. Beatty, rector at St. Andrew's Episcopal church. 5 

The Methodists were very much embarrassed by the turn of 
events, the number of prominent men involved, and the apparent 
strength of the Independent society. In order to present their case 
to the public, an extract was published from the report of the com- 
mittee to whom the charges against Taylor had been referred 
three charges, each supported by specifications. The first charge 
was doctrinal and dealt with his view of resurrection, conversion, 
inspiration of parts of the Bible, miracles and "Stating that human 
probation does not terminate with the present life, and teaching 
the doctrine of purgatory/' The second charge was personal: 
slang, vulgar witticisms, irreverence, violent language, and threats 
to split the congregation because some complained of his preach- 
ing. The third charge was falsehood; that in seeking the Fort Scott 
assignment the preceding year, he had lied to the presiding bishop 
and to the presiding elder of the district in saying 
that he had no sympathy with the views of Modern Spiritualism and after- 
wards publicly and privately disseminating such views. 

On the last charge the committee were divided in opinion and the charge 
was not sustained, but the specification under this charge was sustained 

Taylor replied vigorously, alleging: (1) that the accusation of 
falsehood had not been made in the copy of the charges sent to him 
through the post office, and he learned of it only when it was read 
before the committee; (2) that he had been denied a hearing by 
the "Paola inquisition"; (3) that the printed extract relating to the 
third charge had been falsified that the original document merely 

3. The Daily Monitor, Fort Scott, March 28, 29, 1871. 

4. Ibid., April 4, 11, 12, 15, 22, 27, 1871. 

5. Ibid., April 22, 1871. 


stated: "Not sustained." Taylor had appealed his case to the 
general conference of May, 1872, filing seven exceptions to the rul- 
ings of the court, and five to the finding of the jury as not being 
in accord with the evidence. 6 

By going back into the record of the circumstances of Taylor's 
coming to Fort Scott, his version appears to have had substantial 
support. The manner of his first contact with the congregation has 
not been determined, but on February 20, 1870, Prof. F. B. Taylor 
was advertised to preach at both the morning and evening services, 
and was represented as "one of the leading Methodist divines. 
. . ." The report on his appearance made no reference to his 
sermon subjects or the substance of his remarks, merely that he 
"drew a full house," and that "the audience were well repaid for 
the coming." Several weeks later his assignment to the Fort Scott 
charge was announced thus: "Mr. Taylor comes among us at the 
urgent solicitations of a large number of the members of the con- 
gregation. . . ." Also the explanation was made that he had 
been associated with the Northwestern Former, Indianapolis, selling 
out his interest in the paper to return to the ministerial profession, 
and to accept the appointment to Fort Scott. The implication of 
the data points to the conclusion that his visit of February 20 had 
been a tryout and that he had made so favorable an impression as 
to give rise to the remark about the solicitation from the members 
of the congregation. 7 

Shortly after arrival, and on Easter Sunday, Taylor had preached 
upon the subject "Evidence of Immortality." He explained that he 
did so on request: 

A subject of such profound importance cannot but be of interest to every 
human being, and we question if there is a person in existence who does not 
anxiously incline to hear everything that may be advanced in proof of the 
gravest and most momentuous question that can agitate the human mind. 
Once convinced of immortality, men cannot but embrace such religious belief 
as he feels convinced will secure him happiness in the eternal hereafter. There 
is little doubt that the great neglect manifested toward Christianity, and the 
apathy prevailing in regard to what is claimed as "revealed religion," arises 
more from want of actual evidence of the immortality of the human soul 
than from any other cause. 

Taylor immediately found himself, not between two fires, but in 
the midst of several. One letter to the editor signed "X" related 
that Taylor's morning sermon was only an introduction to his even- 
ing discourse so he had heard both. Among many other things 

6. Ibid., April 8, 9, 1871. 

7. Ibid., February 20, 22, March 31, April 1, 6, 1870. The Monitor, February 20, 
had given his initials F. B. instead of T. B. 


"X" declared that in repudiating modern spiritualism, Taylor had 
exhibited "narrow-minded bigotry/' Taylor replied through the 
Monitor declaring that criticism was both legitimate and desirable, 
but that the "X" letter was mere faultfinding and misrepresentation. 
Thus for the guidance of those who were not present, but who read 
the paper, Taylor outlined his main arguments under four heads: 

1. REASON says, "If man is not immortal, then his creation was a grand 

2. THE BIBLE, which no where argues the immortality of the soul, neverthe- 
less lays down this doctrine as the great substratum on which true religion is 
based. If man be not immortal then the whole Bible story is a farce. 

[of the original] was based upon the probable truth of the Platonic philosophy 
that "the voice of the people is the voice of God." Here I cited the ancient 
Egyptians, Persians, Babylonians, Scythians, Grecians, etc., quoting from 
Zoroaster the Second, Socrates, Plato, and Homer. 

4. ANCIENT and MODERN facts come to the defence of these three pre- 
sumptions, and demonstrate the truth of human immortality. . . . 8 

On June 1, 1870, the Ministerial Association of the Fort Scott 
District of the Methodist Church met in the city. The presiding 
elder of the district, the Rev. J. Paulson, formerly minister at Fort 
Scott, was chosen chairman, and the Rev. T. B. Taylor, secretary. 
One item of the proceedings as reported in the Daily Monitor, 
June 2, is pertinent to the present narrative: 

Rev. Mr. Taylor of the church of this city made a report of his charge, 
which though in the main satisfactory and encouraging, still showed some slight 
indications that the congregation were not staying up the hands of their pastor 
in the good work he has auspiciously commenced. 

Further evidence in the negative direction was not long in being 
presented. Near the end of July, Taylor apologized publicly through 
the press for his illness and the resulting impairment of his ability 
to perform his pastoral duties. He considered illness a sin, but 
placed the blame upon climate he found it necessary to keep out 
of the sun until he became acclimated. A physician, writing over 
the name "Nux Vomica," accused him of bad taste and with being 
a publicity seeker. Taylor admitted that friends advised him to 
ignore the attack, but he denounced "Nux Vomica" on two counts: 
(1) a personal attack under an assumed name; (2) he was a 
slanderer. If he would only sign his name, Taylor would fill out 
the details, but "otherwise I shall treat you as I would a *barldng 
fisteV Others then joined in the controversy, but added nothing 
pertinent to the present story. 9 

8. Ibid., April 16, 17, 20, 21, 1870. 

9. Ibid., July 30, 31, August 5, 6, 1870. 



Of a positive nature was a letter to the editor in September 
written by a man who admitted not being a habitual church goer. 
The announced subject of Taylor's sermon, telegraphy and its 
relation to religion, aroused his curiosity because he could not see 
the connection. The letter was by way of report and an apprecia- 
tion of Taylor's sermon: 

Here, however, was something new. His text I have heard quoted an 
hundred times. "They have sought out many inventions/' but always hereto- 
fore, in opposition to science, to progress and all discovery. 

The Rev. gentleman proceded to address his very large and intelligent 
audience upon the very great importance and intimate relation of those forces 
in the universe around us, to our moral as well as physical being. 

He quoted passages of scripture, which, if they do not support this theory, 
do not have any meaning at all. The theory is, that sound, light, and even 
thought, make an indellible impression upon the material universe around us. 
How grand and overwhelming is the very idea indeed, which the book of life 
will one day open to our view; the bare possibility of its truth should make 
men and women ponder well their conduct. 

I must confess that in all my long and eventful life, I have never yet heard 
so good an argument in favor of a virtuous life as this theory affords. 

We are made our own recording angels, and as we surely can never get 
away from ourselves, our every sin and short-coming must be known; and 
when we add to this that other important fact that we can never forget 
anything, that some time or other our memory will picture to us our whole 
past life; how very appalling does sin seem to be! 

His assertions were Bible extracts and were well supported by quotations 
from those who are at the lead of all science, such as Hitchcock and Babbage, 
and the eminent Professor of chemistry, Prof. Hare. 

We were well entertained, much instructed and benefitted, and notwith- 
standing the assaults of men who have "finished their education" upon Rev. 
Taylor, we earnestly hope he will feel called upon to give us more such 
sermons, and thus help on the reformation of 


This leads the story full circle to the point of beginning, the ser- 
mons of midwinter, and the announcement in the Daily Monitor, 
February 9, 1871, that Taylor had responded to the urgent request 
of hearers of his lectures on the "Resurrection of the Dead," and 
would publish them in a few weeks in book form, printed by the 
Monitor press. But the crises these lectures precipitated brought 
his loyal admirers face to face with a social reality. After the ca- 
pacity for heroic action in the face of emergency had been demon- 
strated by the organization, April 1, 1871, of the First Independent 
Society of Fort Scott, what of the capacity to demonstrate the con- 
tinuity of interest and performance necessary to insure lasting 

10. Ibid., September 13, 1870. Evidently this discourse was the one that was printed as 
the finad chapter of Taylor's book. 


In due course, April, May, and June passed, and on July 1, Satur- 
day, the Monitor announced that T. B. Taylor would take a July 
vacation: Accordingly, after Sunday, July 2, services at Institute 
Hall would be closed: "In the meantime the Society will make a 
vigorous effort, as tight as money matters are, to bring up all ar- 
rearages." The sermon subjects for Sunday were to be: "The Re- 
form Essential to the Perpetuity of National Life," and "The Coming 
Fate of the Physical World." Applicable to the latter title, the re- 
mark was added that the philosophers had speculated on it for ages. 
Also, a 25 cent admission charge would be asked for the benefit of 
Mr. Taylor. The next day the Sunday Monitor announced a change; 
that as the Rev. S. S. Hunting, Western secretary of the American 
Unitarian Association, was in town, Taylor had yielded the pulpit to 
him for the morning service, but Taylor would speak in the evening 
as announced, when a good attendance was solicited for his benefit 
as the salary arrearages amounted to $300. The amount of salary 
promised him had not been announced, but had it been $100 per 
month, probably thus far he had not been paid anything. Appar- 
ently, services were not resumed. 

Still maintaining residence in Fort Scott, and still with loyal 
friends, Taylor in late December, again found himself in difficulty. 
Upon the death of Phineas Clough, a former member of his congre- 
gation, Taylor had been asked to officiate at the funeral. The 
Methodist minister, the Rev. M. A. Buckner, had permitted the use 
of the church. In reporting the funeral service, the Monitor had 
inadvertently linked the names of Taylor and Buckner. The latter 
published a card in which he explained that "so far as Mr. Taylor 
is concerned, he is an expelled member and minister of the M. E. 
Church, and has no right to partake of its sacraments. . . . [But 
out of consideration of the family and friends] we thought it would 
be very unkind to object to a funeral service being held in the 
church." The Pleasanton Observer made a bitter attack upon 
Buckner, but later apologized after a conversation with the latter 
in which it was learned that the use of the church was requested 
by Mrs. Clough. But the Observer added a gloss of its own, which 
Buckner corrected in a second card, explaining that his first card had 
not been published, as alleged by the Observer ". . . to satisfy 
a gossipping, croaking public. ... I did it from a sense of duty 
and for no other reason." n 

Approximately three months later, Taylor was reported to be lec- 
turing at Topeka for the spiritualists society where he was assaulted 

11. Ibid., December 29, 1871, January 9, 10, 1872. 


by R. N. Collings worth, a revivalist, recently converted from spirit- 
ualism, who beat him with a cane. The background of the incident 
was that Collingsworth had attacked spiritualism and spiritualists 
in his sermons and a group of men approved a written reply pre- 
pared by Taylor, which he published in the Commonwealth. After 
the beating of Taylor they published over their own names a state- 
ment of the circumstances. All were men of distinction in Topeka, 
and particularly well known were F. P. Baker, G. S. and E. Chase, 
and George W. and F. L. Crane, and they jointly took responsibility 
for Taylor's article. 12 

Nearly a year later, Taylor was reported lecturing on spiritualism 
in Manhattan, where the Nationalist said that "the Doctor unques- 
tionably proved that the Bible refers to the return of departed spirits 
to this earth. . . ." 13 Toward the end of the same year, Taylor 
was reported to be lecturing in Chicago where he was more hetero- 
dox than when in Fort Scott. 14 By using the terminology of ortho- 
doxy and heterodoxy, and harping upon doctrinal conflicts, the 
main issue was confused. Science had led many to reject immor- 
tality, and many more were harassed with doubt. The central con- 
cern of the spiritualist emphasis, whether within the Christian de- 
nominations as Taylor had pursued the quest, or within the ranks of 
modern spiritualism as a movement opposed to Christianity, was a 
renewed certainty about immortality that would insure meaning to 
life on this earth. The prevailing faith in science and reason was 
being turned to account in trying to prove immortality. 

The excesses of modern spiritualism disturbed many people dur- 
ing the decades of the 1860's and the 1870's, and for different rea- 
sons. That topic is dealt with more appropriately elsewhere, but 
one aspect applicable here was focused as follows: 

While these people [scientific spiritualists] are active and zealous trying to 
demonstrate the immortality of the soul, we learn that the big gun of the Ma- 
terialists, B. F. Underwood, of Boston, designs invading us with two lectures 
next week at McDonald Hall. Mr. Underwood will try to prove that we have 
no soul, or at least that we have no existence after death. He is the extreme 
opposite of Spiritualism. 15 

Here was indeed the crux of the matter the search for certainty 
about immortality which had been under attack by many scientists 
and others using science. By employing the method of science 
experiment and demonstration the sincere spiritualist hoped to 

12. Ibid., March 29, 30, 1872, reprinted from the Topeka Daily Commonwealth. 

13. Daily Monitor, January 28, 1873, the wording is the Monitor's summary. 

14. Ibid., November 29, 1873, commenting upon a Chicago Tribune report of his 

15. Ibid., January 4, 5, 8, 1873. 


provide conclusive proof of immortality, which, thus far in the his- 
tory of the culture of man, had been based upon faith alone. If the 
sceptic argued that even this resort to scientific method and to 
science was nothing more than an exercise in faith, then a sufficient 
reply was that scientific spiritualism and scientific materialism were 
both based upon the same faith. Of course, such a formula would 
be two-edged, but that was proper, because scientific method and 
science were often abused by both materialists and spiritualists. 
The truth is that all was not "sweetness and light" within the ranks 
of either spiritualism or scientism. 


Joel Moody's The Science of Evil; or First Principles of Human 
Action: Together With Three Lectures; Salvation and Damnation 
Before Birth, or the Scientific and Theological Methods of Salva- 
tion Compared. Sunday; Its History, Uses and Abuses. Prayer; 
the True and False Methods Compared, was claimed by its pub- 
lishers, Crane & Byron, Topeka, to be "the first literary work pub- 
lished in Kansas." Wilder challenged that claim, but what was 
more important was the content of the book which he condemned 
unmercifully: "The book does not seem to us to be wise or profound, 
and critics will deny that it is literature. The reading of it would 
not make us wiser or better, and we prefer to read authors who 
either instruct or amuse." 16 Unfortunately, Wilder was too con- 
servative, too prejudiced because of matters on which they were at 
odds, or simply too obtuse in matters of philosophy and theology 
to state accurately for the information of his readers the trend of 
Moody's argument. Agreement is not necessary for a reviewer to 
discuss a book at an intellectual level. 

Joel Moody was born at or near Lake George, New Brunswick, 
October 28, 1833, and died at Topeka, February 18, 1914. His 
family moved to St. Charles, 111., in 1834, so Joel's early years were 
spent in that state. As his parents died in 1846 he shifted for him- 
self, graduated from Oberlin College, received a degree, in 1858, 
from the University of Michigan, and was admitted to the bar at 
Columbus, Ohio, the same year. On January 1, 1859, he was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth King and came to Kansas. The young couple 
lived at Leavenworth from February to October, 1859, at Belmont, 
Woodson County, from October, 1859, to 1866, when they moved 

16. Ibid., January 28, 1871. In his Annals of Kansas (1886) p. 546, Wilder gave the 
date of publication of Moody's book as February 14, 1871, but Wilder's review appeared 
in the Monitor January 28, with the announcement that the book was then for sale by Dyer 
Smith at the post office news depot. 


to Linn county which continued to be the Moody home until 
August, 1892, Elizabeth having died during the 1880's. He served 
in the house of representatives from Woodson county in 1865 and 
from Linn county in 1881, and in the state senate 1889 and 1891 
where, as chairman of the committee on education, he sponsored 
a bill "to place the University of Kansas on a plane above the 
preparatory school, and to take rank among the higher universities 
of the country." As a member of the board of regents he had a 
hand "in its management as well as in its new birth." 17 Also, Moody 
achieved some local distinction as a poet: The Song of Kansas, and 
Other Poems (Topeka, 1890). 

In 1881, when a reporter was refused biographical data by 
Moody, he wrote to Mrs. Moody to supply them. Her reply is 
precious and opened thus: 

In answer to your conundrums about my husband, I will say: Mr. Moody 
has been quite a study to me. I have lived with him a long time, and the 
longer I live with him the more I find out and the less I know really about 

When and where he was born are questions I know nothing about, but 
that he was bora I have very little doubt, and really on the whole do not 
regret it. 

By the time Mrs. Moody had finished her letter the reporter was 
none the wiser about the biographical facts he needed. But, surely 
he had received a memorable document that suggests that life 
with Joel, Elizabeth, and their three boys at Mound City must have 
been anything but dull. 

When Moody began lecturing on the subjects that found their 
way into his book The Science of Evil ... is not yet clear, 
but he delivered several series of such lectures during the years 
1868-1870 at Mound City, Topeka, Leavenworth, Lawrence, Fort 
Scott and other places in Kansas, and in Eastern cities, and appar- 
ently with some success. At that time he was referred to as the 
"Rev. Joel Moody, Minister of the Free Religious Society at Mound 
City," or "Professor" Moody. 

No record has been found of the factors which induced the 
Moody family to throw in its lot with the Mound City community. 
The unorthodoxy of both may suggest more than the facts war- 
ranted, but from the major beginnings of 1857 onward, radicalism 
was conspicuous at Mound City in the form of Quaker abolitionism, 

17. Kansas State Historical Society, "Biographical Circulars"; Collections, K. S. H. S., 
v. 14 (1915-1918), p. 208 note, portrait p. 211; Admire's Political and Legislative Hand- 
Book for Kansas, 1891, p. 405, is the authority for the credit attributed to him for the Uni- 
versity bill. See, also, his annual opening address delivered September 13, 1889, at Law- 
rence on "The University and the Student." 


woman's rights, and prohibition. In 1864 the Ladies Enterprise 
Society, one of the earliest woman's clubs in the United States, 
built the Free Meeting House "for religious worship, educational 
purposes, scientific, literary and political lectures or meetings. 
. . ." In 1869 the building was donated to the county and be- 
came the Linn county courthouse, and the Ladies Enterprise 
Society came to an end. 18 

In October, 1868, the Linn County Spiritualist Association was 
organized. 19 Another group fostered in Mound City in the com- 
munity tradition was the Free Religious Society with which Joel 
Moody was conspicuously associated. 

At Fort Scott, beginning December 14, 1868, Moody delivered at 
the City Hall a series of five free lectures on "The History and Phil- 
osophy of Evil." Concerning these a sympathetic correspondent 
furnished an extended report saying that: "For Sermons they are 
out of the track of popular preaching, being not only scientific and 
historic, but philosophic in the highest sense of that term. . . ." 
Because these are the first series on which reports have been found, 
the brief references to their content are important to indicate some- 
thing of the intellectual path he was to follow until his ideas were 
printed formally in the book. The first sermon was introductory to 
the whole series and 

contained a historic and philosophic account of the Devil. His second . . . 
treated ... the popular and false theory of Evil ... a stunner to 
Orthodoxy. The third . . . was "Gods providence in man and nature," 
showed a knowledge of the Physical Sciences inostentatiously wrought into a 
"Sermon" which seemed to fall upon the ear like manna into the wilderness, of 
popular preaching. 

He argued from the perfection of God, that if He ever created a Devil, He 
must have meant the very best to the life of the Devil; that he created no evil 
as evil, He meant no evil as evil; and that there could be no absolute evil in the 
Universe. Sins there are many, but no sin absolute and generic tainting the 
whole race. 

Extracts from the manuscript of the fourth lecture were printed, 
one of which may fairly indicate the trend of his argument: 

No vicarious atonements can prevent the effects of our sins or errors on the 
coming generations of man. No blood of Christ can wash away the diseases 
of the flesh transmitted to children. . . . Ministers urge men and women to 
prepare for the next world. Would to God they would spend their feeble 

18. William Ansel Mitchell, Linn County, Kansas, A History (Kansas City, Mo., 1928), 
pp. 331-340; Andreas-Cutler, History of Kansas, p. 1108, offered a variant on some points. 

19. The Border Sentinel, Mound City, November 13, 1868, printed the text of the 


talents and earnest breath in teaching fathers and mothers to prepare them- 
selves and their children for this world. . . . It is not the soul of man that 
must be saved so much after death, it must be saved before birth. It is not 
death, it is life which is a fearful thing. 

The fifth sermon was not summarized, but the account closed: 
"Suffice it to say, the course was the word fitly spoken broadly and 
well, at the right time, and in the right place. In the language of 
one of our best citizens, 'Thank God there is one man who has the 
courage to speak the truth/ Mr. Moody is a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, an accomplished and finished scholar, but his 
best recommendation is the Sermons he preaches." The writer 
announced the "intention to have him preach to us once a month." 
The phrasing of this last remark implied that a sponsoring organiza- 
tion was involved, but none was named. 20 In a card printed in the 
Monitor, Moody thanked the people for the donation of $50 for the 
lectures: "It pleases me to find the most influential, intelligent and 
business part of the people, wherever I go, so interested in the cause 
of Man and True Religion in the world." 

The plan for monthly lectures by Moody did materialize, the an- 
nouncement saying he would "preach to the liberal religious element 
of Fort Scott," February 7, 1869, in McDonald Hall, 4 P. M.; again 
March 7, subject "Immortal Life"; April 4, subject not announced; 
and May 1, "Education." 21 

His sermon of June 6, at Mound City, inspired a signed request 
that the Border Sentinel print it in full: "Use and Philosophy of the 
Sunday." He stripped Sunday of what he called "the black pall 
of Superstitution," and proposed that it be made a day of rest, 
recreation, rejoicing, social enjoyment, instruction, "or labor suited 
to the condition of each human being. . . . Labor must be 
reclaimed from the curse of the Bible, the curse of the law, and 
the curse of avarice. . . . The Scientific lecture might profitably 
be made to take the place of the popular sermon. . . . The 
world demands a new religion. . . . That it will come and that 
right soon, is inevitable." 22 When preparations were announced 
for the Fourth of July celebration of July 5 (Monday), July 4 
falling on a Sunday, with Moody scheduled for a public role, his 
principles were put to a test. He published a card, a defiance, he 

20. Weekly Monitor, December 9, 23, 1868; Border Sentinel, Mound City, January 1, 
1869. The issue of the Monitor for December 16 is missing from the file and it may have 
supplied more specific information. 

21. Weekly Monitor, February 3, March 3, April 7, 28, 1869. 

22. The Border Sentinel, Mound City, June 18, 1869. The text of the sermon was 
Romans 14:5. 


would not "burlesque" the Fourth of July, the National holiday in 
that fashion. 23 

By July, 1869, but the date of organization has not yet been x 
determined, Fort Scott had a society to sponsor Moody's lectures. 
Wiley Britton, its secretary, wrote to an editor under the date line 
of July 25: "We have organized a Free Religious Society here, 
called 'The Fort Scott Institute'" and from its constitution and 
bylaws he reprinted sufficient to set forth its objects. They recog- 
nized "the great principle of the unity and harmony of Nature," 
and the conviction "that a religion to be strictly true, must be strictly 
scientific; and that any system of religious belief which has its 
claims upon authority instead of science the hand-maiden of God 
must necessarily be false. . . ." They proposed: 

The establishment and maintenance of a library of useful books and periodicals, 
in a place accessible to members, and the procuring of, from time to time, 
lecturers on scientific and religious subjects; for furnishing rational and healthful 
amusements; and for the purpose of better enabling us to discharge all other 
acts of charity and benevolence, and whatever else tends to elevating and 
benefiting mankind. 

Britton concluded his communication by reporting that: 
The Society is flourishing, and our reading room is well attended every 
Sunday morning at nine o'clock. Mr. Joel Moody, of Mound City, gives us a 
lecture about once a month, and his high literary attainments can hardly be 
equalled in the West, and doubtless [are] not far behind Prof. Denton. Kansas 
has done much in liberating and unfastening the shackles of the slave, and I 
think will be equally as active in liberating and relieving the mind from super- 
stition and bigotry. 24 

By order of the Fort Scott Institute a communication was pub- 
lished in the Weekly Monitor, September 1, 1869, under the title: 
"A Prophet Not Without Honor Save in His Own Country": 

The truth of the above saying was never better exemplified than in the 
reception the Rev. Joel Moody has met with in this place, contrasted with his 
reception in Lawrence, Chicago, and other Eastern cities. Here perhaps not 
over forty or fifty persons at a time have listened to his teachings. There 
overflowing houses have greeted him, have published his lectures, and have 
besought him to come again. And well they might, for a gentleman so 
perfectly conversant with the writings of Parker, Buckle, Herbert Spencer, 
Huxley, and other great modern philosophers and thinkers, must needs interest 
and delight an audience with living, vital truths; truths that men know and 
feel accord with the great laws of life. And yet what shall we say of a people 
that, neglecting such teachings, will waste one-seventh part of their time 
listening to the crude and superstitious dogmas of the dark ages; and strangest 

23. Ibid., June 18, 25, 1869; his card was reprinted in the Monitor, June 30, 1869. 

24. Joel Moody "Scrapbook" (K. S. H. S.), P. 61. Probably a Leavenworth paper, not 
the Times Conservative. The Free Religious Association as a movement and its relation 
to Kansas will be presented separately. 


of all, though these orthodox doctrines do not accord with a single law of 
nature, but come in direct conflict with nearly all. Though the modem dis- 
coveries of science proclaim the system a lie, and though the whole world 
practically disbelieves it, yet for no other reason than that which actuates a 
majority of people when they abstain from commencing an undertaking on 
Friday, or from changing a garment after being put on wrong side out, they 
still persist in paying the superstition a lip homage. But is that right? If the 
laws which control the great questions of Intemperance, Poverty, Crime, and 
Prostitution, can be found in any other system of philosophy if we can by 
any stretch of courtesy call this superstition a system of philosophy it is our 
duty to study that system. As well might we insist that our scholars should 
found a system of astronomy on the principle that the earth is the center of 
the solar system, as to try and base the laws of life upon this huge superstition. 
Mr. Moody will deliver one of his great sermons next Sunday, at City Hall, 
at 7& o'clock. P. M. Subject Who Makes Our Idiots and Villains? Turn 
out and hear him. 

Proudly the Mound City Border Sentinel, September 10, reprinted 
praise of its fellow-citizen from Lawrence, Chicago, and Fort Scott 
papers and commented favorably upon the Fort Scott Institute: "A 
society of men and women who fearlessly discuss all questions of 
theology and human nature, and are organized for the good of man 
not to teach theological dogma." 

Beginning December 20, 1869, Moody announced a series of five 
lectures at the court house in Mound City, which still served as a 
community forum as it had while maintained as the Free Meeting 
House. The theme was "Progress of Thought": 

While they are philosophic, the philosophy is NEW, and the result of the 
scientific requirements of the world, and peculiarly of this age. It may be 
expressed in a sentence, evolution instead of manufacture. This age is 
peculiar. It may be called the Individualizing age. . . . But what the 
people learn is particular. ... It has been my object to generalize and 
give a more comprehensive view than people have usually been in the habit 
of taking. . . . 

After trying out the new series on his neighbors, Moody again made 
a tour of Eastern cities during January and the larger cities of 
Kansas in February, 1870. 25 

In the Moody "Scrapbook," the clipping from the Topeka Daily 
Commonwealth was marked in pencil "Orthodox Paper," and in 
that light its contents was more illuminating than the comments 
which had nothing but praise for the lecture "Progress of Thought." 
He drew his illustrations from "the different historic ages, the 
nebular hypothesis, the development theory, the development of 
science and religion, and the growth of law. The lecturer did not 

25. Border Sentinel, December 10, 1869, January 6, 1870; Daily Kansas State Record, 
Topeka, February 2, 3, 1870; Topeka Daily Commonwealth, February 1, 1870. 


find special creative acts, such as miracles, and derived all things 
by evolution. All religious faiths were developed one from another, 
and put on the same level as brother and sister." 

The editor thought Moody's weakest point was inaccuracies of 
statement and generalization: "Another mind might perhaps take 
the same facts and arrive at an opposite result." Among other things 
Moody held that the world's greatest intellectual achievements were 
found along an isothermal zone of 40. In closing the editor ex- 
pressed the hope that Moody would "follow his law of progress until 
he shall have eliminated all error from his system and shall take his 
stand on the everlasting platform of truth." 

Returning the story to home ground, that multiple purpose 
organization, the Fort Scott Institute, requires attention again. Hav- 
ing been launched during 1869, it had been called a free religious 
society in which capacity it had sponsored Moody's lectures, it had 
promoted a library, and in December, 1869, it had launched weekly 
Wednesday evening sociables, held often in the new Monitor read- 
ing room, which sometimes, at least, included lectures as well as 
dancing. Because Moody's relations with Fort Scott were so closely 
allied with the activities of the Fort Scott Institute it seems justified 
to present briefly in continuity some of the highlights of both 
themes at this point, extending through the period 1870-1871. 

On February 15, 1870, the institute sponsored a lecture "Life 
Without and Life Within," by the Rev. J. C. Post, the Baptist minis- 
ter. The next night they spent dancing, and to their music in the 
Monitor reading room, the compositors set the type for the Monitor 
issued the morning of March 17. On a Sunday, March 27, Moody 
lectured, both morning and evening in the same place. The follow- 
ing month, the institute provided a lecture by one of its members, 
D. A. Millington, on "Speculative Astronomy." By mid-June 
Moody's book The Science of Evil . . . had been written, at 
least in a trial draft. He gave a series of five readings from the 
book in Fort Scott and again in Mound City. The Monitor com- 
mented facetiously that: "He will find no lack of material on which 
to work in reducing the subject to a science." 26 

In July Susan B. Anthony was visiting her brother, and while in 
Fort Scott, the institute engaged her to lecture, July 14, on "Work 
and Wages," admission charge 50 cents. A small but select audience 
was said to have been present to hear her insist that women could 
free themselves only through the ballot. On Saturday evening, July 

26. Daily Monitor, February 15, 17, March 29, AprU 24, May 3, June 19, 1870; Border 
Sentinel, April 1, June 17, 1870. 


16, she spoke again; "Why not?" in the Methodist church, answering 
objections to woman's suffrage. For full measure, Taylor asked her 
to share the Methodist pulpit with him the next evening on the sub- 
ject of temperance. The Monitor congratulated Taylor on being 
a consistent advocate of woman's rights, and suggested that Susan 
"has a somewhat new theory on the temperance problem." 

"An astonishing crowd congregated at the Methodist Church on 
Sunday evening," the Monitor reported in spite of the almost un- 
bearable heat, and many were turned away. After being introduced 
by the minister, Miss Anthony spoke for nearly two hours: "She 
contends that man, in the management of society, is a grand failure, 

. . . but she does not omit occasionally to upbraid her strong- 
minded sisters but this for their mild submission to the tyranny 
of the male portion of the species." The editor then concluded: 
"We cannot help thinking that if Miss Anthony had ever married 
it would have improved her opinion of the male sex." 27 

As this lecture was delivered at the evening, or young people's 
service, a constructive suggestion offered by Miss Anthony, other 
than her hobby, was quite in order; the development of an institute 
to serve generally the needs of young people in the community. 
The local implications of that suggestion through the intervention of 
interested local elements led into the problem of the Y. M. C. A. and 
must be summarized in another context. In conclusion of this par- 
ticular Susan B. Anthony episode, however, attention should be 
called explicitly to what had happened. The Fort Scott Institute 
had been her original sponsor, and admission had been charged, 
resulting in a small audience. The Anthony following "snowballed" 
in spite of the heat when transferred to the Methodist church, the 
second, and particularly the third night, as a part of the regular 
Sunday evening service. The original sponsors were forgotten and 
such stimulus as Miss Anthony may have given to doing something 
more for young people was capitalized upon by the more conserva- 
tive Y. M. C. A. group at the expense of the institute, the much more 
radical "free religious society." Of course, nothing of this sort had 
been "planned" by anybody. On the other hand, but quite unrelated 
to the foregoing, the position of the institute was strengthened by 
the American Unitarian Association of Boston which sent a gift of 41 
volumes of its publications including "the works of Channing, Nor- 
ton, Stanley, Wilson, Ware, Clarke, Bellows, Morrison, Sears, and 
others." 28 

27. Daily Monitor, July 12-17, 19, 1870. 

28. Ibid., August 17, 1870, the text of resolution of thanks dated August 14, 1870. 


At Mound City, Moody had used the Congregational church for 
the five evenings beginning June 20, 1870, upon which he had read 
installments from his Science of Evil. .>, . -. Publicly, the Border 
Sentinel and its readers registered no expression about the incon- 
gruity of this procedure. A similar tolerance was in evidence when 
Moody endorsed a spiritualist lecturer, scheduled to speak in the 
Mound City courthouse, September 20, 21: "He is one of the 
champions of Spiritualism, and has long been doing gallant and 
honorable service in the cause of Reform. Turn out and hear the 
friend of man'' 29 

For the winter lecture season of 1870-1871, Moody prepared a 
lecture "The Reformer," which was presented first at the Mound 
City courthouse, November 29: 

Prof. Moody's lecture . . . was characteristic of the man who deliv- 
ered it: bold and fearless. Announcing truths which popular opinion is not 
prepared to endorse, yet which are incontrovertable, and will shine with 
brighter lustre as science and philosophy advance. . . . 

Prof. Moody is too conversant with the history of the world to have his 
zeal dampened by a small audience in Mound City. As an offering of conso- 
lation, we beg to quote the old adage: "A prophet is not without honor, save 
in his own country." 

The editor explained further in the Moody vein, that current ac- 
cepted ideas were once heresies. 30 

"The Reformer" was next delivered by Moody before the Fort 
Scott Institute in the Monitor reading room December 1. In an- 
nouncing Moody, the Monitor volunteered the comment that: "He 
gained the name of a talented lecturer last winter in the northern 
cities, and is recognized among the best thinkers and philosophers 
in this country, as Huxley and Spencer are in Europe." Public 
co-operation with the institute was asked in encouragement of first 
class lectures for the coming winter. Apparently this kind thought 
was wasted upon Fort Scott, because: "Mr. Moody's lecture last 
night was not as well attended as it should have been. It was a 
most beautiful and instructive lecture . . . Aside from the 
merits of the discourse, Mr. Moody had a pleasing and elegant 
delivery which is the soul of a lecture." Next, Moody took his 
"Reformer" to Topeka. 81 

Tangible results of prolonged efforts came to both Moody and 
the institute early in 1871. The publication of The Science of Evil 

29. Border Sentinel, September 16, 1870. 

30. Ibid., November 25, December 2, 1870. 

31. Daily Monitor, November 29, December 1, 2, 16, 1870; Border Sentinel, Decem- 


has been recorded already. In March, 1871, "The Fort Scott Insti- 
tute" was incorporated, without capital stock, for the purpose of 
"the advancement of Science, the diffusion of knowledge and the 
maintenance of a library." 32 The charter was notarized before E. F. 
Ware, March 4, and filed March 7, 1871. The five incorporators, 
who were also its directors were O. A. Millington, J. R. Morley, 
Wiley Britton, V. W. Sunderlin, and John Farnsworth. The "So- 
ciable" of March 29 was held at the residence of Farnsworth. All 
members were invited to be present and to bring their friends: 
"Joel Moody will be present and 'dish up' the 'Darwinian theory' 
to the lovers of scientific knowledge." 33 Sometime during the en- 
suing months, after depending so long upon the Monitor reading 
room, the institute acquired a meeting place of its own. For some 
reason not now apparent, no historical account of the organization 
has been found and the reports of its activities in the Monitor were 
so irregular that a continuity cannot be satisfactorily established. 
But, in concluding this sketch it should be said, that before its 
passing from the scene Institute Hall provided another meeting 
place for various community gatherings. 

IV. The Science of Evil 

In his book, The Science of Evil, Moody's inquiry into the origin 
of evil started with the questions and answers of primitive man: 
"Since the dawn of history a theological notion has embraced a 
scientific fact. . . . The early mind struggling for truth, seized 
a fact of Nature, and dressing it in a mythical garb, passed it down 
in song to the world. . . . Yet every explanation has some truth 
in it. Myths are by no means devoid of truth. They are the har- 
bingers of Science; the nursery songs of the world's infancy." 

The introduction to the book continued by declaring that most 
controversies turned, not on substance, but on a question of defini- 
tion: "This is the whole story of the controversy between the 
Idealist and Materialist; the whole story about Fate and Freedom. 
There is truth in both; and the one is dependent upon the other." 
He warned of misconceptions about natural law, insisting that it 
was not a cause, but an effect, and that the characteristics of a law 
could only be inferred from the effects: "a law is only an effect 
of the action of [Infinite] Force on matter. Strictly speaking then, 
a law of Nature cannot be violated," we cannot violate an eclipse 

32. "Corporation Charters (official copybooks from office of secretary of state, now in 
archives division, Kansas State Historical Society)," v. 3, p. 192. 

33. DaUy Monitor, March 29, 1871. 


and violations of a law of nature as popularly misunderstood 
could not affect human welfare. Thus scientific predictability was 
an effect, or an evidence of law. 

With these premises held firmly in mind, Moody sought to de- 
scribe a subjective relativism of knowledge and ethics and reconcile 
them with the unique but finite individual and with infinite force 
and universal matter: 

That the world is in a continual transition, that it is forever "a becoming," and 
never reaches any special goal, which can be clearly defined; that Theology must 
precede Science and is typical of it; and in fact that the whole religious history 
of the world is only typical of Science, and all god-names are only symbols of 
Force, he [Moody] has endeavored to make quite plain. Force personified in 
the god; is only Force made real in Science. The tyranny of a monotheistic 
worship, and the comparative freedom of a polytheistic one, is strikingly mani- 
fested throughout the world. The latter is conducive to the advancement of 
Science; the former is inimical thereto. . . . Science must be strangled 
by the hand of the ancient Jew and Catholic, while it is nourished by the Greek 
and Protestant. . . . That the freedom of Science will one day take the 
place of a theologic tyranny, and that the scientific lecture will take the place 
of the Sunday sermon, is a fact shortly to be realized. It is a fact already knock- 
ing at the door of the Church. 

Having challenged his readers' attention by a provocative intro- 
duction Moody proceeded to execute, in eight chapters, his plan of 
presentation of the science of evil. He concluded that evil had 
always existed and was necessary to a consciousness of good, and to 
a freedom of choice from alternatives in conduct. To Moody, man 
was the product of development, of a dualism: a finite manifestation 
of infinite force and universal matter. Man is no different from other 
animals except that he achieved an intelligence that set him apart 
from those animals that did not have it; and in consequence Moody 
found religion and morals the product of development also, but in- 
sisted that no necessary relation existed between them. As indi- 
cated in his introduction, science was evolved out of religion the 
question "What?" was religious; the question "How?" was moral; and 
the question "Why?" was science. 

Moody cited two illustrations to serve as concrete examples of 
relativism. First, the wolf-lamb-grass chain of subsistence in which 
the wolf and the lamb differed in what was considered good and evil 
lamb ate grass, and wolf ate lamb. The second was an imaginary 
conversation about ethics among eight participants representing 
different time periods and cultures; Jesus, Moses, David, Luther, 
a Protestant Christian, a Universalist, Whittier, and a Spiritualist. 
Each defined ethical values differently, yet documented his view by 


a suitable citation to the Bible. Moody concluded: "how useless 
it is for one amidst such a complexity of opinions to define mo- 
rality." For him, wisdom and ignorance were absolutes, but there 
existed also, all gradations between: "It is just the same with mo- 
rality. It is a variable quantity, and passes onward from imperfec- 
tion, as the starting point, towards absolute perfection. The stand- 
ards of individuals and the ages are all different, and must neces- 
sarily be so, else there would be no varying conditions." 

The several individuals or branches of the human race did not 
advance equally, according to Moody's system, and he compared the 
relations of human cultures with those of geological structures: 
This age is not superimposed upon the past, burying it entirely . . .; but, 
like the geological strata, all the formations of past ages crop out on the surface 
of this age somewhere, showing us the changes which time has brought about. 
We study the past in its fossil remains, both in earth and man ... so 
there are living representatives of moral doctrines which predominated in past 
ages, but which are now looked upon as barbarous and out of place. 

This law of varying conditions is organic, and perhaps inheres in the ultimate 
atom. Some generalizations upon this fact may not be out of place. 

The first great law we find in the world is, Nature, distributively, never re- 
peats herself. No two men, no two women, no two children, can be found 
exactly alike . . .; no two animals ... no two plants alike . . . 
and we presume no two ultimate atoms of matter alike. . . . 

We are now able to see the immediate cause of so many conflicting opinions, 
and why people are engaged in an endless discussion of rights, privileges and 
duties. The true cause of an opinion lies further remote, and depends on the 
degree of knowledge. 

It is not safe to jump at conclusions about the consequences of 
Moody's reasoning. His chapter two was headed: "Perfection in 
Man Forever Impossible." He insisted upon "man's unlimited im- 
perfection" in contrast with the traditional 18th century doctrine of 
the unlimited perfectibility of man. A person started from absolute 
ignorance, "having inherited ... at most only a certain ten- 
dency or capacity to know, and perhaps certain instincts that are 
irrational," but finite man could never reach absolute perfection. 
Misconception on that score, Moody concluded, had "always led 
to failure in ethical teachings" and to an erroneous concept of "the 
perfect law," also impossible. The admonition of Jesus: "Be ye 
therefore perfect," according to this logic was impossible, the prac- 
tical alternative being merely to "aim at perfection" leaving the 
course "open for each fallible person to aim as he sees fit. . . ." 

The task which Moody imposed upon himself was formidable 
the reconciliation of the apparent complete relativism of knowledge 


and of morals with his concept of the absolute ethical principle. 
Immediately there was no certainty, all was relative but the even- 
tual goal of human striving was the reconciliation of the finite with 
the infinite force through the instrumentality of science. Whether 
or not his attempt was successful as a philosophical system may be 
open to question, but in any case, Moody was not alone in challeng- 
ing the still unsolved relativist dilemma. At any rate, he did not 
accept the defeatist position of the prevailing 20th century rela- 


The third of the Kansas authored books of 1871 was Edward 
Schiller's Hand-Book of Progressive Philosophy (New York: J. S. 
Redfield). This was the same Schiller who had established the 
Fort Scott Evening, Post in 1869. The United States census of 1870 
listed him as a Saxon, and 42 years of age. His wife was born in 
New York, and his two children in Louisiana in 1862 and 1864, 
indicating that he had been within the Southern Confederacy dur- 
ing the American Civil War. He dedicated his book to Wiley 
Britton, later to be widely known as the historian of the Civil War 
on the Kansas-Missouri border. He explained in the preface that 
the book was designed for the general reader, and there was no 
pretense of originality. "Living remote from the great centres of 
thought, I have not recently had access to extensive libraries, and 
some of my quotations have been made from memory:" 

After commenting on the general uselessness of encyclopedias for 
philosophy, he explained further that many of his notes had been 
made years earlier, and might be rusty. In chapter 11 he explained 
that an innate impulsion within man for self-expression was his 
reason for writing this book. It was made up of 39 short chapters 
divided into three groups. In part one, he laid his philosophical 
ground work about the nature of the individual man. Two prop- 
erties of the soul were thought and love the soul's sojourn on earth 
was preparatory, any return to earth was improbable, and a day of 
judgment was repudiated. "Truth was born with us," and was lost, 
he said, by contact with the world: "Children will naturally speak 
the truth," and "The aim of science . . . is the discovery of 
truth." Furthermore: "virtue cannot exist without truth." The 
powers of the soul were dormant until developed by the mutual in- 
fluence of others in society, and as authority for this view, he cited 
Aristotle. Although man was created in God's image, Schiller in- 



sisted that he was not a mere instrument, but possessed reason and 
choice, doubt preceding knowledge. 

In part two, Schiller described his theories of religious belief and 
a cyclical pattern of development of theological thought in all re- 
ligions: monotheism to polytheism, and return to monotheism. As 
applied to Christianity, he saw the universal principle illustrated 
in the monotheism of Jesus, then the introduction of polytheism step 
by step with the victory of trinitarianism over unitarianism, and the 
introduction of the virgin, the apostles, and saints as intermediaries 
who must be venerated. He insisted, as against August Comte, 
the French sociologist, that Protestantism, however deficient in 
some respects, nevertheless made a positive contribution toward 
separation of philosophy from religion. But Schiller dated this 
separation as an explicit issue as stemming from G. W. F. Hegel 
(1770-1831) through David Friederich Strauss (1808-1874), and 
Joseph Ernest Renan (1823-1892), especially the latter. 34 

Both Strauss and Renan had been orthodox Christians, one Prot- 
estant and the other Catholic, and both reluctantly arrived at sub- 
stantially the same conclusions: Jesus was a mortal man only; the 
Christian religion contained things that Jesus did not teach; and 
the tendency of the age was toward monotheism religion recon- 
structed through the aid of philosophy. Schiller insisted that 
Strauss and Renan did not wish to destroy the church, but to save 
it reconstructed. He refused to condemn ceremonies outright, 
because "they have been of vast benefit to humanity itself." For 
him, prayer and worship were a human necessity, because through 
these rites men turned aside "to ponder on the great source of all 
existence the Creator. They inculcated love, not of God alone, 
but of their fellow-men." For Schiller: "Philosophy . . . has 
simplified religion." In the United States he pointed to Unitarian- 
ism as the American manifestation of the return to monotheism; 
but he warned that the achievement of that ideal of pure monothe- 
istic religion as a general condition was slow and would not occur 
in his or even the next generation. 

In reviewing Schiller's Hand-Book of Progressive Philosophy, 
editor Wilder, evidently not prepared to endorse the contents per- 
sonally, wrote: 

If this book finds many readers, it will find many haters, for it arrays it- 
self against the whole theological world. The author does not believe in 
the inspiration of the Scriptures or the Divinity of Christ, and is one of the 

34. Schiller dismissed Hegel's philosophical system as such as "comparatively un- 
noticed at present." 


coolest iconoclasts we have ever read. . . - > But it lacks the eloquence, 
the rhetoric, the enthusiasm, the wit, and the imagination which have given 
to the books of Buckle, Renan and Theodore Parker, advocating the same 
theories, so much of their popularity." 

Although living in the same town nearly five months, Wilder con- 
fessed that he had not talked to Schiller. 35 But about the same 
time, Wilder called the attention of his readers to Charles Dar- 
win's new book, The Descent of Man, in which the conclusion was 
made explicit that man had evolved from a lower form of life: 
"The present work of Darwin, like his 'Origin of Species/ is at- 
tracting wide notice and extensive and varied comment." 36 

The Topeka Kansas State Record looked upon Schiller's book 
with favor, approved its "plain English" and commended it to 
the clergy and to all interested in philosophy: "It bears evidence 
of being the work of a thoughtful and intelligent person, who un- 
doubtedly knows more than he gets credit for among his neigh- 
bors." The Buffalo ( N. Y. ) Courier said that he "rambles through- 
out history to find support for his preconceived theories," but 
had no system of his own. The Philadelphia Argus said: "This 
book is full of modesty and mistakes. As to modesty, it is founded 
on truth, and we admire its candor." The term "Progressive" was 
thought to be unwarranted because men rate progress differently, 
and the readers were warned about the blind leading the blind. 37 

At home Wilder was giving the book some second thoughts, 
partly stimulated by the report of the local book dealer: 

The Fort Scott Philosophy, Mr. Grossman informs us, has met with a good 
sale in this city, and the demand continues. It is evident that Fort Scott is 
determined to know what kind of a philosopher she has living with her, and 
what his philosophy is. The book has been generally and favorably noticed 
by the press more attention having been given to it than we supposed it would 
receive. The author was unwise in frankly saying that he lived in Kansas, 
and could not consult great libraries. Some of the reviewers mention this 
fact, and say no more. Of course no man in Kansas can think or write! Kan- 
sas has done something, in days gone by, towards setting other men thinking. 

Schiller next turned his attention to historical work, dealing with 
aspects of European history. Delivered first as lectures, five essays 
were printed in the Kansas Magazine during 1872. As were many 
Fort Scott men, Schiller was interested in promoting the interests 
of the city and the area it served and tied its future to its mineral 
resources. From political history he turned to geological history 

35. Daily Monitor, March 3, April 14, 1871. 

36. Ibid., April 26. 1871. 

37. Ibid., April 16, May 4, 1871. 


and made a geological survey of the country to the south of Fort 
Scott. Communications, that is railroads, were essential to the ex- 
ploitation of this potential wealth, especially a rail connection 
through the mineral region to Memphis. In 1873 Schiller moved to 
Memphis where he joined the editorial staff of the Avalanche, 38 
and in 1877 was reported as still with the same newspaper. Schiller 
died, September 9, 1881, at San Antonio, Tex. Alone in the world, 
and his background unknown, his fellow printers on the Daily 
Express at that city buried him. From his private belongings the 
fact of his former residence at Fort Scott was learned also that 
he was the author of a book. A letter of inquiry to the Monitor 
sought news of surviving relatives, but an eight-year absence from 
Fort Scott (1873-1881) and its shifting population had erased vir- 
tually all specific memories about its once distinguished citizen. 
One contribution was alleged, but cannot yet be verified, that, be- 
sides the book on philosophy, he had written a book on law. But 
about all this, the editor of the Monitor was quite vague. 39 

Before leaving the subject of Moody and Schiller a few observa- 
tions are in order. Both emphasized that they were proceeding 
scientifically in their philosophies, and that their findings were 
the product of science. Evidently both relied for the most part 
upon the same 19th century writers, but they differed somewhat in 
sources and emphasis. Schiller depended more upon the European 
continental, and especially the German philosophical tradition, 
while Moody reflected more of English thought. They were dia- 
metrically opposed, however, 011 the role of monotheism and poly- 
theism in relation to freedom. Not only did the relativism of evo- 
lution put them in opposite camps in these matters (pluralism v. 
monism), but it deprived both of them of philosophical and moral 
certainty as an immediate goal. Both were compelled to rely 
upon an existentialist if not a stoical endurance of an imperfect 
finite world, but both still clung to the concept of absolutes in an 
infinite universe toward which man might strive through science. 

The three men considered in this essay do not exhaust the budget 
of philosophers for the 1870's in Kansas or even in Fort Scott. Sev- 
eral others will be noticed in due course. These three were icono- 
clastic in several senses. The more obvious aspect is their chal- 
lenge of orthodox religion. A notable point implicit in the fore- 
going review is the minor role of the so-called enlightenment of the 
18th century as traditionally focused upon France and Paris. 

38. Ibid., May 11, September 1, 1872; October 26, 1873; Aprtt 12, 1877. 

39. Ibid., September 17, 1881. The editor was in error about dates. 


Finally, two related Kansas myths, that Kansas is the child of New 
England, and that Kansas is Puritan, are challenged indirectly by 
the evidence that the inspiration for most of the philosophical and 
theological dissent stemmed from elsewhere particularly, direct 
from 19th century Great Britain and Germany. 

A final point of emphasis is appropriate as a closing thought. 
Local history is the foundation of all history. The locality is the 
special scene where occurs the intermingling with the primary folk 
heritage of ideas from the outside. This hybridization, or cross- 
fertilization of different strains of thought, as in the biological or- 
ganism, produces new virility and originality. This folk process, 
as seen here at work, is more, much more, than the mere incorpora- 
tion of the great thought of the 19th century into the local levels 
of culture. Out of this local space called Kansas and other com- 
parable localities emerge creative minds and original ideas to com- 
pete at several larger levels of partitioned space. The great per- 
sonalities and great ideas of every culture originated in some local 
space. The history of the United States, or of any other nation, 
cannot be written adequately or be understood in all its unique- 
ness except it is written from the bottom up, from the foundations 
of its multiple localities. 


Letters of Daniel R. Anthony, 1857-1862 


PART Two, 1858-1861 

LEAVENWORTH 2ond Jany 1858 


Can you make arrangements to spend the summer in Leaven- 
worth? I will guarantee you $1,000. per annum. There is a large 
number of Dwellings say 1,000, in this town uninsured, it needs 
only solicitation to get them, and then not one fourth the labor re- 
quired in Rochester no dwelling insured at less than 1.% 

Genl Bennett wants me to pay some attention to Kansas City & 
other Missouri towns, and will probably wish me to be their super- 
vising agent for the Missouri River country this year also 1 Could 
you sell any of the property do so at % the market value, or price 
usually valued at by you. All appearances indicate a large business 
here this spring Is not your office business to small for two 
and cannot you or Aaron make as much alone, as both of you to- 
gether? I would like to have you try the business here a short time 
at any rate I think Aaron would like the place and the busi- 
ness the only question is can you do better here and enjoy your- 
self better than in Rochester 

I would not exchange my chance here for the best business you 
have in town (with no capital or same as I have) our telegraph 
line will be completed to this place by the 15th Jany 1859 2 

I have engaged a new office 16 ft front 38 ft deep on first floor 
of a two story building, brick, 12 ft between joints with a front 
built higher than the adjoining buildings and am to have the whole 
front for my advertising with signs &c This office is only a few 
doors below my present office and is one of the best locations in the 

Yesterday New Years with four others made calls and I had a 
good opportunity as we rode about town with a four horse carriage 

EDGAR LANGSDORF is assistant secretary and ROBERT W. RICHMOND is the state archivist 
of the Kansas State Historical Society. 

1. J. B. Bennett of Cincinnati, Ohio, general agent for the Aetna Insurance Company. 

2. Anthony's prediction about the arrival of the telegraph in Leavenworth was only 
ten days in error. The poles were up at Leavenworth in December, 1858, and the line 
was completed to the town on January 25, 1859. 



to see the rapid growth of the place, buildings constantly going 
two or three hundred dwellings now being finished And now is 
the time to make a strike, once get them insured and then the work 
is done only continue doing so. Write me what you think 
about this matter I think the prompt manner in which business 
is done here would please you. What is needed is to talk the thing 
right up 

I have a good charter for insurance Life Fire & Mar[in]e with 
banking privileges am elected President of it with old Lyman 
Scott as one of the Directors he takes $20,000 stock he is one of 
our wealthiest men 3 think it a good thing And if you was 
here you might do a good business just insuring lives I suppose 
Aaron would have no idea of moving west although I have written 
him on the subject. Look this matter over thoroughly and see if you 
dont feel disposed to try this place a month or two or longer 

Wilder will visit Rochester about the 15 Jany will return to 
Leavenworth 15th Feby or 1st March I shall open an account in 
New York in the spring Write soon. 

Truly D. R. ANTHONY 


April 24th 1858 

About one month ago I sent you note for $1,000 Three 
months dated April 4th 58. with directions to get it discounted 
and have notes forwarded to me by Express. 

I have not heard one word from it. Whether it has reached you 
or what has been done or will be done. 

New York drafts are selling here at 1% discount for currency 
(Bank notes) or %% discount for Gold. 

So you will readily see that I can make a good thing if I only had 
the money to operate with. 

Drafts on New York are selling at from 1% to 3% 

I have sold the Land warrants I brought out with me (880 acres) 
at a profit of $95. Business prospects here are fine. Many Emi- 
grants are coming in. Mostly bona fide Settlers. 

In pleasent weather our Levee, Main Cherokee & Delaware 
Streets are fairly blocked up with teams 

Leavenworth is the commercial metropolis of Kansas and will be 
of the whole country west of this point 

3. Lyman Scott emigrated to Kansas from Pennsylvania in 1857 and in 1858 was 
elected to the territorial legislature. 


My Fire insurance premiums for this month amount already to 
$1500. It is better than I anticipated, and no credits have been ex- 
tended to customers. 

Have made up my mind not to engage in any Land Speculations. 

Our best business Lots sustain good prices, better than last year. 
Outside suburban property has depreciated slightly. 

Lands remain about the same. Any investments made in Lands 
at or near the Government price will be profitable and a large tract 
will come into market next July. Money is comeing in more freely. 

I have been buying some Exchange on New York this month and 
have written to New York to open an account with some Bank, and 
have also ordered a book of Drafts to be got up in good Style 

My insurance business can not continue as large during the sum- 
mer Have just engaged a very competent German to canvass for 
me among our foreign people We have a large number of Ger- 
mans here his name is "Aug Shickedantz. he was educated in an 
insurance office in Germany I like him very much, he is a genu- 
ine go ahead fellow. He says he is an advertisement himself he is 

Hope you will write by first mail. Have small notes sent It 
will have good circulation. 

Have heard nothing from Merritt 

Your Son 

Myron Strong has gone East, he has made some good business 

arrangements there 

Doct John Reid has gone into the country with Wilder 

H D Mann has gone also he likes the country very much 

Mr. Williams son of Major John Williams is here, he goes out to 

Utah as Train Master 
Rev. Mr. Kalloch of Boston came up on the same boat I did he is 

to locate in this city & practice Law 

Mr Green of South Adams Mass is clerking here 
Mr Marsh formerly ticket agent at South Adams is at Wyandott 
The above are all the personal matters I can think of at present 

In haste 


LEAVENWORTH June 20th, 1858 

Rochester N. Y. 

... If you cant make a living in Rochester I would hire a 
small boy about 65 years of age and could afford to give him $1,000 
a year, providing he would pay his attention to business last 
month I sent premiums as follows 
( $381. prems is let run into Aetna $670.20 

June account as my June Home 533.50 

prems will be smaller ) Charter Oak 222. 

My profits for May about Ocean 275. Total 1700.70 


I did not expect Richardson or Chappell would call Your fears 
about troubles affecting business here are groundless Business 
can be transacted here as safely as in Rochester I owe nobody 
except $218.25 at Union Bk and $200. to A. M. McLean for which I 
have cash on hand ready to pay at any moment and be square 
with the world Now if you can sign the note and Sleep nights 
without dreaming Alms houses and Poor houses &c . . . I wish 
you would do so and I can make money out of and pay the notes 
when due If you think you cant why say you dont wish to and 
direct Aaron to return the note at once I have two friends in 
Kansas both rich one said to be worth $50,000. who went on my 
Aetna Bail Bond for $1,500. . . . 

Had a letter from Merritt about June 5th he was working hard 
think I shall send Tim to help him the balance of the year He 
can then Plow & fence a large quantity of Land . . . 

Write often and dont have the Blues you wont live half as long 
nor as well. . ; 

Your Son 


June 29th 1858 

Have just reed letter from Aetna Co desiring me ( at my "earliest 
convenience") to go to "Glenwood Mills Co Iowa" relative to a 
loss which they have sustained there on a policy issued by an up 
River agent I shall go on the 1st July, will be gone ten 
days, so you see I shall soon be compelled to hire a "boy" to stay 
in the office and run about the street on errands. 


I sent Tim down to Osawatomie to work for Merritt. I also sent 
M some clothing and ($20) twenty dollars "Suffolk Bank" Boston 
to buy cow &c 

Premiums in June amount to about $1200. and think I shall 
[have] every dollar due me on insurance paid by tomorrow 
night and all reports and remittance made at same time 

Weather intensly hot no rain for two whole days. River the 
highest it has been thus far this season. The Missioui is so rapid 
that it never rises to do much damage The water whether high 
or low runs like water at the tail of a mill race 4 to 8 miles an hour, 
and it is against this that our steamers have to run, Making only 100 
to 150 miles per day. up Stream & 200 down stream. 

I have some little money loaned at 5% per month you can 
Keep your funds where it brings you 5 per cent per annum. Mary 
D[itt]o and Aaron I have written once or twice and he hasnt 
pluck enough to say he dont want to send it out here into my unsafe 

If you could sell your property for % its value I would advise you 
to move here forthwith. I think times will be hard & money will 
command a high price for some time to come . . . 

Most of eastern people seem to prefer travelling on those old 
fashioned slow coaches which are liable to upset at almost every 
ditch or swampy place or creek, instead of which they might ride 
in a new velvet cushioned Rail car at the rate of 30 miles per hour 
with almost perfect safety 

Another reason why this country is better than the East is the 
climate is excellent, the air so pure that you seldom meet with a 
case of consumption or "Hipo" the latter disease is almost un- 

I have taken but one Life risk since my return this spring pre- 
mium $352.00 but I fear it will not be taken I canceled three fire 
policies last month for non payment of premiums amounting to 
($126.00) they were all good but I did not wish to break a 
good rule, the same men say they will insure with me next 

What arrangements are you making for business another year 
It seems you might all do better Insurance business can only be 
done here by personal solicitation and it is much harder to do it in 
Rochester than here Can give you or Aaron agency of Aetna at 
any point in Kansas. 

When obliged to stop in St. Joseph for a few hours I went into the 
street and took two risks profits ($20.75) 


Money can be made here the only joke is the saving of it 
Well I hope you Mother and all are feeling as well as the married 
& unmarried portion of the family in Kansas 

Truly D. R. ANTHONY 


July 4th 1858 

Have been awaiting a through Steamer for Council Bluffs, for 
the last three days, very few steamers go above St. Joseph. Expect 
the boat along every hour. River continues very high so boating 
is good as it can be against a current which runs from 4 to 8 miles 
an hour, shall be back by the 15th Inst. 

I continue to board at the same place, price only $4.00 per week, 
day board, live better than I have found anywhere heretofore, 
weather continues hot. 

Jack Henderson was advised to leave town yesterday, which he 
concluded to do forthwith. 4 Some other climate will be more con- 
genial to his health I presume, others will soon be notified to visit 
other portions of our favored country, which they no doubt will 
voluntarially or involuntarially. Many of the notorious Border 
Ruffians are comeing back and our citizens think for their own pro- 
tection they should not be allowed to stay here 

Marcus J. Parrott our member of Congress returned last evening, 
we procured a Band of Music and serenaded him at the Planters 
Hotel. Think he is more decided than when he went to Wash- 

Have just returned from my suday Dinner. It consisted of 
Broiled Spring chickens, New Potatoes, Corn Bread, Wheat Bread, 
good Butter, Lettuce, Tomattoes Stewed, Pickles, & cherry pie. 
All good. So you see every thing goes on well in boarding line. 

Mr. Susk [or Lusk] of Elwood Kansas, has just returned from 
Paola near to Osawatomie. Said he met Merritt just beyond Kansas 
City with his oxen returning home with a load of goods for mer- 
chants. I sent him $20.00 by Tim last Sunday 

Will send you deeds for you to sign when I return from the 
north. Property can be bought very low, some good lands for 
$2.00 which will be good investments. 

4. John D. "Jack" Henderson was active in Proslavery politics and was for a short 
time owner of the Leavenworth Journal. He served the territory as public printer and was 
chairman of the Central Democratic Committee in 1857. A committee investigating 
fraudulent votes cast at the January 4, 1858, election charged Henderson with illegal action 
m connection with forged ballots at the Delaware Agency and his position in Leavenworth 
apparently was not secure after that. 


They are putting up a good 3 Story Brick Flouring mill here 
& 3 or 4 brick Stores this season, and any number of wood build- 
ings. . . . All crops here I think will be good. 

Wish I had some one East to Act in conjunction with me in 
Land Warrants & Exchange, on the lot of Warrants I bought in 
March I made $100. but I have written Father and Aaron time 
and again, and can get no answers, they dont want to do any thing, 
are afraid, or something, I don't know, but they might write and 
decline to [do] any thing. When I was in Rochester Father & 
Aaron both talked matter over and I supposed it was understood 
plainly what they were willing to do. If they had continued 
buying Land warrants and had bought no more per month than I 
did say 8 or 10, I could have made $300. or more, and so with 
money If I had it. I dont want my matters talked over with every 
body. I am getting along well, and can get along without help 
and do better than all the family east put together, but if they 
felt disposed to assist even for no more than is due I could suc- 
ceed much better. But I do want to know exactly what I can 
depend upon. 

I think of moving into an office just south of where I am now, 
and get on the first floor. Have got my new Safe in it. Wish you 
would write again soon. 



July 13th 1858 

Your very welcome favor of the 28th Ultimo arrived here yester- 
day. I left home on the 4th for Glenwood Mills Co Iowa, about 
20 miles south of Council Bluffs to investigate a loss for the Aetna 
Ins Co risk taken by the Nebraska City Agent, policy $5,000, 
amount claimed $2200. after looking in to the case fully I become 
fully Satisfied the Gentlemen were extravagent in their demands, 
and had made some errors in their proofs by hard work for two 
days and nights taking inventories, of amount of sales on credit, for 
cash, on orders & for Barter and taking the Gentlemens own state- 
ments & Books for a guide they with out any admonition from me 
concluded they were not entitled to over $600. I think it one 
of the cutest things I ever did, and if I mistake not it will be ap- 
preciated at the Cincinnati office and indirectly will be of some 


advantage to me. General Bennett also wrote that all my actions in 
the Omaha trip last month were perfectly satisfactory, and my ap- 
pointments confirmed 

You see I am somewhat conceited. But I think I can say that no 
man with whom I have become acquainted in the west is better 
posted in insurance than myself Business for this month very 
light last mo $150. less this mo. 

Havent heard a word from Merritt or Tim since I sent him down 
to Oss[awatomie] two weeks ago 

When I left home for Iowa I was unwell but took Steamer to 
St. Joseph then took a Stage Hack 130 miles to Glenwood We 
have had heavy rains the creeks were high. Many bridges gone 
and one small stream was overflowed 10 feet deep on the bottom 
Lands and 50 ft deep in the channell We could not take the 
stage over and had to cross in a skiff distance from shore to shore 
one mile ordinarially only 100 feet rode 2 days & 2 night 
stopped 2 days in Glenwood & went back over the same route 
was pretty well bunged up but on investigation" think it has bene- 
fitted the "Billious" indisposition Yet I am not fully Satisfied that 
the incessant jolting thumping was the sole cause of relief, when at 
the Hotel in Glenwood I was attacked in the night by numberless 
Bed Bugs as large as Pancakes, and in the morning I had the satis- 
factions of seeing the Blood thirsty villians weltering in their own 
blood. Now it may be they only sucked the bad blood out of 
me. at any rate I am not any better satisfied with that kind of treat- 
ment, than you are with allopathy. . . . 

I have written in much of a hurry. My style of writing Home 
letters perhaps do not show any great amount of care but just 
rattle right along. But in my business letters I sometimes write 
model Letters 

As to note & money matters at home I would not have Father or 
Mother do anything that will give them one hours trouble or 



July 16, 1858 

Have just time to say we have had a terrible fire burning 30 
Stores & contents and at one time threatening the whole town 
Total Loss $125,000, insurance 37,000 as follows Aetna $15,000, 


Home 10,000 Charter Oak $7,000. Western Vally (Kurd agt) 
Chicago 4 to $6,000. 5 

The Genl Agent of the Phoenix of Hartford was here during the 
fire. I heard of him next day and saw him he asked me what 
I could do for them. I told him he could see what I had done for 
the Aetna Home & Charter Oak. and he gave me the agency of 
the Phoenix Co 

The Agency of the Safeguard was sent me a few days ago. with 
policies &c one policy Aetna Co $6,000 I think is void Home 
& C. O. Cos Total This is hard commencement, but hope to do 
better. Am writing policies right along. In all, prems taken 
about $8,000. 

If money is [available?] send Draft Water higher than any 
time heretofore this season. Rain last night and tonight It don't 
[rain] in any part of the world half as hard as here 

I enclose Merritts last letter 


LEAVENWORTH KAN August 3, 1858 

Your letter dated the day after our long to be remembered fire 
come to hand in due season, but has not been answered because 
my time has been almost wholly occupied in settling & paying 
losses to the amount of $27,000. Well most of them have been 
paid already and I am afloat again with the same craft colors flying 
and a better reputation than ever, but cant say that I want many 
such advertisements. 

Have move[d] into my new office a one story frame building 
well finished & furnished BedRoom carpeted &c board at the 
same place And in the course of two weeks expect to be settled 
and pursuing the even tenor of our ( my ) way Had a letter from 
Merritt a few days (20) ago he was well &c glad to have Tim 
cant write a long letter to night Have a good many long business 
letters to day. 

Have got the Agency of Phoenix Ins Co. of Hartford. Their Gen 
agt was here the night of the fire 

5. According to the Kansas Weekly Herald, Leavenworth, July 17, 1858, the fire started 
during the night of July 14 in Market Hall at the corner of Delaware and Third streets and 
extended east on each side of Delaware, north on Third and east on Shawnee. The news- 
paper estimated that 35 buildings were destroyed or damaged. Since the town's fire fight- 
ing equipment was practically nonexistent it was fortunate that a heavy rain began before 
the blaze consumed the entire business section. 


Lecompton swindle I "guess" is settled our town was wide 
awake 6 

I worked all day in my office F C Bennett Bro[ther] of Genl 
Bennett was here to settle losses, remained nine days and paid all 
up He is a gentlemanly A No 1 man seemed to be well 
pleased with my business notwithstanding the heavy losses. Says 
the companies that grumble when they loose are only showing they 
do not understand their business Write soon 



Your letter of the 2ond Inst come to hand today. You are my 
only regular correspondent, would like to have been home to visit 
with Dan & Sarah but it woulnd pay just now, as this is my har- 
vest time, and Ive made up my mind to gather the crops before the 
Storms come. 

My business is better than heretofore. My first renewel ( annual ) 
premium was paid this month I shall have 3 $10,000. risks this 
mo 1 of $200. prem 1 of $250. 1 of 350. prem two, 
5,000 risks 1 of $150. prem & 1 of $165. several smaller 
prems of $128, 140, 168, $50, $60, 36, 20, & down to $2. pre- 
mium in Aug $2,444.00. prems so far this mo 1,700. will reach 
2,500 I think. You can say to all friends I am doing well very well 
& Kansas is my home give them no figures (except family) 

If our Land sales go off, I want to get hold of 1280. (8 quarters) 
acres providing I can get it for Land Warrants shall have the 
funds to do so, and believe Lands are sure. I have arrangements 
for choice selections. The sales ought to be postponed for benefit 
of actual settlers but if it comes off Im in. 

Sept llth 

I was interrupted last night and so will finish this morning We 
are now having beutiful weather it has been cold & rainy, 
the nights are cold now Have had some symptoms of the Fever 
but not enough to cause me to take Quinine, or any other medi- 
cine, taking the filthy condition of our city into consideration the 
people have been very healthy this summer, in grading the streets 
they have left whole Blocks or Squares without a place for the water 
to run off 

6. On August 2, 1858, the people of Kansas voted on whether to accept the Proslavery 
Lecompton constitution under the conditions established by congress. It was rejected 
decisively, 11,300 to 1,788. 


For the past week I have been boarding at a Hotel Mr Harn- 
lin has been moving expect to go back again this or next week 

Have written Dan S. twice this past summer & spring and no 
reply shall let [him] write next time I reckon Josh R. C. talked 
of coming out here and wrote me in regard to it what is he 
doing or intend to do Have made up my mind to let the 
people have their way, and if they dont want to trust Kansas they 
neednt thats all 

Have heard nothing from Merritt since I wrote you before. 

Our Municipal election has passed off. Elected 3 Douglass Dem- 
ocrats 2 old line whigs & 14 Republicans to the diferent offices, 
all of them however run on tickets headed Free State no ticket 
was headed Republican American whig or Democrat all the 
Whiskey Ruffians Irish Catholic 6- Douglas Democrats pulled 
together We have a large population of ignorance here they 
raised the cry of Free white state for white men For one I am 
in favor of putting in the word White in our Republican Platform in 
Kansas to combat the ignorance and predudice of the Irish it is 
throwing cake to our enemy but it will deprive them of their only 
rallying cry and in reality will make no difference in the end 

The great cry now is nigger nigger nigger. I tell many who raise 
the cry that niggers in New York are better educated more inteli- 
gent & industrious than they themselves are I wish Fred Doug- 
las C L Remond would come here and Lecture 7 I think it 
would be perfectly safe and they would draw immensely I 
have already earned the reputation of being one of the most radical 
men in Kansas. My name was used by the opposition] speakers 
as the embodiment of all that was horibly in the way of Niggerdom. 
But after all in business I have the full confidence of the people 

The Hartford Fire Ins Co have appointed an agent here a Mr 
C. B. Brace think I can keep up my row I wish Father was 
here to assist me in soliciting Dwelling Fire risks & Life risks. 
Think I will try and Trotter the Napoleon if Solicitors to come out 

I wish Father or Aaron would give me full list of amounts lost by 
each company in late fires in Rochester I believe I wrote them 
that I lost $1,000, for Charter Oak at St Joseph Mo fire on the 16th 
August last 

The business I have keeps one man quite business [busy?] par- 

7. Frederick Douglass, 1817[?]-1895, and Charles L. Remond, 1810-1873, were out- 
standing Negro leaders in the struggle for abolition of slavery. Both were noted lecturers 
and Douglass was also a journalist. Remond served as a delegate to the World's Anti- 
Slavery Convention at London in 1840. 


ticularly as I make full applications on every risk and copy and re- 
port same to company and do it all myself I hope mother will 
conclude to write My time has been constantly occupied with 
my business so that I have not visited any one or attended to any- 
thing but business since my return west 

I dont think I shall come home this winter Have written you 
mostly about myself as most every thing else you already know 
Ha vent had time to send deeds for you Mary & Father to make yet. 

Regards to all good Friends 

Your Bro. 


LEAVENWORTH Sept 15th 1858 

Yours of the 7th Inst with D & F canceled note come to hand 
this morning. I think Father has a $1,000. note of my make wont 
you send it to me. My business last month was $2444.00 in prems. 
This month they will reach $3,000. my first annual renewels 
come round this mo. 

The Piano investment may pay but $250, would buy 200 acres of 
good land in some parts of Kansas which some day will be worth 
$10. or more per acre 

I am negotiating for a first class lot on Main St adjoining my office 
24 by 125 ft to alley in rear price $2,000 during the excite- 
ment 18 months ago they asked $4,000 for same Lot. I am not going 
to run in debt I have a $1,000 cash on hand over all my liabili- 
ties My opinion is property will advance here next spring. Have 
not sold a foot of land and dont intend to at present . . . 

I notice Trotter is on a trip west. I would like to have him here 
for this winter. 

And if you and Father can make any arrangement and Father 
inclines I would like to have him in Leavenworth. My business 
keeps me right at home The Western Valley Ins Co of Chicago 
lost $6,700 by the fire of July 15th none of which has been 
paid they are bogus The parties here who were insured in 
that company offered to pay my expenses and $10. per day if I 
would go to Chicago and settle for them to my best My business 
here would not permit as I could leave no one to attend to it I 
wanted to go & slip down to Rochester But concluded to work 
while the sun shone 

The Charter must suffer some did Sheldon or you take the risks 
in C. O. Co If you have lost only 3,000 in all fires since the Minerva 


Hall you have escaped well. Have taken one life risk to 
day the second since my agency commenced prem $14.20 I 
charge $5. Survey & Policy on Steam risks $2.50 on Mercantile 
risk $2.00 on dwelling risks & $1. for Renewel Receipts 

Have just got me a new case for Ins papers Glass front all in 
good shape. My office is one of the pleasentest in town although 
only a one story frame 

Have just taken a risk in Aetna $10,000 on a first class Brick Flour- 
ing Mill at 3%% . . . 

Have had only two letters from home lately, Susan & yours 

Have had some symptoms of the Ague, took Quinine and it has 
give in I hope and believe 

Have heard nothing from Merritt lately 

Truly D. R. ANTHONY 


Oct 7th 1858 

As Sept is undoubtedly my best month for 1858. thought I would 
give you the Figures on premiums. Aetna Fire $2253.50 Aetna 
Inland $184.95 Home $425.60 Charter Oak $718. State $535.00 
Ocean $385.40 Phoenix $150. Safeguard $168.00 Total amount 
Fire & Inland premiums in Sept $4,820.45 1 Life policy prem 
$15.00 I wanted to reach even thousands but couldnt. 

Have just reed letters from Genl Bennett saying the Omaha 
agency wants attending to also that he wants me to go to western 
Iowa and settle a loss and last night I heard of the snagging of 
the Steamer "D. A. January" I had insured on Dry Goods on her 
about $5,000. Shall go down by first boat to attend to it may go 
as far as St Louis & Cincinnati This is the first heavy loss I have 
had on the river. The river is now very low only one boat up this 
week and now is Thursday. All my business for September with all 
the different companies was settled and paid on the 2ond Inst 
your letter dated 21 Sept come to hand on the 28th pretty fair 
traveling Have had some Fever but think I [am] over it now 
these cold snapps will wind it up we had frost last night for the 
first [time] Have heard from Merritt by way of Tim. Tim & 
Mary were the sick ones 8 Sent Tim $10. to buy "Quinine" 
The starving process is the sure way to cure ague 

As ever 

8. Mary A. Luther was married to Merritt April 2, 1858. Tim has not been identified. 



Well I am back from Omaha Bluffs Glenwood & other places 
north, and was very fortunate in all my business arrangements. 
Made money for the company (or rather saved) Have had 3 
boats snagged on the Missouri lost on the first $60, on the 2ond 
$7,300 on the 3d $2,600, the goods on the 2ond boat I brought 
to this city mostly Dry Goods and jobbed them off in 5 days 
the company write me in regard to my action and "The result 
shows your course was highly judicious and is most heartily ap- 

Business this month is better than Oct, not quite as good as Sept 

Spent Sunday in a pious way, cost me only 25 cents church is 
cheaper than the Theatre, although the acting is not near as good 
got out of bed on Sunday at 7 a. m. washed put on a clean shirt, 
went to breakfast at 8/2. our family now consists of Mr & Mrs 
Hamlin the "proprietors" Mr & Mrs Drake (he is agt of the 
Telegraph Co & Associated Press) young married couple, Mr 
Wilder & myself we had good Steak 1/2 inches thick tender and 
juicy, Sweet Potatoes nice white also Brown Bread & Hot Rolls, 
with A no 1 coffee 

at 10M a. m I waited on Mrs Hamlin (her husband is absent for 
a few days) and Mr Palmer waited on her mother Mrs Knight to 
the Democratic Episcopal church. Mrs. H is one of the finest 
women in town, dresses as well and in as good taste as any one 
in Rochester (not excepting yourself) had on a $25. bonnett (a 
"love" of a bonnet) a $50. Silk (not black) and Hoops and 
white skirts of the finest muslin, which in contrast with the mud in 
the street looked elegantly. Mrs. Knight her mother aged about 38 is 
a noble good woman full of life is worth some thousands in her 
own right, her husband was formerly worth his $300,000, but lost 
most of it in N. Y. he brought $25,000, hard cash to Kansas 
and made poor investments here and is down right hard up. 
Palmer [is] a tip top young man 27 years old been to California. 
Steady temperate & honest worth $10,000, & making more so 
you see we made a respectable party particularly so as the 
Ladies belong to the Democratic party (Douglass of course) 
come around with the Box paid a quarter got roasted heard the 
old story went home the weather had thawed and white skirts 
were no longer white but all mud 

well Palmer took Dinner with us We had a roast wild goose. 


with dressing, Baked Potatoes, fried apples, Cranberries, Pickles, 
white & brown bread Tea and Mince Pie (Cattle are much 
cheaper here than cats and Dogs, so our Mince Pies are genuine. ) 
All cooked as fine & nice as Mrs. Wollcotts Dinners visited 
awhile after Dinner went to office, ate apples, called on two 
school marms with Mr. Palmer, took Tea with them stayed until 
7/2 oclock went to office again We had Mr McLanathan one 
of our leading merchants Vaughan Editor of the Times Mr Weld 
of New York, nephew of Theodore R. Weld come to locate in this 
city as atty, Wilder & myself talked until ten oclock, against 
the Church and the Democratic party then separated & went to 
bed to sleep until 7 oclock a. m. 

Now you have how I passed one Sunday, this Sunday however 
is an exception, as I have been to church but once before since my 
return to Kansas. Expect to have a call to day to give funds to 
support the Church 

I notice your long article about murder think sympathy in the 
special case named by you entirely misplaced, better argue on 
general principles think there was much sentimentality mixed 
up in the case. Although your course was right at the meeting and 
none but flunkeys would deny it. Have written you so long 
about Dinners & pretty women & Episcopal Churches that you 
must be well entertained, the Spiritual and the Physical are so 
intimately related that that which promotes the comfort of the one 
must interest the other . . . Will write again soon 



26th Nov 1858 

Yours of the 17th Inst come to hand to day. Am glad you are 
getting the $10,000 and 5,000$ risks, only yesterday I took a 
$60,000, risk on a Pork House in Weston. You will have to try 
again My prems this Month will go over $3,000. No more 
losses, hope to have a few days peace. I note your enquiry about 
purchasing house. If Rochester is your permanent home, all may 
be for the best $1,500, in this Territory amounts to $2,000 in 
one year. I am loaning money for a New York City man at 4 to 5 
per cent per month he gives me 6 per cent per annium for trans- 
acting the business and one half of all I can make over 20 per cent 
per annium and no risk on my [part] he sent me $2,500, a few 
days ago. 


Am loaning what funds I get at that rate 4 to 5 with best of 
securities Mr Brace of this town has the Agency of Hartford 
and Western Mass companies he cuts under in rates but dont 
succeed much I reckon. 

Had a good Thanksgiving Dinner yesterday 1st oyster soup 
2ond Roast Wild Turkey (ok) Fried oysters, Mashed Potatoes, To- 
matoes, Squash, fried apples cranberries White & Graham bread 
Pickles Coffee (ok) 3rd Apple and Plum Pies and no cham- 
pain with pleasant company. Our Thanksgiving wasnt legal but 
then Rebels in Kansas are not conservative, they do love good 
Dinners particularly when our landlady is the sweetest plumpest 
prettiest lady in the world with Black Eyes and hair Well if 
she hadnt a husband (he's made of Boots, Tailors, Brushes & Hair 
oil ) Id go in dead in love We always make a bet when we invite 
our friends to dine and always win because our lady always takes 
them prisoners Well we all love her and she divides her love 
equally among us necessarially bestowing some little attention 
on her husband just enough to pacify him, the dear boy. 

Well as I [have] written three pages of Houses Insurance, 
Turkeys Squashes & Women, (I hope Sus wont take offense at my 
classing Squashes & women together) and will, in the language 
of one of our Kansas orators who spoke at a Democratic Meeting 
here last night ("before I proceed to take my seat") "before I pro- 
ceed to close" Express the hope that your Thanksgiving Dinner at 
Cousin Rosa was as generously treated as our own Kansas Dinner. 

Well somehow memory does say Rosa's Dinners were equal if 
not superior to Mrs. Hamlins, but Mrs H gets up Dinners in nearly 
the same Style 

I believe good Dinners is the only subject over which I get 

With regards to all & hopeing youl "just drop a line" 

I am 


Yours of 3rd Inst come to hand the llth. Am pleased to hear 
you talk of coming west, as to what you can do, must of course, 
be a subject for you to decide I have been anxious to get some 
one to assist me in my business, and for one who could "fill the Bill" 

9. Eugene Mosher was Anthony's brother-in-law, the husband of Hannah Anthony 


could afford (providing my business continues good) to pay $800. 
to $1,000. per annum. Have written Father but he is so well set- 
tled at home that there is little or no prospect of his selling out and 
coming west. And then if he could sell it is a question whether it 
would be for the best. I think would just "fill the Bill" for this busi- 
ness It wants a good solicitor for out door work. My time is 
occupied constantly so much so that I cant devote the requisite time 
to soliciting new business which might be done to great profit 

Now whether this business would suit you or not is more than 
I can say. What think you? My business thus far has proved suc- 
cessful beyond my most sanguine expectations, and from present 
appearances will continue good as long as our town continues to 
grow and all things indicate a splendid future for Leavenworth. 
an immense emigration will probably flow into this Territory next 
season, and our town cant help, what seems to be its destiny, be- 
coming the Metropolis of Kansas and the west. 

Could you realize from sale of your farm and how much In 
the west of all places Money is needed to make money. 

You can loan money at from 3 to 5 per cent per month on un- 
doubted security, better than you obtain in New York 

I now have $1500 loaned at 5 per cent per month A Gentlemen 
from New York sent me a few days ago $2,500, to loan on his acct. 
and I am now loaning it to parties at good rates He gives me 
6 per cent per annum for working his money and one half of all I 
can make over 26 per cent per annum I can make $6,000, pay 
$1,500 to $2000. interest per annum. House rents are high, Small 
houses 6 or 7 rooms 300 to $400. Such a house as yours 400 
to $500 per annum. Provisions are low. all lands of Merchandise 
can be bought at fair prices. Day board is from $4.00 to $5.00 per 
week, Board with Lodging from $5.00 to $10.00 Of course if 
you come here you would keep house. I think Rents and Board will 
both come down 

I have written at length to Aaron about business here. Think 
that the Grocery trade was a paying business A first class Dry 
Goods establishment with a Stock of $30,000, would pay. A Stock 
of $10,000 of carpets, House Furnishing Goods & Queens & Glass- 
ware would pay Almost any kind of business if pushed would 
prove a good thing. Have written Aaron about his comeing out 
here and assisting me but dont think there is much prospect of his 
coming. He is not much of a hand to push out into a new world. 

I do not like to advise in such matters but think you would be 
pleased with life here providing you are willing to put your Pants 


inside your Boots and wade through mud to accomplish your busi- 
ness. It is money and hard work that will pay here The fare 
from Albany to Leavenworth, when the Missouri is open is about 
$40. and $10. to $20. more when the River is closed as it is at 
present, now you Stage 215. miles from Jefferson city 

As to MDs there are lots of them say 50 to 25 in town. Yet, an A 
no 1 man will get a good business at once, and a paying one have 
thought of writing Henry K McLean but dislike to advise any one 
for fear they may not like and their business may not prove re- 

Leavenworth has a population of 8,000 people 150 to 200 Stores, 

5 or 6 Hotels, 5 or 6 Steam Saw Mills 1 Pork Packing establish- 
ment, 1 Large Brick Steam Flouring Mill 4 ... Stores 2 
Iron Founderies 2 or 3 Waggon shops, an endless number of 
boarding houses, and our streets present a very lively appearance 
looks like Rochester Minus the Brick Buildings. I would advise 
you to sell your farm and loan the proceeds in Kansas. 

As to marrying Matters am inclined to take the subject into seri- 
ous consideration and if so situated that the case could be fully dis- 
cussed the question might be adjusted Dont think there is any 
prospect [of] my making any such arrangement west Please 
write me fully about the marriageble Ladies in Washington 
County For reasons most satisfactory to myself, I have remained 
single thus far and suppose no one regrets my course or cares 
p articularly 

My best love to Nan, Mother & yourself and regards to Easton 
Friends Write on recpt of this telling what shape you can get your 
affairs into for a western life and when & how you prefer to 
come & live &cc 




15th Dec 1858 

I have written you once or twice lately in reference to Kansas 
Matters. Today I rec'd a letter from Eugene saying he had thoughts 
of coming west, and I have answered him at length in regard to 
Kansas & this town in particular. Told him to sell and invest his 
money in loans here Which he can do and realize from 3 to 4 

6 5 per cent on good securities. 

Whether Eugene would be of any benefit to me in Insurance 


business I cant tell, and so wrote him What is most needed in 
my office, is some one to solicit Dwlg risks, make reports. I can 
do best at taking all the large jobs and that occupies my time com- 
pletely. And then again I confine myself more closely to my office 
than if I had some [one] to stay in office, when I was out, on whom 
I could depend. Of one thing I am fully convinced, viz, that it 
is best for me to keep my business within myself I am now so 
well advertised that every body knows the agency, and any change 
would tend to mistify whether Eugene can do any thing else 
here Im unable to say. He must make up his mind on that point 

My prospects for next year look bright, and unless some unfore- 
seen event happens, I shall have a prosperous year. 

What arrangements are you making for another. Are you think- 
ing of remaining in the Rochester Agency business? Or have you 
an idea about coming west? Would [you] have any notion of 
trying Ins business with me here 

Think an agency at Elwood would pay well, it is a small town 
only 500. people but it is directly opposite St. Joseph a town of 
7,000 people and much business could be done there by hard 

D. W. Wilder a brother of A. C. Wilder is now there and doing 
a handsome business as Sub agent for me The laws of Mo do 
not allow agencies from other states to transact business by agencies 
without the companies pay a large tax which the Aetna dec[l]ine 
to do except in St Louis I take a good many risks in St Joseph 
& Weston. 

I supose there is little chance for Father to sell any Rochester 
property If he can, I say sell at % of the price which you have been 
asking and use the money here 

Now if you wish to make money why you must strike at the right 
time I made a loan of $1,400. one year for a note of $2,000. Se- 
cured on property worth $5,000, and property insured to protect 
me $1,200 cash will cancel the note I hold against Father, if 
he desires, so to do. 

From all appearances Leavenworth is going to continue to pros- 
per All is life with our business men. 

Write your views at once, and will do all I can to give informa- 
tion &c 




[D. A. TO MOTHER] March 14th 1859 

It is a long while since I have [heard] from my mother and as I 
happen to get a "Dressing Gown" by my good friend Wilder from 
you or some one else, I may as well formally return thanks for the 
same, but then it is of no use to me unless I am sick with the ague, 
or get married a fellow will get pretty well shook up in either case. 
However I am truly thankfull for the present Did Ann Eliza 
get the spoons or Forks I sent her? 10 (by Wilder) Everything is 
looking bright lots of people coming here some to stop others 
going to Pikes Peak, by far the largest number going to the Peak. 
I have no inclination that way. Merritt did think of going but has 
given up the idea 

Tell Susan I take the Atlantic Monthly & the Standard by the year 
& N. Y. Daily Tribune Daily Times & Ledger, Weekly Times, & 
Herald & Weston Platte Argus making 8 papers in all also 
the Insuranfce] Monitor & Bank Note Reporter 10 papers 
think she will be satisfied I have reading matter enough for one 

I continue boarding at Mrs Knights a first rate place Mr. & 
Mrs. Knight Mr & Mrs Hamlin N. S. Knight, Frank Palmer & 
myself make up the family Wilder comes up occasionally to 
dine We live well better than most others 

Our town is growing rapidly about 10,000 people One mer- 
chant failed to day the second failure since I come here 

Had a letter from Eugene some two months ago Have had 
nothing from Susan in a long time Have just had twenty shirts 
made 6 colored Linen 4 White Linen 10 Cotton with Linen 
colars & Bosoms, Some with colars, rolling some without any 
colars So you see I will get along for shirts awhile the lot 
cost me $50.00 Also 5 Shaker Flannell Shirts & 3 Do Drawers 1 
pr Cass Pants 1 Blk Do 1 Brown Coat 1 Blk velvet vest 
1 pr Boots costing $75 So you see I am well clothed not likely 
to freeze particularly when the weather has been so warm and 
pleasant that there has been no need for overcoats for 4 weeks 
grass is quite green Season opens at least 4 weeks earlier than 
in New York 

Write all about home matters &c I expect Father out here this 
spring My weight this winter has been 165 to 170 Now about 
165 on acct of warm weather 

Your Son 

10. Anna Eliza Osborne, who became Anthony's wife in 1864. 



20th March 1S59 

Your letter from Albany come to hand in about ten days and 
was a welcome visitor. Business was much better during the past 
winter with me than I anticipated last fall The we had a Negroe 
Kidnapping case here which made some excitement for awhile. 11 
It has mostly died away They were going to "drive out" certain 
Radicals, this was old doctrine, and it awoke a spirit of "wont 

The Conservatives had a meeting, denounced the 'Times" & 
the next night we had a meeting and a clincher it was. 12 I made 
the most calm speech of the evening and was even complimented 
by my political opponents They didnt drive any body out of 
town And didnt injure any bodys business. Nobody was killed 
although the Slave Catcher drew his Revolver on me, but con- 
cluded to put it up hastily and walk away. We made about twenty 
men swallow lies in pretty short order & were quiet again. 

This morning as my Negroe was bringing a pail of water to my 
office he was attacked by an Irishman, (all Irishmen seem to hate 
niggers) his bucket of water spilled, and the negroe struck by the 
dru[n]cken Irishman a brother negroe ran across the street to his 
assistance, and at once throtteled the Irishman throwing him in 
the mud. Other Irishmen in turn attacked Negroe No 2 And 
No 2 come into the office took my Revolver went into the street 
again. When the said Irishman wizzeled [?] So ended the 

A white man has no rights which a nigger is bound to respect. 

The people of Kansas are not anti-Slavery Many of them come 
from such Slave States as Missouri Illinois Arkansas Pensylvania 
South Carolina & Indiana and cant be relied on 

I think Indianna & Missouri are two of the hardest Border Ruffian 
Pro Slavery states in the Union 

The Democracy are making great efforts to carry Kansas 

I am very certain I shall carry Kansas on the Insurance question 

I continue boarding at Mr. Knights Shall move into my new 
offi about 15th April or before The best in town. Our winter 

11. On January 13, 1859, Charley Fisher, a Negro barber of Leavenworth and an 
alleged fugitive slave, was kidnapped by Deputy U. S. Marshal Frank Campbell and Frank 
Harrison. On January 24 Anthony was one of a group of nine Free-State men who rescued 
him in Leavenworth from R. C. Hutchison, who claimed to be Fisher's owner. 

12. The two meetings referred to by Anthony were held on January 26 and January 27, 
1859. Proslavery partisans the Conservatives condemned the rescuers of Charley Fisher 
and endorsed the claim that he was a fugitive slave. A Free-State group next evening de- 
nounced the "slave catchers" and upheld Fisher's claim that he was a free man. 


has been very pleasant grass begins to grow. Trees to leave 
out. Boats running and the town full of Strangers Every thing 
looks brisk. 

As to Father coming here dont think there is any trouble on acct 
of sickness, I weigh from 165 to 170 this past winter 5 to 15 
pounds more than usual. 

Think the visit would open his eyes about Kansas business He 

dont have any faith. And all my plans for business last year were 

defeated. Money can be made here, and that Safely & surely, if 

they in Rochester Father & Aaron would only cooperate with me 

Write all the news 

Your Brother 

D R ANTHONY . . . 

W. W. Bloss is home by this time. I think H. C. Bloss will think 
I wrote him a singular letter But then no body can appreciate 
the meanness of these would be defenders of Slavery 


March 25th 1859. 

I wrote you some time or days ago. about route to Leaven- 
worth. Your best route is via Chicago Hanibal and St. Joseph. 
Fare from Chicago to Leavenworth $16.50 via Rail to St Jo & 
Steamer to Leavenworth. Now you can learn whether tickets from 
Rochester direct to Leavenworth are to high priced in Rochester 

Of course you can come either way but I think this your best 
route In returning you can go by St Louis & Cincinnati boats 
run down the Missouri faster than up it 

I[n] making up your mind to visit you must determine whether 
you can leave your business without damageing it materially. I 
think you will never have a better time 

Susan thinks mother may be to unwell, or the climate here may 
affect your health, of the latter I have no fears, and think you will 
enjoy as good health here as in Rochester as to mothers re- 
maining at home alone with Susan you at home are the best 

Our town is flooded with emigrants to Pikes Peak. 13 The New 
York Life have sent me an agency with instructions to insure Pikes 
Peak men. My business continues good took 20,000, on 23rd 

13. Large numbers of emigrants to the Pike's Peak region were coming through Kansas 
in the spring of 1859, lured by news of the gold discoveries in what was then western 
Kansas territory. 


prem six months $525, &- $10. policy fees Have only four life 
policies in force. 

Write me or telegraph what you conclude to do about coming 
out & when you start. . . . 

I want a new safe about No 6 to No 8 & want the new style 
of Lock with combination numbers no key used I want one Fire 
& Burglar proof write me cost of one got up in good style with 
description by the maker 

See whom you prefer in regard to making. I want a good one. 
Write soon about it If you cant attend to same, will Aaron do so. 

I would like the arrangement made with some of the New York 
Bankes to loan and circulate their notes here I know I can do 
a business that will please them I have better facilities than many 
others here. I hope you or Aaron will make an effort in reference 
to this Bnk arrangement I know it will pay both parties. 

Am well except a slight head ache which I hope to get rid of 
it soon I weigh 167 pounds 

Your son 



Your letter of the 6th Inst come to hand this day. You have 
undoubtedly reed my letter countermanding order for Safe ere this. 
I have bought a very good one. Stearns & Marvins make Wilder 
Patent. Cost $350, in N. Y. I bought it low for cash can sell 
it almost any day and make $50. or a $100. on it. 

I have made arrangements to do quite an extensive business in 
the money department, and may want the safe at some future 
time. Think however they ought to take $400 at 6 mos If I 
should want one 

I am in hopes you can find time to come to Leavenworth soon. 

Think you did well in selling Hank, & if you sell the others as 
well, you do better. I am anxious to have you see this country, 
quite a Life Ins business can be done here. I have taken 5 applica- 
tions this month 2 of $2,500 2 of $2,000 & 1 $1,500. I think 
you could take 20 a month all summer long 


My business continues good. Have heard nothing new about 
the St Jo agency of Aetna Co 

I have thought some of going to the Osawatomie convention, 
but it rains so hard now I think it almost impractible and then I 
cant hardly leave . . . 14 

Money is now quite easy here at 2 per cent per month One 
loan was made this week of 10,000, 4 years at 24 per cent per annum 
payable semiannually 

I have been calling in a portion of my funds and now loan on 
shorter time Have as yet not made a dollar loss and trust 
not to . . .. 

I now own 1211. acres good (A No 1) Lands within 20 to 35 
miles of town. And some of it is now getting quite valuable A 
large number of settlers are moving in this year. 

I have written a little of every thing and will wind up for this 

As Ever 


June 3, 1859 

Your letter is reed will accept orders drawn by the party you 
name to the amount of $200 and draw on Wendell for the 
amount. Cant say how much I can help the cause we have 
enough to attend to besides Womans Rights just now 15 Would 
like to cultivate our people so that they will allow white men to 
live and breathe first as the Women already possess that right 
they must help us first and then we will help them 
Write again soon. In haste 

Yours truly 

14. On May 18, 1859, the Republican party of Kansas was organized at a convention 
in Osawatomie. 

15. Wendell Phillips, 1811-1884, a lawyer, orator and reformer, was allied with 
William Lloyd Garrison in the abolition movement. He served as president of the Amer- 
ican Anti-slavery Society and was also a leader in other reform movements prohibition 
woman suffrage and penal reform. 

By 1859 Susan B. Anthony was actively engaged in reform movements including 
woman s rights and suffrage. In 1852 she had joined forces with Amelia Bloomer and 
from that time forward was lecturing and writing, demanding for women the rights and 
privileges allowed to men. 



10th Oct 1859 

Yours of the 3rd Inst come to hand was glad to hear from home. 
I sent you paper containing acct of an attack upon me by "Bob 
Miller" Foard & Gladding & others which is in the main correct 16 
The people of all parties sustain me in my action, and I am satis- 
fied I did right only I ought to have better prepared with 
weapons to defend myself with. Gladding is considered out of 
danger I have doubted all the time whether he was seriously hurt, 
the wound was just above the Naple and below the Stomach 
Think they will not attack me again. If they do I hope to be pre- 
pared for them with the "Armor of truth" with no slips 

Have sent my app to New York Life Ins. Co for Two Thousand 
Insurance I have lost by fire as follows Waggon Shop at Sumner 
of Brick 

City 3,000 Stock 

Charter Oak 2,000 Bldg 

By fire at Leavenworth of Wood Planing Mill 

Aetna 3,700 Machinery 

The above D R Anthony agt 
C. B. Brace Agent lost 

North Western Oswego 2,500 

Western Mass Petty 600 


Hope to Keep clear awhile now 

Have this bought some 10,000 acres Land Warrants at 85 cts and 
hope to make something on them . . . Insurance business is 
dull . . . 

Land Warrants are doing quite well have made some money on 
them since my return I Keep close to the Wind with them, think 
to make 200 or $300 on this last lot- 
Have just located 4 160 acre warrants on Section 9 Town 3, 
Range 11 Nemeha County Kansas running water on 3 quarters 
of it & some 30 acres of wood all A no 1 Land think I have 

16. On October 3, 1859, Anthony was involved in an argument and scuffle which 
followed an exchange of remarks at a political meeting in Leavenworth. According to 
the Leavenworth Weekly Times, October 8, Anthony was accosted by Bob Miller, W. F. 
Foard and Gladden (or Gladding). Gladden struck him with a sheathed Bowie knife 
and Miller also hit him. Anthony drew his pistol but it failed to fibre. Gladden suffered 
a knife wound, inflicted by someone other than Anthony, and Miller was knocked down. 
Gladden's wound was the only one suffered during the difficulty. According to the 
Times neither Gladden nor Foard were the type to resort to violence but were urged on by 


made a good Selection when you want to farm it come out 
I now own some 2,000 acres Land of first quality ... ff > 
Hope to hear from you often 

As Ever yours 


Got home on Friday night all O.K. found matters here pur- 
suing the even tenor of their way. Business not over brisk but 
doing enough to pay expenses, and a little to pay expenses east 

Had time to vote got whipped in this county but the country 
comes up all right Our whole ticket is elected in the state, and 
old Buck [President Buchanan] can do as he pleases we will 
come in as a state some time 17 

Hope your meeting went off well The evening here was 
pleasant & cold old Brown died like a hero as he was, and 
nearly all have to own that he is superior to the common herd 
I suppose Wendell Phillip was to preach to funeral sermon at 
North Elba. I hope he did & Chas Sumner will soon be heard 
in the Senate again The Hounds will have to stop yelping in 
60 If Seward is not hung as a Traitor before he gets to the 
White House . . . 18 

Hope mother and all are well Write soon 

As Ever 


11/2 P. M. just had an oyster supper and shall dream well 
I go to the Border Ruffian town of Weston tomorrow on Insurance 
business otherwise I shall remain closely at home so far as I know 
this long while Have had no chance to send the things to Merritt 
had a letter from him dated Dec 2 he was well then & in 
good spirits D R A 

17. On December 6, 1859, an election of state officers and a congressional representative 
was held undf>r the provisions of the proposed Wyandotte constitution. The Republican 
ticket was defeated in Leavenworth county but carried the territory. 

18. John Brown was executed by the federal government on December 2, 1859, because 
of his attack and attempted seizure of the U. S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Brown was 
buried at North Elba, N. Y., December 8, and although the Rev. Joshua Young read the 
service at the burial Wendell Phillips did make a speech to the funeral assemblage. 

Charles Sumner and William H. Seward, members of the U. S. Senate from Massa- 
chusetts and New York respectively, were powerful supporters of Kansas' admission into the 
Union as a Free state. Anthony was an admirer of Seward and favored the New Yorker 
as a presidential candidate over Lincoln in 1860. 


April 6th 1860 

Your letter of the 30th Inst from Lyons come duly to hand 

I went down to Osawatomie. Saw Merritt. Stopped with him 
two nights found him Mary & baby all well 

Merritt & all intend going to the Peak about May 1. he will take 
out farming utensils with the intention of farming on a "Ranch" 
near Denver city 

He will not sell his place 80 acres of it is deeded to you I 
paid his law suit which closes all his indebtedness he will have 
enough to get a good outfit 

Generally speaking things sent on from friends East cost more 
than they are worth for freight 

I looked the matter of Merritts going west all over with him and 
decided to give him no opinion as to whether he had best go or 
not I gave him all the information I had of the country and the 

Merritt knows some there and many of our own citys best boys 
are in Denver 

Some of our boys who are there are amoung the most plucky & 
alliable and will aid advise & plan for him (Merritt) 

Merritt has rented his farm on shares 

I think some of going East in May and can then tell you all 
about [it] but cant begin to write. 

I dont think you can give him any advice except of a general 
nature My idea was in favor of his going west, but I did not so tell 

I let him have the use of the property I bought last May Cattle 
Cows & Waggon he thinks of taking two teams if he does he 
will make $200, for carrying over load 

Our trial come off on Monday next Dont Know how the mat- 
ter will end it may end in trouble. 19 

Deputy U. S. Marshall Mr Armes attempted to arrest Capt 
Montgomery a few days ago but the Capt took him got the 
papers from him and sent him home again. 

If they press these arrests a war will ensue if the amnesty 

19. Anthony was one of the men indicted and tried for the rescue of the Negro, Charley 
Fisher, in January, 1859. On April 18, 1860, a motion to quash the indictments was 
argued and John Pettit, judge of the First district court of the territory, sustained the motion 
on April 23. 


act of 1859 is not lived up to there will be such a war in Kansas 
as never before witnessed on our soil 20 

Capt Montgomery will not be taken in any event 200 troops 
he can whip & 1000 are too clumsy to catch him 

Some of the Southern Kansas Boys will attend our trial to see we 
have justice done us 

Can write no more at present . . . 


LEAVENWORTH KAN 5th Feby 1861 

Yours of late date at hand. . . . 

If matters do not change from present appearances I shall be in 
Rochester this mo. But business and U. S Senatorial matters may 
change my programme 

Parrott is expected home this week and I can then know Our 
State Legislature will be convened by Gov Robinson we think in 
March and we wish to elect Parrott U. S. Senator 21 

I think perhaps if Father would come out here, he would enjoy 
himself do a good business for me. And in the end would 
not regret And if his Stay was only temporary it would benefit 
all round This spring will be a good time to open up Life Ins 
here he could start that branch If you should come It 
would be diferent as you would take the place of my present 
Bookkeeper who is so young & inexperienced I dont like to trust 
him to much 

But yet I hardly think my business would justify me in paying 
what would be a fair price to you 

My present Booker is 21 years old he is straight & honest and all 
OK to appearances as well as capable he costs me only $300 
per year he will want more soon, but I dont trust him to draw 
checks on St Louis or New York or pay checks at the counter unless 
in special cases this of course confines me closely in the office 
Had I $10,000 more cash in my business I would say come out and 

20. Deputy U. S. Marshal Leonard Arms tried unsuccessfully to arrest James Mont- 
gomery and other Free-State sympathizers for alleged criminal offenses committed during 
the political difficulties of the late 1850's. Another attempted arrest proved fatal to Arms 
on April 20, 1860, when he was shot by John Ritchie of Topeka, who refused to submit to 
seizure for a supposed violation of law in 1856. The Amnesty act, passed by the legisla- 
ture of 1859, was intended to make participants in the earlier struggles exempt from charges 
and arrest. 

21. The first state legislature convened on March 26, 1861. On April 4 it elected 
two U. S. senators, James H. Lane and Samuel C. Pomeroy. Anthony's candidate Marcus 
J. Parrott, finished third in the balloting. 



I would give you $1,200 per annum but dont now see where I 
can get it 

If Father comes out of course I would pay all his expenses and 
something say $25, per month besides for 4 or 6 months 
Will write you again soon and hope to see you this month 
How do you like our paper 

Yours truly 


(Part Three, the D. R. Anthony Letters of October 1, 1861-June 7, 
1862, Will Appear in the Autumn, 1958, Issue) 

Recent Additions to the Library 

Compiled by ALBERTA PANTLE, Librarian 

IN ORDER that members of the Kansas State Historical Society 
and others interested in historical study may know the class of 
books the Society's library is receiving, a list is printed annually of 
the books accessioned in its specialized fields. 

These books come from three sources, purchase, gift, and ex- 
change, and fall into the following classes: Books by Kansans and 
about Kansas; books on American Indians and the West, including 
explorations, overland journeys and personal narratives; genealogy 
and local history; and books on United States history, biography 
and allied subjects which are classified as general. The out-of-state 
city directories received by the Historical Society are not included 
in this compilation. 

The library also receives regularly the publications of many his- 
torical societies by exchange, and subscribes to other historical and 
genealogical publications which are needed in reference work. 

The following is a partial list of books which were received from 
October 1, 1956, through September 30, 1957. Federal and state 
official publications and some books of a general nature are not in- 
cluded. The total number of books accessioned appears in the re- 
port of the Society's secretary printed in the Spring, 1958, issue of 
The Kansas Historical Quarterly. 


Americus Centennial, 1857-1957 . . . June 1, 1957, Souvenir Program. 

N. p. [1957?]. Unpaged. 
AMES, WILLIAM P., The Song of a Century, and Other Poems. Dexter, Mo., 

Candor Press, 1955. 74p. 
BACH, MARGARET F., Journey to Freedom. Grand Rapids, Mich., Wm. B. 

Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1953. 117p. 
BAILEY, BERNADINE, Picture Book of Kansas, Pictures by Kurt Wiese. Chicago, 

Albert Whitman and Company, c!954. Unpaged. 
BEATTY, MARION, Labor-Management Arbitration Manual. New York, E. E. 

Eppler and Son [c!956]. 167p. 
BECKHARD, ARTHUR J., The Story of Dwight D. Eisenhower. New York, Grosset 

& Dunlap [c!956]. 180p. 
BECKMAN, PETER, Kansas Monks, a History of St. Benedict's Abbey. Atchison, 

Abbey Student Press [c!957]. 362p. 
BELPRE, METHODIST CHURCH, Fortieth Anniversary of the Methodist Church, 

Belpre, Kansas . . . 1910-1950. No impr. [121p. 



BETHEL, FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, History of the First Baptist Church, Bethel, 

Kansas. No impr. 34p. 
BOLDS, GEORGE, Across the Cimarron [as Told to James D. Horan], New 

York, Crown Publishers [c!956]. 301p. 
BROWN, LENNA WILLIAMSON, From Zero to Infinity, a Philosophy of Matter. 

Lawrence, Allen Press [c!956l. 176p. 
CANFIELD, DOROTHY, A Harvest of Stories From a Half Century of Writing. 

New York, Harcourt, Brace and Company [c!956]. 352p. 
Cappers Weekly, My Folks Came in a Covered Wagon. N. p. [Capper Pub- 

lications], 1956. [104]p. 
CARSON, L. B., Introduction to Our Bird Friends, Vol. 2. [Topekal Capper 

Publications, c!957. 25p. 
Centennial History of the Topeka Schools, Compiled by the Retired Teachers 

of the School System. N. p., 1954. Typed. Unpaged. 
CONNELL, EVAN S., Anatomy Lesson and OtJier Stories. New York, Viking 

Press, 1957. 214p. 
CONNELLY, W. L., The Oil Business as I Saw It, Half a Century With Sinclair. 

Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!954]. 177p. 
CORNISH, DUDLEY TAYLOR, The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in the Union Army, 

1861-1865. New York, Longmans, Green and Company, 1956. 337p. 
CROY, HOMER, The Last of the Great Outlaws, the Story of Cole Younger. 

New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce [c!956]. 242p. 

1958. No impr. 52p. 

Marriage Records, Pawnee County, Kansas, September 15, 1873, to January 

1, 1889, Copied by Jessie Bright Grove. Lamed, n. p., 1957. Typed. 59p. 

- , KANSAS SOCIETY, Directory of the Kansas Society, Daughters of the 
American Revolution, 1955. No impr. 297p. 

- , KANSAS SOCIETY, Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual State Con- 
ference, March 14 to 17, 1956, Wichita, Kansas. No impr. 195p. 

- , KANSAS SOCIETY, Proceedings of the Fifty-Ninth Annual State Con- 
ference, March 14, 15, and 16, 1957, Beloit, Kansas. No impr. 178p. 

- , SHAWNEE CHAPTER, MISSION, Genealogical Records, 1956-1957, Pre- 
pared by Hazel Crane Amos. Shawnee, n. p., n. d. Typed. 26p. 

- , TOPEKA CHAPTER, TOPEKA, [McFarland, Hampton and Steele Family 
Records], Copied by Helen McFarland. Topeka, n. p., 1956. Typed. 

DAVIS, KENNETH S., A Prophet in His Own Country, the Triumphs and De- 

feats of Adlai E. Stevenson. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 

1957. 510p. 
Ellsworth, Kansas. Clay Center, Clay Center Engraving Company [1914]. 

ENGLISH, E. Lois, Leave Me My Dreams. New York, Exposition Press 

[c!955]. 119p. 
_ ? Most Precious Word, Verse Variations on Several Themes. New 

York, Exposition Press [c!957]. 160p. 
FAETH, MARY LILLIAN, Kansas in the 80's, Being Some Recollections of Life 

on Its Western Frontier. New York, Procyon Press [c!947]. [36]p. 


First One Hundred Years, a History of the City of Hartford, Kansas, 1857- 
1957. N. p. [1957?]. 26p. 

FLEMING, ROSCOE, Kansas, 'Ad Astra Per Aspera' N. p., Author [c!956]. 23p. 

FLORA, SNOWDEN D., Hailstorms of the United States. Norman, University of 
Oklahoma Press [c!956]. 201p. 

FLOYD, LOUISE MCKNIGHT, The Commencement Day Murders. New York, 
Vantage Press [c!954]. 202p. 

FORSTER, MINNIE JANE, On Wings of Truth. New York, Exposition Press 
[c!954]. 56p. 

FUGATE, FLORENCE A., Afterglow. No impr. 125p. 

GRUBER, FRANK, Buffalo Grass, a Novel of Kansas. New York, Rinehart & 
Company [c!956]. 249p. 

HALE, J. E., A Diagnosis of Our Spendthrift Trend. Kansas City, Mo., Burton 
Publishing Company [c!953]. 178p. 

HALL, ALICE LEE, Dog Tales. New York, Pageant Press [c!956]. 185p. 

HA WORTH, B. SMITH, Ottawa University, Its History and Its Spirit. [Ottawa, 
Ottawa University] 1957. 174p. 

[HEMINGER, DON C.], History of Great Bend Lodge No. 15, A. F. 6- A. Af., 
1873-1956. Great Bend, n. p., n. d. Unpaged. 

HIGGINS, J. WALLACE, III, The Orient Road, a History of the Kansas City, 
Mexico and Orient Railroad. (Reprinted from Bulletin 95, Railway b Lo- 
comotive Historical Society, October, 1956.) 43p. 

of Gods Grace, 1881-1956. Hillsboro, Mennonite Brethren Church, 1956. 

HINDS, VIRGIL VESTER, History of Provisions for Religious Instruction in Se- 
lected Public Elementary Schools of Kansas. A Thesis Submitted to the 
Department of History, Government, and Philosophy of Kansas State Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Applied Science in Partial Fulfillment of the Re- 
quirements for the Degree Master of Science. N. p., 1957. Typed. [62]p. 

Historical Booklet . . . Emporia, Kansas, Centennial Celebration, June 30 
July 6, 1957. No impr. 76p. 

HOLBROOK, STEWART H., Wyatt Earp, U. S. Marshal. New York, Random 
House [c!956]. 180p. 

HOSLER, EMILY L., Booth Creek Janie. New York, Vantage Press [c!956]. 

Thousand Happinesses. New York, Longmans, Green and Company, 1957. 

HUGHBANKS, L.EROY, Talking Wax, or, The Story of the Phonograph . v-4 
New York, Hobson Book Press, 1945. 142p. 

, You Can Make Records. Lawrence, World Company, c!945. 33p. 

HUGHES, LANGSTON, I Wonder as I Wander. New York, Rinehart & Company 
[c!956]. 405p. 

, and MILTON MELTZER, Pictorial History of the Negro in America. 

New York, Crown Publishers [c!956]. 316p. 

HUGOTON, FIRST METHODIST CHURCH, First Methodist Church, Hugoton, Kan- 
sas, 1886-1956, Seventieth Anniversary Celebration ... No impr. 


ISELY, FLORA (DUNCAN), Earning the Right To Do Fancy work, an Informal 
Biography of Mrs. Ida Eisenhower . . . Lawrence, University of Kan- 
sas Press, 1957. 38p. 
JACKSON, MAUD C., Joe Clown's Trix. Columbus, Ohio, Wartburg Press 

[c!954]. 83p. 

JELINEK, GEORGE, History of Ellsworth County Schools. No impr. Mimeo- 
graphed. [9]p. 

,90 Years of Ellsworth and Ellsworth County History. [Ellsworth] 

Messenger Press, 1957. Unpaged. 
KANSAS AUTHORS CLUB, Yearbook, 1956. No impr. 87p. 
Kansas Legislative Directory, 1957. Topeka, Midwest Industry Magazine and 

Kansas Construction Magazine, 1957. 212p. 

KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY, Guide Map of the Great Texas Cattle Trail. Evans- 
ton, 111., Branding Iron Press, c!956. 21p. 

Source Book for the School of Tomorrow for Kansas, Revised May, 1957. 
Topeka, Association, 1957. 67p. 
Kansas, the First Century. New York, Lewis Historical Publishing Company 

[c!956]. 4 Vols. 

dren. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons [c!957]. 145p. 
Keepsake Portfolio of Ellsworth, Kansas, From the Collection of George Jelinek 

. . . No impr. 8 Plates. 

KRAMMES, HANNA MOORE, Interludes. [Lawrence, Allen Press] 1953. 64p. 
LANDES, FANNIE, Silent Men. [Topeka, Floyd Burres Printing Service, c!957.] 


LINDQUIST, EMORY, The Protestant Church in Kansas: an Annotated Bibliog- 
raphy. Wichita, University of Wichita, 1956. 28p. (University Studies, 
No. 35.) 

[LINENBERGER, JOSEPH M.], Grandfather's Story, by Helen L. Hall, as Trans- 
lated by Louise Rylko. [Carthagena, Ohio, Messenger Press, c!955.] 45p. 
LONGSTRETH, DOT AsHLOCK, De Soto Is 100 Years Old, 1857-1957. N. p. 

[1957?]. 64p. 
LOWTHER, EDGAR A., The Road Ahead, the Christian Way to World Peace. 

New York, Exposition Press [c!956]. 107p. 
MCCARTY, JOHN L., Adobe Walls Bride, the Story of Billy and Olive King 

Dixon. San Antonio, Naylor Company [c!955]. 281p. 
McGRATH, MARY CHARLES, Out of the Sunset. New York, Pageant Press 

[c!957]. 272p. 
McKAY, R. H., Little Pills, an Army Story. Pittsburg, Pittsburg Headlight, 1918. 

McREYNOLDS, JOHN W., How to Plan for College and What to Do When You 

Get There. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1956. 136p. 
MADDUX, RACHEL, The Green Kingdom. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1957. 

MARINO, DOROTHY, Song of the Pine Tree Forest. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippin- 

cott Company [c!955]. Unpaged. 

MARKLEY, WALTER M., Builders of Topeka, 1956, Who's Who in the Kansas 
Capital Topeka, Capper Printing Company, 1956. 352p. 


MATHEWS, M. K., and BESSIE F. MATHEWS, History of the Quintet Methodist 

Church, Quinter, Kansas. No impr. Typed. 9p. 
MEHDEVI, ANNE ( SINCLAIR ) , From Pillar to Post. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 

1956. 273p. 

Memorial Number of The Traveler, the Family of Asahel and Melissa Edgerton 
in 1951. No impr. Unpaged. 

MENNINGER, WILLIAM C., and others, How to Understand the Opposite Sex. 
New York, Sterling Publishing Company [c!956]. 192p. 

MDLLARD, S. T., Goblets . . . Seventh Edition, 1956. Topeka, Central 
Press [c!938]. Unpaged. 

, Goblets II. [Topeka] Privately Printed [cl940]. Unpaged. 

, Opaque Glass . . . Third Edition. Topeka, Central Press 

[c!953]. Unpaged. 

MILLER, CLYDE W., Mahaska Sodbusters. N. p., 1953. Typed. 74p. 

, The Survey. No impr. Typed. 7p. 

, Trails and Roads. No impr. Typed. 8p. 

, You and Me Rhymes. No. impr. Typed. Unpaged. 

MISSOURI PACIFIC LINES, The Empire That Missouri Pacific Serves. N. p., Mis- 
souri Pacific Lines, n. d. 352p. 

MOORE, CECILE (MUMAW), and JOY Fox, Through the Years . . . Gree- 
ley, Kansas . . . During the Past One Hundred Years . . . Gree- 
ley, Greeley Centennial Committee, 1957. 50p. 

MUECKE, JOSEPH B., Ottawa-Kansas City Tornado . . . May 20, 1957 
. . . Ottawa, Author, c!957. Unpaged. 

MURRAY, WILLIAM G., Appraisal of Miami Tract in Kansas, 1854. Ames, 
Iowa, n. p., 1956. 107p. 

, Appraisal of Shawnee Tract in Kansas, 1854. Ames, Iowa, n. p., 1956. 


NEWMAN, TILLIE KARNS, The Black Dog Trail Boston, Christopher Publish- 
ing House [c!957]. 221p. 

NORTON Daily Telegram, Norton County Automobile License Tag Directory, 

1957. Norton, Norton Daily Telegram [1957?]. 52p. 

, Trade Area Directory . . . 1956-61. Norton, Norton Daily Tele- 
gram [1956?]. 184p. 

O'CONNOR, RICHARD, Bat Masterson. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Com- 
pany, 1957. 263p. 

OLATHE, FIRST NATIONAL BANK, Story of the First National Bank, Olathe, 
Kansas, 1887-1957. No impr. Unpaged. 

Olathe Centennial, "Arrows to Atoms," 1857-1957 . . . [Olathe, Olathe 
Centennial, Inc., 1957.] 55p. 

OLSON, B. G., and MIKE MILLER, comps. and eds., Blood on the Arctic Snow 
. . . Seattle, Superior Publishing Company [c!956]. 279p. 

OVERMYER, GRACE, America's First Hamlet. New York, New York University 
Press, 1957. 439p. 

PERRINGS, MYRA, Shadow on the Stream. Dallas, Triangle Publishing Com- 
pany [c!956]. 40p. 

PETTYJOHN, LURA, History of Madison, Greenwood County, Kansas, Written 
by Christine Jardinier. N. p., 1956. 15p. 

[PLAISTED, TIRZAH], "There Lived a Man" Mother's Story. New York, n. p., 
1914. 89p. 


PLUMER, MABEL LANDON, The Patriarch of Kennebec. No impr. Folder. 
Folk's Topeka (Shawnee County, Kansas) City Directory, 1956, Including 

Shawnee County Taxpayers . . . Kansas City, Mo., R. L. Polk and 

Company, c!957. [1466]p. 
[POOLE, OREL (LOVEWELL), comp.], Sketches of the White Rock. No impr. 

Mimeographed. 75p. 
PORTER, JAMES A., Doctor, Spare My Cow! Ames, Iowa State College Press 

[c!956]. 238p. 
POWELL, HORACE B., The Original Has This Signature W. K. Kellogg. 

Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall [c!956]. 358p. 
PRYOR, ELINOR, The Double Man. New York, W. W. Norton & Company 

[c!957]. 452p. 
RADKE, LEE, The Living Dead. Boston, Meador Publishing Company [c!954]. 

RAMONA, Trinity Lutheran Church, 40th Anniversary and Rededication 

. . . November 25, 1956. No impr. Mimeographed. Unpaged. 
RANDALL, BLOSSOM E., Fun for Chris. Chicago, Albert Whitman & Company 

[c!956]. Unpaged. 
RANDOLPH, VANCE, Talking Turtle and Other Ozark Folk Tales. New York, 

Columbia University, 1957. 226p. 
RAYBURN, OTTO ERNEST, Forty Years in the Ozarks. Eureka Springs, Ark., 

Ozark Guide Press [c!957]. lOlp. 
REICHART, VIRGINIA, Ours To Remember, a [Holton] Centennial Pageant. 

N. p., c!955. 27p. 

, "Song of Hiawatha," Hiawatha Centennial Pageant, 1857-1957. [Hia- 
watha, Hiawatha World Print, c!957.] 34p. 
REPLOGLE, WAYNE F., Yellowstone's Bannock Indian Trails. Yellowstone Park, 

Wyo., Yellowstone Library and Museum Association, 1956. 80p. 
Ross, H. E., Experiences of a Frontier Preacher in Southwest Kansas. Dan- 
ville, Author [c!941]. 66p. 
ROWAN, CARL THOMAS, Go South to Sorrow. New York, Random House 

[c!957]. 246p. 
RUSSELL, FRANK A., 75 Years in Kansas, or, Corn Bread and Sorgum-Molasses. 

No impr. Mimeographed. lOOp. 
SNYDER, RALPH, Autobiography. N. p., 1957. 22p. 
, Observations, Thoughts and Conclusions From 70 Busy Years. N. p. 

[1942]. 71p. 
STEINER, JOHN P., Speaking Up for Freedom. New York, Exposition Press 

[c!955]. 123p. 
STITES, LESTER, History of Ionia, Kansas. Ionia, Privately Printed [1956]. 

[SULLIVAN, FRANK S.], Homeseekers' Guide [Meade County, Kansas]. Topeka, 

Crane & Company [1904]. 29p. 

[SWENSON, J. H.], The Sculptor Wind and Homeward Bound. No impr. 86p. 
TIBBLES, THOMAS HENRY, Buckskin and Blanket Days, Memoirs of a Friend 

of the Indians. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1957. 336p. 
TOEPFER, MRS. AMY, and AGNES C. DREILING, The Linenberger Genealogy. 

N. p. [c!955]. 432p. 

TOPEKA, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, The Topeka Plan of Cooperating To- 
gether for Better Public Schools. Topeka, Superintendent of Schools, 1956. 

Mimeographed. 135p. 


TOPEKA TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION, No. 121, 75th Anniversary Souvenir, Topeka 
Typographical Union, No. 121, 1882-1957. No impr. 64p. 

Anniversary, 1857-1957, St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Valley 
Falls, Kansas. [Valley Falls, Vindicator Publishing Company, 1957?] 16p. 

VAN RIPER, GUERNSEY, JR., Jim Thorpe, Indian Athlete. Indianapolis, Bobbs- 
Merrill Company [c!956]. 192p. 

VOSPER, ROBERT, Books and Reading: the Librarians Faith. ( Reprinted from 
Association of American Colleges Bulletin, Vol. 43, No. 2, May, 1957.) 

WALBRIDGE, CAROLINE K., An Annotated Bibliography of State Adopted and 

Approved Textbooks for Kansas, 1897-1937. A Thesis Submitted to the De- 

partment of Library Science and the Graduate Council of the Kansas State 

Teachers College of Emporia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for 

the Degree of Master of Science. N. p., 1957. Typed. 320p. 
WALDRAVEN- JOHNSON, MARGARET, The White Comanche, the Story of Cynthia 

Ann Parker, and Her Son, Quanah. New York, Comet Press [c!956]. 34p. 
[WAMEGO, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE], Wamego, Kansas, Queen City of the 

Kaw. [Wamego, Wamego Chamber of Commerce, 1956.] Unpaged. 
WELLMAN, MANLY WADE, Rebel Boast, First at Bethel Last at Appomattox. 

New York, Henry Holt and Company [c!956]. 317p. 
WELLMAN, PAUL ISELIN, Jericho's Daughters. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday 

& Company, 1956. 380p. 
- , Portage Bay. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1957. 

WHEATON, ST. LUKE'S LUTHERAN CHURCH, A Brief History and a Souvenir 

Prepared for the Fiftieth Anniversary of Its Existence [1897-1947]. No 

impr. Unpaged. 
WHITE, WILLIAM LINDSAY, The Captives of Korea, an Unofficial White Paper 

on the Treatment of War Prisoners . . . New York, Charles Scribner's 

Sons [c!957]. 347p. 
WHITE CITY, MARION HILL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 80th Anniversary, 1876-1956. 

No impr. Unpaged. 
WIER, BERYHL HOWARD, Sounding Brass. New York, Vantage Press [c!956]. 

WILCOX, DON, Joe Sunpool. Boston, Little, Brown and Company [c!956]. 

WILDER, BESSIE E., Author Headings for the Official Publications of the State 

of Kansas. Chicago, American Library Association, 1956. 136p. 
WILLIAMSON, JACK, and JAMES E. GUNN, Star Bridge. New York, Gnome 

Press [c!956]. 221p. 
WILSON, MRS. HARRY, SR., and MRS. DIEW EDMISTON, comps., History of the 

First Methodist Church, Towanda, Kansas for the Sixty-Eighth Anniversary, 

September, 1956. No impr. Mimeographed. 41p. 
[WILSON, MRS. MIKE, comp.], Muscotah Centennial, June 21 6- 22, 1857-1957. 

No impr. Unpaged. 
YEAGER, RANDOLPH ORVILLE, Indian Enterprises of Isaac McCoy, 1817-1846. 

A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Okla- 

homa in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of 

Philosophy. Norman, n. p., 1954. Typed. 625p. 


ZIRKLE, DAVID LUTHER, Yesteryears and Yesterdays . . . [Oxford, Kan., 

Oxford Register] c!956. 113p. 
ZORNOW, WILLIAM FRANK, Kansas, a History of the Jayhawk State. Norman, 

University of Oklahoma Press [c!957]. 417p. 


ATHEARN, ROBERT G., William Tecumseh Sherman and the Settlement of the 
West. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!956]. 371p. 

BARBEAU, MARTUS, Totem Poles. N. p., National Museum of Canada, n. d. 2 

BEIDLER, JOHN XAVIER, X. Beidler: Vigilante, Edited by Helen Fitzgerald 
Sanders . . . Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!957]. 165p. 

BELL, JOHN R., Journal of Captain John R. Bell, Official Journalist for the 
Stephen H. Long Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 1820, Edited by 
Harlin M. Fuller and LeRoy R. Hafen. Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark 
Company, 1957. 349p. (The Far West and the Rockies Historical Series, 
1820-1875, Vol. 6.) 

[BENEDICT, KIRBY], A Journey Through New Mexico's First Judicial District 
in 1864 . . . Notes by William Swilling Wallace. Los Angeles, West- 
ernlore Press [c!956]. 71p. 

BILLINGTON, RAY ALLEN, The Far Western Frontier, 1830-1860. New York, 
Harper & Brothers [c!956]. 324p. 

BORLAND, HAL, High, Wide and Lonesome. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott 
Company [c!956]. 251p. 

BREIHAN, CARL W., Badmen of the Frontier Days. New York, Robert M. Mc- 
Bride Company [c!957]. 315p. 

BROWN, MARK H., and W. R. FELTON, Before Barbed Wire; L. A. Huffman, 
Photographer on Horseback. New York, Henry Holt and Company [c!956]. 

BURDICK, USHER L., Jim Johnson, a Brief History of the Mouse River Loop 
Country. No impr. 32p. 

BURNS, ROBERT HOMER, and others, Wyoming's Pioneer Ranches, by Three 
Native Sons of the Laramie Plains. Laramie, Top-of-the-World Press, 1955. 

CHAMBERS, WILLIAM NISBET, Old Bullion Benton, Senator From the New 
West; Thomas Hart Benton, 1782-1858. Boston, Little, Brown and Com- 
pany [c!956]. 517p. 

GROUSE, NELLIS M., La Verendrye, Fur Trader and Explorer. Ithaca, N. Y., 
Cornell University Press [c!956]. 247p. 

DOCKSTADER, FREDERICK J., The American Indian in Graduate Studies, a Bib- 
liography of Theses and Dissertations. New York, Museum of the American 
Indian Heye Foundation, 1957. 399p. (Contributions, Vol. 15.) 

DORSEY, GEORGE A., Traditions of the Osage. Chicago, Field Columbian Mu- 
seum, 1904. 60p. 

, and ALFRED L. KROEBER, Traditions of the Arapaho . . . Chi- 
cago, Field Columbian Museum, 1903. 475p. 

DRIGGS, HOWARD R., The Old West Speaks. Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice- 
Hall [c!9561. 220p. 

ELLIS, AMANDA M., Bonanza Towns: Leadville and Cripple Creek. [Colo- 
rado Springs] Privately Printed [c!954]. 48p. 


, The Colorado Springs Story. N. p., c!954. 48p. 

, Legends and Tales of the Rockies. N. p. [c!954]. 60p. 

, Pioneers. [Colorado Springs] Privately Printed [c!955]. 52p. 

FARBER, JAMES, Texans With Guns. San Antonio, Naylor Company [cl950]. 

FREMONT, JOHN CHARLES, Narratives of Exploration and Adventure, Edited 

by Allan Nevins. New York, Longmans, Green & Company, 1956. 532p. 
FRTNK, MAURICE, and others, When Grass Was King. Boulder, University of 

Colorado Press, 1956. 465p. 
GALLOWAY, JOHN A., Guide to the Western Historical Manuscripts Collection. 

Columbia, University of Missouri, 1956. 53p. 
GODFREY, EDWARD SETTLE, Field Diary . . . Under Lt. Colonel George 

Armstrong Custer in the Sioux Encounter at the Battle of the Little Big 

Horn . . . Edited . . . by Edgar I. Stewart and Jane R. Stewart 

. . . [Portland, Ore.] Champoeg Press, 1957. 74p. 
GUIE, H. DEAN, Bugles in the Valley, Garnett's Fort Simcoe. [Yakima, Wash.] 

n. p. [c!956]. 144p. 
HALEY, J. EVETTS, Fort Concho and the Texas Frontier. San Angelo, Tex., 

San Angelo Standard-Times, 1952. 352p. 
HENDRICKS, GEORGE D., Bad Man of the West. San Antonio, Naylor Company 

[c!950]. 248p. 
HUGHES, RICHARD B., Pioneer Years in the Black Hills, Edited by Agnes 

Wright Spring. Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1957. 366p. 
HUNT, FRAZIER, The Tragic Days of Billy the Kid. New York, Hastings House 

[c!956]. 316p. 
HURT, WESLEY R., and WILLIAM E. LASS, Frontier Photographer, Stanley J. 

Morrow's Dakota Years. N. p., University of South Dakota and University 

of Nebraska Press [c!956]. 135p. 
HYDE, GEORGE E., A Sioux Chronicle. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press 

[c!956]. 334p. 
JAMES, HARRY C., The Hopi Indians, Their History and Their Culture. [Cald- 

well, Idaho, Caxton Printers, c!956.] 236p. 
JOHANSEN, DOROTHY O., and CHARLES M. GATES, Empire of the Columbia, a 

History of the Pacific Northwest. New York, Harper & Brothers [c!957]. 

KELEHER, WILLIAM A., Violence in Lincoln County, 1869-1881, a New Mexico 

Item. Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press [c!957]. 390p. 
KRAENZEL, CARL FREDERICK, The Great Plains in Transition. Norman, Uni- 
versity of Oklahoma Press [c!955]. 428p. 
LA FARGE, OLIVER, Pictorial History of the American Indian. New York, 

Crown Publishers [c!956]. 272p. 
LAMAR, HOWARD ROBERTS, Dakota Territory, 1861-1889, a Study of Frontier 

Politics. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1956. 304p. 
LAMB, EUGENE J., Rodeo, Back of the Chutes. Denver, Bell Press, 1956. 


LAUBIN, REGINALD, and GLADYS LAUBIN, The Indian Tipi, Its History, Con- 
struction and Use. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press [c!957]. 208p. 
LEA, TOM, The King Ranch. Boston, Little, Brown and Company [c!957]. 



LEMKE, W. J., and TED R. WORLEY, The Butterfield Overland Mail in Arkan- 
sas. Little Rock, Arkansas History Commission, 1957. 16p. 
LLOYD, EVERETT, Law West of the Pecos, the Story of Roy Bean. San Antonio, 

Naylor Company [c!936]. 88p. 
MAZZULA, FRED M., and Jo MAZZULA, The First 100 Years . . . Cripple 

Creek and the Pikes Peak Region. [Denver, A. B. Hirschfeld Press, c!956.] 

MILLER, JOSEPH, Arizona, the Last Frontier. New York, Hastings House 

[c!956]. 350p. 

MONAGHAN, JAY, Last of the Bad Men, the Legend of Tom Horn. Indian- 
apolis, Bobbs-Merrill [c!946]. 293p. 
MUMEY, NOLIE, Bent's Old Fort and Bent's New Fort on the Arkansas River. 

Denver, Artcraft Press, 1956. 239p. (Old Forts and Trading Posts of the 

West, Vol. 1.) 
NELSON, DICK J., Wyoming Has a Distinguished Heritage and Its Big Horn 

Basin of Merit . . . Glimpsing the Past 1806-1957. N. p. [c!957]. 

NORDYKE, LEWIS, John Wesley Hardin, Texas Gunman. New York, William 

Morrow & Company, 1957. 278p. 
O'KANE, WALTER COLLINS, Sun in the Sky. Norman, University of Oklahoma 

Press [c!950]. 261p. 
PENCE, MARY Lou, and LOLA M. HOMSHER, Ghost Towns of Wyoming. New 

York, Hastings House [c!956]. 242p. 

POMEROY, EARL, In Search of the Golden West, the Tourist in Western Amer- 
ica. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1957. [240]p. 
RAND MCNALLY & COMPANY, Rand McNally's Pioneer Atlas of the American 

West . . . Historical Text by Dale L. Morgan. Chicago, Rand Me- 

Nally & Company [c!956]. 51p. 
RELANDER, CLICK, Drummers and Dreamers; the Story of Smowhala the 

Prophet and His Nephew Puck Hyah Toot . . . Caldwell, Idaho, Cax- 

ton Printers, 1956. 345p. 
RISTER, CARL COKE, Fort Griffin on the Texas Frontier. Norman, University 

of Oklahoma Press [c!956]. 216p. 

poo Indians. Milwaukee, Milwaukee Public Museum, 1956. 91p. (Pub- 
lications in Anthropology, No. 2. ) 
ROCKWELL, WILSON, Sunset Slope, True Epics of Western Colorado. Denver, 

Big Mountain Press [c!956]. 290p. 
RUSSELL, CARL P., Guns on the Early Frontiers, a History of Firearms From 

Colonial Times Through the Years of the Western Fur Trade. Berkeley, 

University of California, 1957. 395p. 
RUSSELL, MRS. HAL, Settler Mac and the Charmed Quarter-Section. Denver, 

Sage Books [c!956]. 159p. 
RUSSELL, OSBORNE, Journal of a Trapper, Edited . . . by Aubrey L. 

Haines. [Portland] Oregon Historical Society, 1955. [191]p. 
SHEPHERD, J. S., Journal of Travel Across the Plains to California, and Guide 

to the Future Emigrant, Published by Mrs. Rebecca Shepherd, 1851. N. p., 

1945. 45p. 

SHIRLEY, GLENN, Law West of Fort Smith, a History of Frontier Justice 
. . 1834-1896. New York, Henry Holt and Company [c!957]. 333p. 


SPENCER, KATHERINE, Mythology and Values, an Analysis of Navaho Chantway 

Myths. Philadelphia, American Folklore Society, 1957. 240p. (Memoirs 

of the American Folklore Society, Vol. 48. ) 
SPRAGUE, MARSHALL, Massacre, the Tragedy at White River. Boston, Little, 

Brown and Company [c!957]. 364p. 

STANLEY, F., Clay Allison. [Denver, World Press, c!956.] 236p. 
STONE, IRVING, Men to Match My Mountains, the Opening of the Far West, 

1840-1900. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1956. 459p. 
SWEENY, THOMAS W., Journal of Lt. Thomas W. Sweeny, 1849-1853, Edited 

by Arthur Woodward. Los Angeles, Westernlore Press [c!956]. 278p. 
THORP, RAYMOND W., Spirit Gun of the West, the Story of Doc W. F. Carver. 

Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1957. 266p. 

VAUGHN, J. W., With Crook at the Rosebud. Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Com- 
pany [c!956]. 245p. 
WALLACE, WILLIAM SWILLING, Antoine Robidoux, 1794-1860, a Biography of 

a Western Venturer. Los Angeles, Glen Dawson, 1953. 59p. 
WESTERNERS, DENVER, 1955 Brand Book. N. p. [c!956]. 454p. 
WHITE, BROWNING JOHN, Published Sources on Territorial Nebraska, an Essay 

and Bibliography. Lincoln, Nebraska State Historical Society, 1956. 300p. 

(Nebraska State Historical Society Publications, Vol. 23.) 


the Genealogies of Some of the Early Families . . . of Bedford 
County, Virginia. N. p. [c!930]. 818p. 

ALEXANDER, GLADYS, comp. and ed., The Alexander Family Records . ; 
Samuel Stevenson Alexander and His Wife, Thurzy Ross Alexander. [Fay- 
etteville, Ark., Washington County Historical Society] n. d. Unpaged. 

AMERICAN CLAN GREGOR SOCIETY, Year Book Containing the Proceedings of 
the 1955 Annual Gathering. Washington, D. C. Society [c!956]. 63p. 

American Genealogical-Biographical Index . . . Vols. 17-20. Middle- 
town, Conn., Published Under the Auspices of an Advisory Committee Rep- 
resenting the Cooperating Subscribing Libraries . . . 1956-1957. 4 

American Heritage Book of Great Historic Places. New York, American Her- 
itage Publishing Company [c!957]. 376p. 

ATWOOD, A., Glimpses in Pioneer Life on Puget Sound. Seattle, Denny- 
Coryell Company, 1903. [488]p. 

BAKER, ROBERT HELSLEY, Genealogy of the Baker Family, Descendants of John 
Nicholas Baker, 1701-63 . . . With Some Connecting Lines. Stras- 
burg, Va., Author, c!955. 255p. 

BALL, ROY HUTTON, Conquering the Frontiers, a Biography and History of One 
Branch of the Ball Family. Oklahoma City, Semco Color Press, n. d. 93p. 

BANKS, CHARLES EDWARDS, Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Emi- 
grants to New England, 1620-1650, Edited and Indexed by Elijah Ellsworth 
Brownell. Baltimore, Southern Book Company, 1957. 295p. 

BASS, IVAN ERNEST, Bass Family History; Esau Bass (Revolutionary Soldier), 
His Brother, Jonathan Bass, and Their Descendants. Washington, D. C., 
n. p., 1955. 449p. 


BATES, SAMUEL A., Genealogy of the Descendants of Edward Bates of Wey- 
mouth, Massachusetts. South Braintree, Mass., Frank A. Bates, n. d. 145p. 

BEERY, WILLIAM, and JUDITH BEERY CAREER, Beery Family History. Elgin, 111., 
Privately Printed, 1957. 783p. 

BELL, RAYMOND MARTIN, The Baskins-Baskin Family, Pennsylvania Virginia 
South Carolina. Washington, Pa., n. p., 1957. 70p. 

BLACK, HELEN KUHN (JACKSON), comp., The Kuhn (Coon) Family of Alle- 
gheny County, Pennsylvania, With a Reprint of History 6- Genealogy of the 
Kuhn Family by David Kuhn . . . N. p., 1956. Typed. 186p. 

BODDIE, JOHN BENNETT, Southside Virginia Families, Vol. 2. Redwood City, 
Cal., Pacific Coast Publishers, 1956. 414p. 

Book of Minnesota . . . Saint Paul, Pioneer Press Company, 1903. 128p. 

BRADSHAW, HERBERT CLARENCE, History of Prince Edward County, Virginia 
. . . Richmond, Dietz Press [c!955]. 934p. 

BROWNELL, GEORGE GRANT, comp., Genealogical Record of the Descendants of 
Thomas Brownell, 1619-1910. Jamestown, N. Y., Compiler, 1910. 366p. 

BULLER, ALVIN, The Heinrich Goossen Genealogy. N. p., 1953. 40p. 

CHALFANT, ELLA, A Goodly Heritage, Earliest Wills on an American Frontier. 
[Pittsburgh] University of Pittsburgh Press [1955]. 239p. 

[COLLIER, HAZEL BRADY], Your Family and Mine. No impr. Various Paging. 

COTTON, MYRNA, They Pioneered for Us. No impr. 163p. 

Cox, Louis S., comp., Corrections and Additions to the Cox Families of Holder- 
ness and Related Families. No impr. 90p. 

CRAVENS, JOHN PARK, Records of the Ancestry of John Park Cravens, the Lines 
of Direct Lineal Descent and a Summary. Booneville, Ark., Author, 1957. 

CREEKMORE, POLLY ANNA, Grainger County, Tennessee, Federal Census of 1810, 
Population Schedule (Third Census) and County Tax Lists for 1810. Knox- 
ville, Tenn., Lawson McGhee Library, 1956. 71p. (McClung Historical 
Collection. Special Studies, No. 1.) 

CROFT, GRACE, comp. and ed., History and Genealogy of the Milk-Milks Family. 
Provo, Utah, n. p., 1956. 354p. 

CROUCH, CARRIE J., A History of Young County, Texas. Austin, Texas State 
Historical Association, 1956. 326p. 

BURR CHAPTER, Families of Our Revolutionary Ancestors, Compiled by Mrs. 
Chester H. Chatfield. N. p., 1956. 151p. 


Augusta County, Virginia, 1785-1813. Augusta County, Col. Thomas Hugh- 
art Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, n. d. 75p. 

DAUZAT, ALBERT, Dictionnaire Etymologique des Noms de Famille et Prenoms 
de France. Paris, Librairie Larousse [c!951]. [620]p. 

DAVIES, WALLACE EVAN, Patriotism on Parade, the Story of Veterans' and 
Hereditary Organizations in America, 1783-1900. Cambridge, Mass., Har- 
vard University Press, 1955. 388p. 

DE FOREST, MRS. ROBERT W., A Walloon Family in America . . . Boston, 
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1914. 2 Vols. 

DORMAN, JOHN FREDERICK, comp., Culpeper County, Virginia, Will Book A, 
1749-1770. Washington, D. C., n. p., 1956. Mimeographed. 155p. 


DRAUGHON, WALLACE R., North Carolina Genealogical Reference, a Research 

Guide. Durham, N. C., n. p., 1956. 231p. 

N. p. [c!956]. 67p. 
[DYCHE, RUSSELL], Laurel County, Kentucky, in the Middle of the Wilderness 

. . . London, Ky., Sentinel-Echo, 1954. 292p. 
[EMERY, FREDERIC BARRETT], Barrett. No impr. 119p. 
EMISON, JAMES WADE, The Emison Families, Revised; Origin and History of the 

Kentucky Emisons. Vincennes, Ind., n. p., 1954. 360p. 
EVARD, HELEN E. ( JACOBY), Descendants of Bartholomew Jacoby. N. p., 1955. 

FLICK, MEDORA HAYS, comp., History of the Hays Family. N. p., 1954. Typed. 

FRAZIER, CLYDE C., Descendants of John Frazier, Maryland Planter. Coffey- 

ville, Kan., Author, 1956. Mimeographed. lOp. 
GOERING, JACOB M., and ANNA J. (GRABER) GOERING, comps., Jacob Krehbiel, 

Sr., Family Record, 1840-1951. Hillsboro, Kan., Mennonite Brethren Pub- 
lishing House, 1951. 133p. 
, comps., Rev. Jacob Stucky Family Record, 1824-1953. North Newton, 

Kan., Mennonite Press, 1954. 233p. 
GOLDTHWAITE, CHARLOTTE, comp., Boardman Genealogy, 1525-1895 . . '. 

Hartford, Conn., Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1895. 778p. 
GOODWIN, JOSEPH O., East Hartford, Its History and Traditions. Hartford, 

Conn., Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1879. 249p. 
GRANT, ARTHUR HASTINGS, The Grant Family, a Genealogical History of the 

Descendants of Matthew Grant of Windsor, Conn., 1601-1898. Poughkeep- 

sie, N. Y., Press of A. V. Haight, 1898. 578p. 
HALL, EDWIN, Ancient Historical Records of Norwalk, Conn. . . . New 

York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman & Company, 1865. 320p. 
[HALL, MARTHA BELLE], and others, Family of Matthew Current Who Married 

Jane Wilson Call, Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky. N. p. [1955]. 15p. 
[HAWK, HERBERT C.], History and Record of the Hawk Family. No impr. 

Mimeographed. Unpaged. 
HINES, H. K., An Illustrated History of the State of Washington. Chicago, 

Lewis Publishing Company, 1894. 771p. 
HINSHAW, WINFORD CALVIN, comp. and ed., 1815 Tax List of Randolph County, 

N. C. Raleigh, William Perry Johnson, c!957. 43p. 

History of Andrew and DeKalb Counties, Missouri. St. Louis, Goodspeed Pub- 
lishing Company, 1888. 591p. 
History of Columbia County, Wisconsin . . . Chicago, Western Historical 

Company, 1880. 1095p. 
History of Daviess County, Missouri. Kansas City, Mo., Birdsall & Dean, 1882. 

History of Goodhue County, Including a Sketch of the Territory and State of 

Minnesota . . . Red Wing, Minn., Wood, Alley & Company, 1878. 

History of Greene County, Missouri ... St. Louis, Western Historical 

Company, 1883. 919p. 


History of Laclede, Camden, Dallas, Webster, Wright, Texas, Pulaski, Phelps 
and Dent Counties, Missouri. Chicago, Goodspeed Publishing Company, 
1889. 1219p. 

History of Nodaway County, Missouri. St. Joseph, Mo., National Historical 
Company, 1882. 1034p. 

History of Old Germantown [Pennsylvania] . . . Germantown, Horace F. 
McCann, 1907. [474]p. 

History of Scott County, Iowa . . . Chicago, Inter-State Publishing Com- 
pany, 1882. 1265p. 

History of the Town of Sunderland, Massachusetts, 1899-1954, Volume 2 
. . . Genealogies Compiled by Fred C. Warner. [Orange, Mass., Art 
Press] n. d. 503p. 

HODGES, FRANCES BEAL (SMITH), Genealogy of the Beale Family, 1399-1956. 
Ann Arbor, Mich., Edwards Brothers, 1956. 391p. 

HOOK, JAMES WILLIAM, Lieut. Samuel Smith, His Children and One Line of 
Descendants and Related Families. No impr. 377p. 

, Smith, Grant and Irons Families of New Jersey's Shore Counties 

... No impr. 280p. 

HOOVER, HARRY M., The Huber-Hoover Family History. Scottdale, Pa., Men- 
nonite Publishing House, 1928. 335p. 

HORGAN, PAUL, The Centuries of Santa Fe. New York, E. P. Dutton & Com- 
pany, 1956. 363p. 

Hughes and Allied Families. No impr. 239p. 

HUGUENOT SOCIETY OF SOUTH CAROLINA, Transactions, No. 61. Charleston, 
Society, 1956. 48p. 

HUMPHREY, J. A., Englewood [New Jersey], Its Annals and Reminiscences. 
New York, J. S. Ogilvie Publishing Company [c!899]. 237p. 

HUMPHREYS, ALLAN S., The Edmistons of Washington County, Arkansas. Fay- 
etteville, Ark., Washington County Historical Society, 1956. 27p. 

HURD, D. HAMILTON, History of Fairfield County, Connecticut, With Illustra- 
tions and Biographical Sketches . . . Philadelphia, J. W. Lewis & Com- 
pany, 1881. 878p. 

, History of New London County, Connecticut, With Biographical 

Sketches . . . Philadelphia, J. W. Lewis & Company, 1882. 768p. 

IRVINE, MRS. WILLIAM, Ancestry and Descendants of Isaac W. Zigler and 
Lydia J. Miller. Milwaukie, Ore., Author, 1956. Mimeographed, lip. 

JACOBUS, DONALD LINES, ed., The Pardee Genealogy. New Haven, Conn., New 
Haven Colony Historical Society, 1927. 693p. 

JESTER, ANNIE LASH, comp. and ed., Adventurers of Purse and Person, Virginia, 
1607-1625. N. p., Order of the First Families of Virginia 1607-1620, 1956. 

JOHNSON, SAMUEL W., History and Genealogy of the Johnson Family From 
Charlemagne to the Present Time. Denver, Big Mountain Press [c!956]. 

Joshua P. Stucky Family Record, 1855-1952. No impr. [7]p. 

KELLOGG, DALE C., Ancestry, Life and Descendants of Martin Kellogg, "the 
Centenarian" of Bronson, Huron Co., Ohio, 1786-1892. Elyria, Ohio, n. p., 
1954. 86p. 


KIMBROUGH, ETHEL, Genealogy of Thomas Kimbrough, 1805-1886. Fayette- 

ville, Ark., Washington County Historical Society, 1956. 52p. 
KNAPP, ALFRED AVERILL, comp., The Ancestral Lines Mary Lenore Knapp. 

Peoria, 111., n. p., 1947. 181p. 
, George Knapp of England, and Some of His Descendants in America. 

[Winter Park, Fla.] n. p. [1952]. [18]p. 
KOEHN, HENRY B., Compilation of the Genealogical and Biographical Record of 

the Descendants and Relation Circle of Henry B. Koehn, 1846-1955. North 

Newton, Kan., Mennonite Press, 1955. 60p. 
KREHBIEL, W. J., comp., History of One Branch of the Krehbiel Family. Mc- 

Pherson, Kan., Compiler, 1950. lOOp. 
LEMKE, W. J., ed., Some Notes on the Washburns Father and Son, Cephas 

Washburn . . . and Edward Payson Washburn . . . Fayetteville, 

Ark., Washington County Historical Society, 1955. 20p. 
LETCHWORTH, WILLIAM P., Sketch of the Life of Samuel F. Pratt with Some 

Account of the Early History of the Pratt Family. Buffalo, Warren, Johnson 

& Company, 1874. 21 Ip. 
LORD, WILLIAM G., comp., History of Athol, Massachusetts. Athol, Compiler 

[c!953]. 745p. 
LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS, Records of Ye Towne Meetings of Lyn, Part 2, 1701- 

1717. Lynn, Mass., Lynn Historical Society, 1956. 107p. 
McCANN, W. R., and R. L. McCANN, Ancestors Descendants James Wilson 

Wright, Sr., Who Married Cynthia Rebecca Jones, Paris, Bourbon County, 

Kentucky, With Index. N. p. [1954]. 21p. 
, Some Descendants of John Keand of Whithorn, Scotland, Many of 

Whom Lived and Died in Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky ... No 

impr. Various Paging. 
McGiLL, JOHN, comp., Beverley Family of Virginia, Descendants of Major 

Robert Beverley (1641-1687) and Allied Families. Columbia, S. C., R. L. 

Bryan Company, 1956. 1117p. 
MCMILLAN, CLAUD NELSON, A History of My People and Yours . . . N. p., 

Privately Printed, 1956. 822p. 
MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Proceedings, Vol. 69, October, 1947 

May, 1950. Boston, Society, 1956. 536p. 
MASSEY, MRS. GUY B., The Billingsleys and the Garvins. Fayetteville, Ark., 

Washington County Historical Society, 1955. 38p. 
MILLER, KENNETH DUANE, Barnard-Miller and Allied Families. N. p., Des 

Plaines Publishing Company, n. d. 278p. 
MISSISSIPPI GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, comp., Cemetery and Bible Records, Vol. 

3. Jackson, Society, 1956. 234p. 

N. p., National Historic Activities Committee, n. d. Unpaged. 
OLCOTT, MARY L. B., The Olcotts and Their Kindred . . . New York, Na- 
tional Americana Publications, 1956. 315p. 
[OSTERHOUT, HOMER C.], Osterhout, 1653-1953. No impr. Mimeographed. 

Panhandle-Plains Historical Review, Vol. 29. Canyon, Tex., Panhandle-Plains 

Historical Society, 1956. 1.31p. 



Past and Present of Warren County, Illinois . . . Chicago, H. F. Kett & 

Company, 1877. 352p. 

Pauls Family Record, 1823-1952. No impr. 131p. 
PHALEN, HAROLD R., History of the Town of Acton [Massachusetts]. N. p. 

[c!954]. 471p. 
PHILLIPS, MARY PALMER, Family Record of David Lehman Booher and His 

Wife Elizabeth Nutts. N. p. [c!956]. 98p. 
POOLE, HERBERT ARMSTRONG, The Genealogy of John Lindsley (1845-1909) 

and His Wife, Virginia Thayer Payne (1856-1941 ) of Boston, Massachusetts. 

Milton, Mass., Author, 1950. [643]p. 

Portrait and Biographical Album of Barry and Eaton Counties, Mich., Contain- 
ing ... Biographical Sketches . . . Chicago, Chapman Brothers, 

1891. [832]p. 
Portrait and Biographical Record of Portland and Vicinity, Oregon. Chicago, 

Chapman Publishing Company, 1903. 883p. 
Portrait and Biographical Record of the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Chicago, 

Chapman Publishing Company, 1903. 1563p. 

PRESCOTT, WORRALL DUMONT, A Genealogical and Biographical Record Con- 
cerning Amos Reed and Annie ( Webb ) Reed and All Their Descendants to 

January 1, 1955 . . . N. p., 1956. 265p. 
RATTRAY, JEANNETTE EDWARDS, East Hampton History Including Genealogy 

of Early Families. East Hampton, N. Y., n. p. [c!953]. 619p. 
RAY, WORTH S., Austin Colony Pioneers, Including History of Bastrop, Fayette, 

Grimes, Montgomery, and Washington Counties, Texas . . . Austin, 

Author, 1949. 378p. 
, Tennessee Cousins, a History of Tennessee People. Austin, Tex., 

Author [c!950]. 811p. 
RICH, IRMA A., Kendall Genealogy, the Descendants of Thomas and Francis 

Kendall of Charlestown and Woburn, Mass. . . . Boston, C. E. Good- 
speed & Company, 1920. 38p. 
SCHMIDT, HELENE SCHROEDER, comp., The Jacob Pankrantz Genealogy. N. p., 

1940. [61]p. 
SCOTT, GEORGE TRESSLER, The Family of Thomas Scott and Martha Swann 

Scott, a Century in America, 1856-1956 . . . N. p., Privately Printed, 

n. d. 70p. 
Shackelford Clan Magazine, Edited by T. K. Jones, Vol. 1, No. 1 Vol. 12, 

No. 12, May 1945 April, 1957. Lubbock, Tex., T. K. Jones, 1945-1957. 

12 Vols. 
SHAW, HUBERT KINNEY, comp., Families of the Pilgrims. Boston, Massachusetts 

Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1956. 178p. 
SMITH, ELDON EDWARD, History and Record of the Schartner Family. N. p., 

Privately Printed, 1952. 190p. 
SMITH, ELSDON COLE, Dictionary of American Family Names. New York, 

Harper & Brothers [c!956]. 244p. 
SOCIETY OF INDIANA PIONEERS, Year Book, 1956. Published by Order of the 

Board of Governors, 1956. 131p. 


Book [Lineage of Past and Present Members] Compiled by Floyd G. Hoen- 
stine. [Pittsburgh] Society, 1956. 773p. 

STEBBINS, JOHN ALFRED, A Genealogy and History of Some Stebbins Lines. No 
impr. 190p. 

[STINE, KATHERINE (WYATT)], comp., [Stine Family Record, 1918, of Towanda, 
Butler County, Kansas.] No impr. Typed. Unpaged. 

, comp., [Wyatt Family Record, 1928, of Sedgwick and Butler Counties, 

Kansas.] No impr. Typed. 17p. 

SWAYNE, NORMAN WALTON, comp., Swaynes Descended From Francis Swayne 
of East Marlborough Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania. N. p., Pri- 
vately Printed, 1955. 242p. 

TUCKER, WILLARD D., Gratiot County, Michigan, Historical, Biographical, Sta- 
tistical Saginaw, Mich., Seeman & Peters, 1913. [1358]p. 

U. S. CENSUS, 1830, [Records of the Fifth Census, 1830, of Jackson County, 
Missouri, Abstracted by Mrs. H. E. Poppino.] N. p., 1956. Mimeographed. 

U. S. CENSUS, 1840, Census, 1840, Jackson County, Missouri. No impr. 
Mimeographed. 62p. 

U. S. CENSUS, 1850, Maine, 1850 Census Population Schedules. Microfilm. 
22 Vols. on 6 Reels. 

, Minnesota, 1850 Census Population Schedules. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 

1 Reel. 

, Wisconsin, 1850 Census Population Scheduks. Microfilm. 8 Vols. on 

3 Reels. 

VAN LIEW, W. RANDOLPH, comp., Van Liew Lieu Lew, Genealogical 6- 
Historical Record . . . Revised . . . by Emerio R. Van Liew. 
[Upper Montclair, N. J.] Privately Printed [1956]. 255p. 

Volume of Memoirs and Genealogy of Representative Citizens of the City of 
Seattle and County of King, Washington . . . New York, Lewis Pub- 
lishing Company, 1903. 773p. 

WALDEMAIER, INEZ, comp., A Finding List of Virginia Marriage Records Before 
185S. N. p., 1957. 42p. 

Ware Family Chronology, January 1, 1906, Fifth Edition. No impr. 14p. 

WATES, WYLMA ANNE, ed., Stub Entries to Indents Issued in Payment of Claims 
Against South Carolina Growing Out of the Revolution, Books C-F. Colum- 
bia, South Carolina Archives Department, 1957. 278p. 

WELLES, ROGER, Early Annals of Newington [Connecticut] . . . Hartford, 
Case, Lockwood & Brainard Company, 1874. 204p. 

Safety of Westmoreland and Fincastle, Proceedings of the County Com- 
mittees, 1774-1776. Richmond, Virginia State Library, 1956. 127p. (Vir- 
ginia State Library Publications, No. 1.) 

Who is Who in and From Ohio . . . the Book of Ohio . . . Cin- 
cinnati, Queen City Publishing Company, 1910. 2 Vols. 

Wills of Edgecombe County, North Carolina, 1733-1856. Rocky Mount, 
N. C, Dixie Letter Service, 1956. 392p. 



AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY, Proceedings at the Annual Meeting Held in 
Worcester, October 17, 1956. Worcester, Mass., Society, 1957. [388]p. 

Americana Annual, an Encyclopedia of the Events of 1956. New York, Amer- 
icana Corporation [c!957]. 900p. 

ANDER, O. FRITIOF, The Cultural Heritage of the Swedish Immigrant, Selected 
References. [Rock Island, 111., Augustana College Library, 1956.] 191p. 
(Augustana Library Publications, No. 27.) 

ANGLE, PAUL M., The Chicago Historical Society, 1856-1956, an Unconven- 
tional Chronicle. New York, Rand McNally & Company [c!956]. 256p. 

ASTON, JAMES, and EDWARD B. STORY, Wrought Iron, Its Manufacture, Char- 
acteristics and Applications. Pittsburgh, A. M. Byers Company [c!941]. 

AYER, N. W., AND SON'S, Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals, 1957. Phila- 
delphia, N. W. Ayer and Son [c!957]. 1544p. 

BAKELESS, JOHN, Background to Glory, the Life of George Rogers Clark. Phila- 
delphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1957. 386p. 

Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Edited by Ned Bradford. New York, 
Appleton-Century-Crofts [c!956]. 626p. 

BEGG, ALEXANDER, Alexander Begg's Red River Journal and Other Papers Rela- 
tive to the Red River Resistance of 1869-1870, Edited by W. L. Morton. 
Toronto, Champlain Society, 1956. 636p. (Publications of the Champlain 
Society, Vol. 34.) 

BENTLEY, GEORGE R., A History of the Freedmen's Bureau. Philadelphia, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1955. 298p. 

BONNER, THOMAS NEVILLE, Medicine in Chicago, 1850-1950, a Chapter in the 
Social and Scientific Development of a City. Madison, Wis., American His- 
tory Research Center, 1957. 302p. 

BUCHANAN, A. RUSSELL, David S. Terry of California, Dueling Judge. San 
Marino, Gal, The Huntington Library, 1956. 238p. 

CATTON, BRUCE, This Hallowed Ground, the Story of the Union Side of the 
Civil War. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday & Company, 1956. 437p. 

CHAPEL, CHARLES EDWARD, Gun Care and Repair, a Manual of Gunsmithing. 
New York, Coward-McCann, 1956. 454p. 

Civil War. New York, Grosset & Dunlap [1956]. 2 Vols. 

EAST TENNESSEE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Publications, No. 28, 1956. Knoxville, 
Society, c!956. 202p. 

Encyclopedia of American Biography. New Series Vol. 26. New York Ameri- 
can Historical Company, 1957. 392p. 

EWTNG, WILLIAM S., comp., Guide to the Manuscript Collections in the William 
L. Clements Library. Ann Arbor, Clements Library, 1953. 548p. 

FATRBURN, WILLIAM ARMSTRONG, Merchant Sail. Center Lovell, Me., Fairburn 
Marine Educational Foundation [1945-1955]. 6 Vols. 

FAIRLESS, BENJAMIN F., It Could Only Happen in the U.S. . . . N. p., 
1957. 54p. 

FAULKNER, VIRGINIA, comp. and ed., Roundup: a Nebraska Reader. Lincoln, 
University of Nebraska Press, 1957. 493p. 

FEDERAL WRITERS' PROJECT, CALIFORNIA, California, a Guide to the Golden 
State. New York, Hastings House [c!954]. 716p. 


FIFE, AUSTIN, and ALTA FIFE, Saints of Sage 6- Saddle, Folklore Among the 
Mormons. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1956. 367p. 

FINE, SIDNEY, Laissez Faire and the General-Welfare State, a Study of Conflict 
in American Thought, 1865-1901. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press 
[1956]. 468p. (University of Michigan Publications, History and Political 
Science, Vol. 22.) 

FISH, ARTHUR M., The Clarke Historical Collection, With a List of Michigan 
Imprints. Mount Pleasant, Mich., Central Michigan College Press, 1956. 

FLEMING, HOWARD A., Canada's Arctic Outlet, a History of the Hudson Bay 
Railway. Berkeley, University of California, 1957. 129p. (University of 
California Publications in History, Vol. 54. ) 

FULD, JAMES J., Pictorial Bibliography of the First Editions of Stephen C. 
Foster. Philadelphia, Musical Americana, 1957. Unpaged. 

GIDDENS, PAUL H., Standard Oil Company (Indiana), Oil Pioneer of the Middle 
West. New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts [c!955]. 741p. 

GRAHAM, DONALD LINTON, Circuit Chautauqua, a Middle Western Institution. 
A Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment cf the Requirements for the 
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History in the Grad- 
uate College of the State University of Iowa. N. p., 1953. Typed. 310p. 
Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

GREEN, WILLIAM, and GERALD POLLINGER, The World's Fighting Planes. Gar- 
den City, N. Y., Hanover House [1956]. 240p. 

GUILLET, EDWIN C., ed., Valley of the Trent. Toronto, Champlain Society, 
1957. 474p. (Publications of the Champlain Society, Ontario Series, No. 


HAMOR, RALPH, A True Discourse of the Present State of Virginia. Richmond, 

Virginia State Library, 1957. 74p. (Virginia State Library Publications, 

No. 3.) 
HANCOCK, CORNELIA, South After Gettysburg, Letters of Cornelia Hancock, 

1863-1868, Edited by Henrietta Stratton Jaquette. New York, Thomas Y. 

Crowell Company [c!956]. 288p. 
HARPER, JOSEPHINE L., and SHARON C. SMITH, Guide to the Manuscripts of the 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Supplement Number One. Madison, 

State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1957. 222p. 
HART, HENRY C., The Dark Missouri. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 

1957. 260p. 
HARWELL, RICHARD, More Confederate Imprints, Vol. 1, Official Publications. 

Richmond, Virginia State Library, 1957. 158p. (Virginia State Library 

Publications, No. 4.) 
, More Confederate Imprints, Vol. 2, Unofficial Publications. Richmond, 

Virginia State Library, 1957. 345p. (Virginia State Library Publications, 

No. 5.) . 
HOLBROOK, STEWART H., The Age of Moguls. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday 

& Company [c!953]. 373p. 
HOLMAN, CHARLES W., Cooperative Way Wins in America. Syracuse, N. Y., 

Metropolitan Cooperative Milk Producers Bargaining Agency, 1957. 89p. 
HOLZMAN, ROBERT S., The Romance of Firefighting. New York, Harper & 

Brothers [c!956]. 209p. 


HORNER, HARLAN HOYT, Lincoln and Greeley. [Urbana] University of Illinois 
Press, 1953. 432p. 

HOWARD, PERRY H., Political Tendencies in Louisiana, 1812-1952. Baton 
Rouge, Louisiana State University Press [c!957]. 231p. (Louisiana State 
University Studies. Social Science Series, No. 5.) 

Index to the Writings on American History, 1902-1940. Washington, D. C., 
American Historical Association [c!956]. 1115p. 

JACOBS, BRUCE, Heroes of the Army, the Medal of Honor and Its Winners. New 
York, W. W. Norton & Company [c!956]. 240p. 

JACOBS, FLORA GILL, A History of Doll Houses, Four Centuries of the Domestic 
World in Miniature. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953. 322p. 

JEFFERSON, THOMAS, Papers, Vol. 13, March to 7 October 1788. Princeton, 
Princeton University Press, 1956. 664p. 

JOHNSON, GERALD W., Lunatic Fringe. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company 
[c!957]. 248p. 

JORGENSON, LLOYD P., The Founding of Public Education in Wisconsin. Madi- 
son, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1956. 252p. 

KINZER, DONALD Louis, The American Protective Association: a Study of Anti- 
Catholicism. A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements 
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington. N. p., 
1954. Typed. 548p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

KRAMER, DALE, Wild Jackasses, the American Farmer in Revolt. New York, 
Hastings House [c!956]. 260p. 

KRAUSKOPF, FRANCES, tr. and ed., Ouiatanon Documents. Indianapolis, In- 
diana Historical Society, 1955. 234p. (Indiana Historical Society Publica- 
tions, Vol. 18, No. 2.) 

LEA, AURORA LUCERO-WHITE, Literary Folklore of the Hispanic Southwest. 
San Antonio, Naylor Company [c!953]. 247p. 

LEMKE, W. J., A History of the National Cemetery in Fayetteville, Arkansas, 
Including a List of Identified Civil War Dead. Fayetteville, Washington 
County Historical Society, 1956. 32p. 

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, New Serial Titles, a Union List of Serials Commencing 
Publication After December 31, 1949 . . . 2955 Cumulation. Wash- 
ington, D. C., Library of Congress, 1956. 667p. 

LINCOLN, ABRAHAM, The Living Lincoln; the Man, His Mind, His Times, and 
the War He Fought, Reconstructed From His Own Writings, Edited by 
Paul M. Angle and Earl Schenck Miers. New Brunswick, N. J., Rutgers 
University Press, 1955. 673p. 

LOOK, AL, U Boom, Uranium on the Colorado Plateau. [Denver, Bell Press, 
c!956.] 224p. 

Loos, JOHN Louis, A Biography of William Clark, 1770-1813. A Dissertation 
Presented to the Graduate Board of Washington University in Partial Ful- 
fillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. St. 
Louis, n. p. 1953. Typed. 1068p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

MANSFIELD, HAROLD, Vision, a Saga of the Sky. New York, Duell, Sloan and 
Pearce [c!956]. 389p. 

MARSHALL, LUCDLE CARR, I, Alone Remember. Indianapolis, Indiana Historical 
Society, 1956. 344p. (Indiana Historical Society Publications, Vol. 18, 
No. 3.) 


MARYLAND, PROVINCIAL COURT, Proceedings, 1677-1678. Baltimore, Maryland 
Historical Society, 1956. 497p. (Archives of Maryland, Vol. 67.) 

MEHL, B. MAX, comp., Star Rare Coin Encyclopedia. Ft. Worth, Compiler 
[c!957]. [208]p. 

MILLIS, WALTER, Arms and Men, a Study in American Military History. New 
York, G. P. Putnam's Sons [c!956]. 382p. 

MONAGHAN, JAY, Swamp Fox of the Confederacy, the Life and Military Services 
of M. Jeff Thompson. Tuscaloosa, Ala., Confederate Publishing Company, 
1956. 123p. 

Moos, MALCOLM, The Republicans, a History of Their Party. New York, 
Random House [c!956]. 564p. 

MORGAN, ALFRED P., How to Use Tools. New York, Arco Publishing Company 
[c!955]. 144p. 

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 40. New York, James T. 
White & Company, 1955. [585]p. 

National Geographic Magazine Cumulative Index, Vol. 2, 1947-1951. Wash- 
ington, D. C., National Geographic Society, c!952. 388p. 

OLSON, OSCAR N., Anders Jonasson Lindstrom, First Augustana Student Spon- 
sored by the Church for Study Abroad in Preparation for Augustana Semi- 
nary Professorship. Rock Island, 111., Augustana Historical Society, 1957. 
47p. (Augustana Historical Society Publications, Vol. 16.) 

O'NEILL, CHARLES, Wild Train, the Story of the Andrews Raiders. New York, 
Random House [c!956]. 482p. 

and Cast. Scranton, Pa., International Textbook Company [c!938]. 151p. 

OWENS, MARY LILLIANA, History of the Sisters of Loretto in the Trans-Missis- 
sippi West. A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School 
of Arts and Science of the St. Louis University in Partial Fulfillment of the 
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. St. Louis, St. Louis 
University, 1935. Typed. 621p. Microfilm. 1 Vol. on 1 Reel. 

PARKMAN, FRANCIS, The Discovery of the Great West: La Salle, Edited by 
William R. Taylor. New York, Rinehart & Company [c!956]. 354p. 

PARSONS, JOHN E., The First Winchester, the Story of the 1866 Repeating Rifle. 
New York, William Morrow and Company, 1955. 207p. 

Pattersons American Education, Vol. 54. North Chicago, 111., Educational Di- 
rectories [c!957]. [716]p. 

PEARE, CATHERINE OWENS, William Penn. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Com- 
pany, 1957. 448p. 

PETERSON, CLARENCE STEWART, Known Military Dead During the Mexican 
War, 1846-48. N. p., c!957. Mimeographed. 170p. 

PETERSON, HAROLD L., Arms and Armor in Colonial America, 1526-1783. 
Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Company [c!956]. 350p. 

PORTER, KIRK H., and DONALD BRUCE JOHNSON, National Party Platforms, 
1840-1956. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1956. 573p. 

Vol. 4, Last Full Measure. New York, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1955. 

RANDALL, RUTH PAINTER, The Courtship of Mr. Lincoln. Boston, Little, Brown 
and Company [c!957]. 219p. 


RECTOR, WILLIAM GERALD, Log Transportation in the Lake States Lumber In- 
dustry. 1840-1918 . . . Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 
1953. 352p. 

coln on Our Land. New York, Hastings House [c.1957]. 121p. 

RICHARDSON, ETHEL PARK, comp., American Mountain Songs, Edited and Ar- 
ranged by Sigmund Spaeth. N. p., Greenberg Publisher [c!955]. 120p. 

ROBINSON, EDGAR EUGENE, The New United States. Stanford University, Cal., 
Stanford University Press [c!946]. 141p. 

ROSE, ERNESTINE BRADFORD, The Circle, "The Center of Our Universe" In- 
dianapolis, Indiana Historical Society, 1957. 448p. (Indiana Historical 
Society Publications, Vol. 18, No. 4. ) 

Ross, ISHBEL, Angel of the Battlefield, the Life of Clara Barton. New York, 
Harper & Brothers [c!956]. 305p. 

ROWE, CHANDLER W., The Effigy Mound Culture of Wisconsin. Milwaukee, 
Milwaukee Public Museum, 1956. 103p. (Publications in Anthropology, 
No. 3.) 

ROWSOME, FRANK, JR., Trolley Car Treasury. New York, McGraw-Hill Book 
Company [c!956]. 200p. 

SABINE, ELLEN S., American Antique Decoration. New York, D. Van Nostrand 
Company [c!956]. 132p. 

SAGE, LELAND L., William Boyd Allison, a Study in Practical Politics. Iowa 
City, State Historical Society of Iowa, 1956. 401p. 

SCHUTZ, JOHN A., Thomas Pownall, British Defender of American Liberty 
. . . Glendale, Cal., Arthur H. Clark Company, 1951. 340p. 

SERVIES, JAMES A., comp., A Bibliography of John Marshall. Washington, D. C., 
United States Commission for the Celebration of the Two Hundredth An- 
niversary of the Birth of John Marshall, 1956. 182p. 

SHANNON, JAMES P., Catholic Colonization on the Western Frontier. New 
Haven, Yale University Press, 1957. 302p. 

SHAW, J. G., Edwin Vincent O'Hara, American Prelate. New York, Farrar, 
Straus and Cudahy [c!957]. 274p. 

SHNEIDMAN, EDWIN S., and NORMAN L. FARBEROW, eds., Clues to Suicide. 
New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1957. 227p. 

SINEY, MARION C., Allied Blockade of Germany, 1914-1916. Ann Arbor, Uni- 
versity of Michigan Press [c!957]. 339p. ( University of Michigan Publica- 
tions, History and Political Science, Vol. 23. ) 

SPORTS ILLUSTRATED, Yesterday in Sports . . . Edited by John Durant. 
New York, A. S. Barnes and Company [c!956]. 136p. 

SQUIRE, DICK, Lincoln in the Magazines During 1955, a Check List of Periodical 
Lincolniana. Bedford, Ohio, Lincoln Press, 1956. 7p. 

, Lincoln in the Magazines During 1956, a Cumulative Bibliography of 

Periodical Lincolniana. Bedford, Ohio, Lincoln Press, 1957. [9]p. 

STERN, EDITH M., Mental Illness, a Guide for the Family, Revised Edition. 
New York, Harper & Brothers [c!957]. 95p. 

STEWART, GEORGE R., 17. S. 40, Cross Section of the United States of America. 
Cambridge, Riverside Press [c!953]. 31 Ip. 

THARP, LOUISE HALL, Three Saints and a Sinner, Julia Ward Howe, Louisa, 
Annie and Sam Ward. Boston, Little, Brown and Company [c!956J. 406p. 


THORNBROUGH, GAYLE, and DOROTHY RIKER, Readings in Indiana History. 

Indianapolis, Indiana Historical Bureau, 1956. 625p. (Indiana Historical 

Collections, Vol. 36. ) 
TOWNSEND, WILLIAM H., Lincoln and the Bluegrass; Slavery and Civil War in 

Kentucky. N. p., University of Kentucky Press [c!955]. 392p. 
VAN EVERY, DALE, Men of the Western Waters. Boston, Houghton Mifflin 

Company, 1956. 244p. 
[WALLERSTEIN, ROBERT S., and others], Hospital Treatment of Alcoholism, a 

Comparative, Experimental Study. New York, Basic Books [c!957]. 212p. 
WHITEHEAD, DON, The FBI Story, a Report to the People. New York, Random 

House [c!956]. 368p. 
Who's Who in the Midwest. Chicago, A. N. Marquis Company [c!952]. 


WILGUS, A. CURTIS, The Caribbean; Its Political Problems. Gainesville, Uni- 
versity of Florida Press, 1956. 324p. 
WILLIAMS, KENNETH POWERS, Lincoln Finds a General, a Military Study of the 

Civil War, Vol. 4, luka to Vicksburg. New York, MacmiUan, 1956. 616p. 
WITTKE, CARL, The German Language Press in America. [Lexington] Univer- 
sity of Kentucky Press [c!957]. 31 Ip. 
WRIGHT, Louis B., The Cultural Life of the American Colonies, 1607-1763. 

New York, Harper & Brothers [c!957]. 292p. 
WRITERS' PROGRAM, NEVADA, Nevada, a Guide to the Silver State. Portland, 

Ore., Binfords & Mort [c!940]. 315p. 
YATES, RAYMOND F., comp., The Antique Collector's Manual . . . New 

York, Harper & Brothers Publishers [c!952]. 303p. 
ZEITNER, JUNE GULP, Midwest Gem Trails, a Field Guide for the Gem Hunter, 

the Mineral Collector and the Tourist . . . Portland, Ore., Mineralogist 

Publishing Company, c!956. 64p. 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


From the Junction City Statesman, October 13, 1860. 

LIVELY. Our city, for the past few weeks, has presented a very lively ap- 
pearance. Not a day passes but what our streets are filled with conveyances 
from the country surrounding, bringing to our market the products of the soil 
and dairy, and bearing away the indispensables of life from the stores of our 
merchants. Little and big dirty boys take great delight in peering into the 
wagons which throng our thoroughfares, and woe be to the unlucky wight who 
leaves an eatable within their reach. Many of these urchins might give au- 
thentic testimony as to the expertness of our farmers with the ox-gad. The 
ladies from out of town are beginning to visit our thriving city in goodly num- 
bers. Their presence will have a tendency to wipe the dust from our merchants 
counters, and compel the clerks to brush their hair at least twice a week. We 
are glad to see it, as it gives undeniable proof of the growing popularity of our 
town, and places the question of Junction's success beyond the shadow of a 


From the Marysville Locomotive, July 2, 1870. 

A lady on the road between this place and Seneca, at whose house a gentle- 
man stopped to refresh himself with a draught of water, tasted a peculiar flavor 
in the aqua, and said to her: "Madam, there seems to be something the matter 
with this water?" "I don't know, sir, about that; there was a rabbit fell in 
there 'tother day, but we strain all the water and get all the hairs out, sir!" 


From the Washington Weekly Republican, April 4, 1873. 

The chief debts of the five great divisions of the earth are thus stated: 
Europe, $17,000,000,000; America, $2,865,000,000; Asia, $675,000,000; Africa, 
$195,000,000; Australia, $190,000,000; total $20,925,000,000. 


From the Ford County Republican, Dodge City, February 16, 

Owing to the more strict morality and purer society of Dodge City, Madam 
Handie has removed to Garden City, where for a long time her branch house 
has been more profitable than headquarters here. Garden City Sentinel please 


Kansas History as Published in the Press 

A history of the Globe School, District 64, Cherokee county, by 
Marjorie V. Forbes, began appearing serially in The Modern Light, 
Columbus, September 26, 1957. The district was organized in 1872. 

Articles of historical interest appearing in the Hays Daily News 
in recent months included: "The Rev. A. L. King Founded Hays 
Baptist Church in 1875 When Settlers Were Few, Harvests Meager," 
October 13, 1957; "Government of Hays Once Operated by Widely 
Acclaimed 'Boys Council,'" December 1; "St. Boniface Church at 
Vincent Celebrates Golden Anniversary," by Wm. Baier, December 
10; "Writers in 1870s Often Made Light of Indian Activities on 
High Plains," December 29; "It Can't Happen Again," the story of 
the early life of Mrs. Ellen Campbell Fairchild, now 91, at Hays, 
January 5, 1958; "'Most Conspicuous Character of Hays,' Tom 
Drum, Leaves for Good With the Arrival of Prohibition," January 
12; "On Its Birthday or at any Other Time, Kansas Is 'High, Wide 
and Handsome,'" January 29; "Early History of Ellis County and 
Hays City Notes Failures in Attempts to Cultivate Land," Febru- 
ary 16; "Ellis County Lost Many Residents in 1874 When Grass- 
hoppers Ruined Promising Crops," February 23; "Jim Curry Is 
Rated One of Most Depraved Characters in Early History of Hays 
City," March 2; and "A Pioneer [Laura Rawson] of Western Kan- 
sas Draws Comparison Between the '80s and Now," April 6. 

The Ellis County Farmer, Hays, began a series of articles on the 
history of Ellis county, January 9, 1958. On January 16 the Farmer 
published an article, not a part of the series, entitled "Gold-Seekers 
of 1850's Used Smoky Hill Trail Through Ellis County." 

C. H. Tade's stories in the Protection Post about the early days 
in the Comanche county area of Collier Flats have continued with 
a series entitled "Back in 1884 Early Settlers of Collier Flats," 
beginning January 17, 1958. 

Early in 1958 the First Methodist church of Elk City observed 
the 75th anniversary of the dedication of its first building. A history 
of the church was published in the Elk City Sun, January 17, 1958. 

Charles M. Pen well is the author of a two-installment history of 
the Trinity Episcopal church of El Dorado which appeared in The 
Butler County News, El Dorado, January 23 and 30, 1958. The 
church was started in 1884. 



Gordon S. Hahn is the author of two historical articles in the 
Marysville Advocate: "Marysville Civil War Veteran [Henry 
Landes] Saw Assassin of Lincoln Decapitated," January 23, 1958; 
and "February Blizzard Played Havoc With Railroad Traffic Here 
in 1915," February 6. Also on February 6 the Advocate printed a 
history of the first bridge across the Big Blue river at Marysville. 

G. R. Tinius has recently compiled "An Early History of the 
Church of Christ in Paradise Valley." A summary of this work was 
published in the Belle Plaine News, January 30, 1958. 

A history of the community of Amy, Lane county, was printed 
in the News Chronicle, Scott City, January 30, 1958. The town 
was founded in 1905 by Nolen Yates. 

"Gems of the '80's" a series of historical articles on Baxter Springs, 
by Claude H. Nichols, began appearing in the Baxter Springs 
Citizen, January 30, 1958. Baxter Springs history also was featured 
in a story by Harold O. Taylor, printed in the Pittsburg Headlight, 
March 17. 

The Junction City Union included an Irwin Army Hospital sec- 
tion in its edition of February 5, 1958, in observance of the dedi- 
cation of the new hospital at Fort Riley. Featured in the section 
was Maj. George E. Omer's history of Fort Riley hospitals. 

A history of the Hesston Evangelical United Brethren church 
was published in the Hesston Record, February 6, 1958. The church 
had its beginning in 1888 with services in a schoolhouse conducted 
by a circuit rider. 

Ruby Basye is the author of the following articles in the Hutchin- 
son News: "Mennonites Found a Pretty Prairie," February 9, 1958; 
"A Quaker Colony Founded Haviland," February 23; "Wind Gave 
Holyrood Name," March 2; "Pierceville Grew From Prairie Only 
to be Sacked by Indians," March 9; "Achenbach Founder Constructs 
Own Railroad," March 16; "Gray County Watched Intertown 
Rivalry," March 23; and "Friends Founded Haviland," April 6. 

Historical material published recently by the Delphos Republican 
included: a letter by Manford Eaton of Mission, a former Delphos 
resident, who recalled life in Delphos in 1909 and following years, 
February 20, 1958; some of the history of Delphos, as presented at 
the February 15th meeting of the Ottawa County Historical Society, 
also appeared February 20; and "Memoirs of the Old Delphos 
Opera House," by Ray Halberstadt, March 13. 

Kansas Historical Notes 

The 83d annual meeting of the Kansas State Historical Society 
will be held at Topeka on Tuesday, October 21, 1958. 

Highland College, oldest institution of higher learning in Kansas, 
observed its centennial anniversary February 9, 1958. Chartered in 
1858 as a Presbyterian college, the school is now a junior college 
receiving support from the Highland rural high school district. 
Principal founder of the school was the Rev. Samuel Irvin, mis- 
sionary to the Sac and Fox Indians, 1837-1857, in the area of present 

Eleven new directors were elected to the board of the Finney 
County Historical Society at its tenth annual meeting, February 
11, 1958, at Garden City. Chosen for two-year terms were Edward 
E. Bill, John R. Burnside, H. C. Cleaver, A. M. Fleming, Abe 
Hubert, Clifford R. Hope, Jr., Mary Hope, Lester McCoy, Delia 
Gobleman, Will Renick, and Cecil Wristen. Amy Gillespie was 
elected to fill a vacancy on the 22-member board. 

County commissioners presided February 17, 1958, when the 
new Dickinson county historical room, in the basement of the 
courthouse, was opened officially. The room is open to the 
public daily from 8 A. M. to 5 P. M., and until noon on Saturdays. 

Thomas E. Davis was named president of the Crawford County 
Historical Society at a dinner meeting and election attended by 
61 persons in Pittsburg, February 19, 1958. Belle Provorse was 
elected vice-president; Vivian Walker, secretary; and Oscar Ander- 
son, treasurer. Hugh A. Friel, L. H. Eyestone, and Al Ligon were 
named to the board of directors. The program was conducted by 
Mrs. Edward V. Malle. At a spring meeting of the society, held in 
Pittsburg, April 23, Alan W. Farley, president of the Kansas State 
Historical Society, was the principal speaker. His subject was 
"Pioneers of Kansas." Mrs. Calvin Cooper spoke briefly about 
Samuel J. Crawford, third governor of the state of Kansas, for 
whom the county was named. 

Dr. O. W. Mosher was re-elected president of the Lyon County 
Historical Society at the annual meeting of the society in Emporia, 
February 22, 1958. Other officers chosen included: Dr. Thomas 
P. Butcher, first vice-president; John G. Atherton, second vice- 



president; Myrtle Buck, secretary; Warren Morris, treasurer; and 
Mrs. F. L. Gilson, Mabel Edwards, and Lucina Jones, historians. 
The following directors were named for the coming year: Wilford 
Riegle, John R. Williams, Ray Mclnnes, W. L. White, Conrad Van- 
dervelde, Roger Triplett, T. H. McColm, James W. Putnam, Mrs. 
James McKinney, Mrs. Ora Rindom, Mrs. Arthur Childears, Ethel 
Mahaffey, Mary Williams, Catherine H. Jones, and Ida Franz. 

Monthly meetings of the Ottawa County Historical Society in 
February, March, and April, 1958, in Minneapolis, were devoted 
to aspects of local history in the Delphos, Grover, and Bennington 

Charles A. Loucks was elected president of the recently organ- 
ized Kearny County Historical Society at the first annual meeting 
March 1, 1958, in Lakin. Other officers chosen were: Foster Eske- 
lund, Lenora B. Tate, and Mary G. Smith, vice-presidents; Edith 
T. Clements, secretary; Robert O. Coder, treasurer; Margaret O. 
Hurst, historian; and Vivian P. Thomas, curator. City and town- 
ship representatives were also elected to the executive board. At 
a monthly meeting held March 31, Mrs. Clements resigned as secre- 
tary and Mrs. Virginia Hicks was elected to fill the position. 

The Kansas Association of Teachers of History and Related Fields 
met for its 32d annual meeting at Kansas State College, Manhat- 
tan, March 7 and 8, 1958. Speakers and their subjects included: 
W. Stitt Robinson, University of Kansas, "Tributary Indians in 
Colonial Virginia"; Homer V. Rutherford, Washburn University, 
Topeka, "British Exploration in Africa, 1788-1820"; Carl Harris, 
McPherson College, "Harold Ickes and the Tidelands Oil Contro- 
versy"; James C. Malin, University of Kansas, "Kansas Philosophers, 
1871"; Joseph Hajda, Kansas State College, "Communist Seizure of 
Czechoslovakia"; Columban Clinch, St. Benedict's College, Atchi- 
son, "The Committee of Public Safety and Unemployment, a 
Glimpse at a Social Problem of the French Revolution"; Thomas 
M. Gale, University of Kansas, "The Founding of Lima, Peru, 
1535"; and William E. Koch, Kansas State College, " 'Beulah Land' 
on the Frontier." Other features of the meeting were a panel dis- 
cussion on "College Teaching Over Television," and a report by 
Homer E. Socolofsky, Kansas State College, retiring president of 
the association, on the project of the year compilation of a Kan- 
sas bibliography. 


At a meeting in Scott City on March 21, 1958, the Scott County 
Historical Society was reorganized. Inactive since 1952, the group 
elected Dr. H. Preston Palmer as temporary president. Other 
officers are: S. W. Filson, vice-president; Mrs. C. W. Dickhut, 
secretary; and Matilda Freed, treasurer. The society's plans in- 
clude establishment of a public park at Squaw's Den, rebuilding 
of the El Quartelejo pueblo, and erection of several historical 

"Kansas" was the program theme of the annual spring meeting 
of the Kansas Council for the Social Studies in Topeka, March 22, 
1958. Speakers included Nyle Miller, secretary of the Kansas State 
Historical Society, and Dr. James C. Malin, professor of history at 
the University of Kansas. 

George J. Benson, El Dorado, and Ralph Grier, Andover, were 
elected new members of the board of trustees of the Butler County 
Historical Society at a meeting March 30, 1958, in El Dorado. Old 
members re-elected for one-year terms were: Mrs. R. C. Loomis, 
Mrs. Corah M. Bullock, Mrs. Ralph Wiley, Clifford W. Stone, 
Clarence King, and Charles E. Heilmann. On April 12 Benson was 
elected president, succeeding F. H. Cron. Heilmann was chosen 
vice-president; Mrs. Loomis, secretary; and Stone, treasurer. 

At an organizational meeting of the Decatur County Historical 
Society in Oberlin, April 11, 1958, the following officers were 
elected: Ward Claar, president; Milton Nitsch, first vice-president; 
E. W. Coldren, second vice-president; Chris G. Jorn, secretary; 
Wallace T. Wolfe, treasurer; and Ben Miller, Ira Laidig, Dr. A. J. 
Thomsen, Don Zimmerman, John Ward, Jay Paddock, and Fay 
Brock, directors. The society's first project is the establishment 
of a museum, for which a building has already been purchased. 

The regular semiannual meeting of the Lane County Historical 
Society was held April 14, 1958, at Dighton. Edward M. Beougher, 
widely-known Gove county historian, was the chief speaker. 

J. V. Kelly was the principal speaker at the quarterly meeting 
of the Leavenworth County Historical Society at Leavenworth 
on April 17, 1958. Mr. Kelly recalled early events in the city from 
his own experiences and quizzed his audience on happenings of 
more than half a century ago. 

The Lawrence Historical Society, reorganized last year, held a 
unique annual meeting April 23, 1958. Instead of a speaker, the 


meeting was devoted to a showing of pictures and drawings re- 
lating to early-day Lawrence which were thrown on a screen by 
an opaque projector. 

On May 18 and 19, 1958, the centennial anniversary of the Marais 
des Cygnes massacre was observed at ceremonies centering at 
Trading Post, Linn county. Events of the program included: re- 
ligious services, a parade, music, an address by Fred W. Brinker- 
hoff, Pittsburg, and a centennial ball. The massacre occurred May 
19, 1858, at the eastern edge of the county. About 30 Missourians 
captured 11 Free-State men, subsequently killing five and wounding 
five before a firing squad. 

Price Raid Through Linn County, Kansas, October 24, 25, 1864 
is the title and subject of a 17-page pamphlet by Samuel Tucker 
published in 1958. 

Pilgrim Heritage, a 16-page pamphlet by Don D. Ballou, out- 
lining the history of the First Pilgrim Congregational church of 
Kansas City, Kan., was issued in April, 1958, as part of the church's 
centennial observance. 

The story of Steel Dust, famous Texas sprinter and sire, is told 
by Wayne Card in Fabulous Quarter Horse: Steel Dust, a 64-page 
volume published in 1958 by Duell, Sloan and Pearce of New York. 

Maj. George E. Omer's story "An Army Hospital: From Horses 
to Helicopters/' published in the Winter, 1957, and Spring, 1958, 
issues of The Kansas Historical Quarterly, has been published in 
booklet form by the military forces under the same title. 

Alba Ashby Hewitt is the author of a 231-page work entitled 
Riding the Rockies, published recently by Vantage Press, New 
York. Mrs. Hewitt, a Kansan, relates experiences in horseback 
riding in the mountains. 



Autumn 1958 

Published by j 

Kansas State Historical Society 



Managing Editor Editor Associate Editor 



1859-1861 Edited by Louise Barry, 257 

With map showing the travels of the First U. S. cavalry, facing p. 272, 
and portraits of Thomas J. Wood and Eugene A. Carr, facing p. 273. 

THE MUDGE RANCH, HODGEMAN COUNTY Margaret Evans Caldwell, 285 

With photograph of the Mudge ranch house, facing p. 288, and plan of 
the ranch house and the Mudge cattle brand, facing p. 289. 


SALINE COUNTY /. Neale Carman, 305 

"CREATIVE EVOLUTION": The Philosophy of Elisha Wesley McComas, 

Fort Scott James C. Malin, 314 

LETTERS OF DANIEL R. ANTHONY, 1857-1862: Part Three, October 1, 

1861-June 7, 1862 . . . Edited by Edgar Langsdorf and R. W. Richmond, 351 




The Kansas Historical Quarterly is published four times a year by the Kansas 
State Historical Society, 120 W. Tenth, Topeka, Kan., and is distributed free to 
members. Correspondence concerning contributions may be sent to the manag- 
ing editor at the Historical Society. The Society assumes no responsibility for 
statements made by contributors. 

Entered as second-class matter October 22, 1931, at the post office at To- 
peka, Kan., under the act of August 24, 1912. 


The Dorrance telephone office on November 6, 1909, 
from a glass negative by L. W. Halbe. Courtesy J. C. 
Ruppenthal, Russell, and Elmo Mahoney, Dorrance. 


Volume XXIV Autumn, 1958 Number 3 

With the First U. S. Cavalry in Indian Country, 





TN 1858 the Wichita Indians were living in south-central Indian 
1 territory not far from present Rush Springs, Okla. Early in the 
autumn some marauding bands of Comanches stole horses from the 
Wichitas. The latter, seeking friendly relations and a peaceful set- 
tlement, invited the raiders back for a council. The Comanches 
came, brought their families, and set up a 120-lodge camp not far 
from the Wichita village. This was done with the consent and 
approval of Capt. William E. Prince, commanding officer at Fort 
Arbuckle, some 50 miles to the southeast. But Bvt. Maj. Earl Van 
Dorn and a force of Second cavalry, Fifth infantry, and Indian 
scouts, sent up into the territory from Fort Belknap, Tex., to find 
and punish Comanche raiders, had not been informed. Soon after 
setting up a camp (Camp Radziminski) on Otter creek, Van Dorn 
was told by his scouts of the large Comanche village 90 miles to the 
east. He marched his troops the same day (September 29), and 
attacked at dawn on October 1. 

The Comanches, aware of the soldiers' approach, but not expect- 
ing hostility, fought back fiercely. They lost about 70 killed, all 
their lodges and over 300 animals. (Van Dorn's command suffered 
casualties too, as will be noted later.) Believing they had been 
betrayed, the Comanches promised revenge on all concerned. The 
Wichitas hastily abandoned their village and moved to the vicinity 
of Fort Arbuckle. Anticipating serious trouble with the Indians, 
the army took steps to strengthen Fort Arbuckle and to regarrison 
Fort Washita, 60 miles to the southeast. Ordered down from Fort 
Leavenworth to occupy Fort Washita were companies C and I (the 

LOUISE BARRY is a member of the staff of the Kansas State Historical Society. 



Second squadron) of the First U. S. cavalry, commanded by Capt. 
Thomas J. Wood. 

The letters published here begin with an account of the Second 
squadron's five-weeks' march, in late 1858, from northeast Kansas 
to near the southern border of Oklahoma. They continue with al- 
most monthly regularity through 1859, 1860, and up to May, 1861, 
reporting events at Fort Washita and vicinity, describing a summer 
scout to the Antelope Hills in 1859, and giving an account of a six- 
months', 2,400-mile march with the Kiowa-Comanche expedition of 
1860 which first took the Second squadron into Texas, then back 
across Indian territory into Kansas, up to the Santa Fe trail, and a 
few weeks later north to the Republican river ( and a fight with the 
Kiowas on August 6), then to Fort Kearny, N. T., south once again 
by way of Fort Riley and El Dorado, K. T., to Fort Smith, Ark., and 
finally back to Fort Washita for the winter of 1860-1861. The last 
letter, in late April, 1861, tells of the preparations to evacuate Fort 
Washita, following the order to abandon all army posts in the In- 
dian territory to the Confederates. 1 

As a sustained and uninterrupted account of two and a half years 
of frontier army life in the mid-nineteenth century, this is a nota- 
ble and unique newspaper series. The letters were written for the 
Times by prearrangement, though only a few were labeled "From 
our special correspondent." They appeared on the page devoted to 
national and regional news under a variety of headings: "From the 
Cherokee [i.e., Chickasaw!] Nation"; "Letter from Fort Washita"; 
"Important from the Indian Region"; etc. 

The question, unanswered to date, is: Who wrote 29 of the 30 
letters in the series? Letter number one, published under the sub- 
head, "Notes from a Soldier's Diary," was signed "Know Nothing." 
Letter number two (not written by the author of the first letter) 
was signed "J. W. Reeder, Company 'C' 1st Cavalry." Of the next 
12 letters, nine were signed "Cato," and three had no name. The 
remaining 16 were signed "Rover." Presumably either "Know 
Nothing," or J. W. Reeder settled on the pen name "Cato." But 
which one? And who, then, was "Rover"? ("Rover's" letters be- 
gan, incidentally, not while he was on the march, but at a time 

1. On August 3, 1861, the First U. S. cavalry was redesignated the Fourth cavalry and 
the Second cavalry subsequently became the Fifth cavalry. (The old First and Second 
dragoons then became the First and Second cavalry.) Therefore these letters chronicle 
events in the history of the Fourth, and to a lesser extent, the Fifth U. S. cavalry regiments. 

The series appears to be complete as republished here (with typographical errors cor- 
rected), from The Daily Times, Leavenworth, issues of February 8, 22, April 23, May 18, 
July 1, 16, August 8, September 9, 24, October 6, November 3. 18, December 28, 1859; 
January 28, March 19, April 18, May 22, June 28, August 2, 23, November 3, December 
6, 25, 1860; January 14, February 6, March 3, April 24, May 28, 1861; and the Weekly, 
issues of February 5 and March 26, 1859. 


when his company was spending a quiet winter at Fort Washita.) 
Several of the letters were composed from diary entries, which 
points to "Know Nothing" as the writer. But J. W. Reeder may 
have kept a journal also. Unless the original diaries turn up, the 
mystery surrounding the authorship of these letters may never be 

II. THE LETTERS, JANUARY 7, 1859-ApRiL 5, 1860 


MESSRS. EDITORS: On the 25th of November last, the 2d squadron 
of 1st Cavalry left Fort Leavenworth, K. T., for Fort Washita, C. 
N. On the 29th we crossed the boundary line between Kansas 
Territory and the State of Missouri, 2 and camped on Blue river. 
At this point there was an abundance of wild game, (chiefly rab- 
bits, ) which were so thick that at every step one would see no less 
than two or three. We killed no less than 200 in about two hours. 
Everything went on smoothly until we reached the Marais des 
Cygnes river, where we were compelled to lay over one day to 
mend the crossing. 

On the 4th of December we crossed the river, passing through 
Louisville, Mo., 3 containing the immense number of "one house," 
but still called a city. While we were marching onward it com- 
menced to snow; after snowing a short time, it turned into hail, and 
afterwards into rain. As the hail fell, it froze on the horses and 
clothes of the men, making them look like an iceberg. We marched 
on until we came to wood and water, when, pitching our tents on 
top of the ice, and making ourselves as comfortable as possible, we 
retired for the night. 

The snow remained upon the ground until we reached the South 
branch of Spring river. Here we pitched our tents on a most beau- 
tiful spot, environed by majestic hills and mountains on the south 
and east, and the most luxuriant prairie extending for several miles 
to the hills of the north. From this place to Turkey Creek, 26 
miles distant, we passed through a portion of country known as 
the Turkey Creek Lead Mines. 4 From what I could learn, there 

2. The direct route to Fort Washita would have been the old Fort Leavenworth-Fort 
Scott-Fort Gibson military road (a territorial road by 1858). The roundabout journey 
through Missouri is unexplained. 

3. No information on a "Louisville" in western Missouri has been found. 

4. Some lead was being mined around Turkey creek, near present Joplin, in the late 
1850's, but the area was sparsely populated as late as 1861. In any case, the writer says 
the mining region he passed through was south of the south branch of Spring river, and in 
this area (Cedar creek, Granby, and Center creek) lead mining was booming. The town 
of Granby (some 25 miles southeast of present Joplin) was the smelting center, with 
four furnaces operating at full blast in the latter 1850's. In 1861 Granby claimed to have 
a population of five or six thousand persons. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri (New 
York, 1901), v. 3, p. 474, v. 6, p. 557; Kansas Historical Collections, v. 6, p. 307; History 
of Newton, Lawrence, Barry and McDonald Counties, Missouri (Chicago, 1888), pp. 
361, 362. 


are no less than two thousand persons employed in these mines. On 
the 12th of December we crossed the Missouri State Line, and 
camped on Buffalo Creek, Cherokee Nation. 

The Cherokee Indians are very industrious, raising corn, oats, &c., 
for which they demand an enormous price. There are but very few 
white people living amongst them. Dec. 16th, we passed through 
Talhaquah [Tahlequah], 5 the capital of the Cherokee Nation, a 
village containing about 500 inhabitants. About a mile south of 
this place we noticed a commodious brick edifice. This building is 
situated on a most beautiful place, and is used for a Seminary. 6 
After 18 miles we came in sight of Fort Gibson, 7 which has been 
abandoned since the Spring of 1857. There is no care taken of it. 
The buildings are tumbling down, and every thing else is going to 

On the 18th we crossed the Arkansas river, at the head [i. e., 
mouth] of Grand [or Neosho] river. After crossing the river we 
had fine weather, making from 15 to 20 miles per day. On our 
course we passed through a fine country, settled by Indians. Of the 
land given to the Indians, the Cherokees and Creeks possess the 
most fertile. The Creek Indians are considered the most intelligent, 
as also the most industrious tribe in the Western country. Our 
route lay thro* the timbered portion of the country. On the 25th 
( Christmas ) a slight accident occurred by the upsetting of a wagon 
near camp, in which a woman was riding. The wagon lodged 
against a tree, breaking everything to pieces, except the woman, 
who escaped with a slight bruise upon her left hand. 

We arrived at Fort Washita, 8 Chickasaw Nation, on the morning 

5. Tahlequah, chosen by the Cherokees as their capital in 1839 soon after their ar- 
rival in the territory, was platted as a town in 1843. A principal building was a brick 
structure erected in 1845 for the Cherokee Supreme Court. Here the Cherokee Advocate, 
the nation's official newspaper, was printed for many years. Oklahoma, a Guide to the 
Sooner State (Norman, 1945), pp. 74, 75, 258. 

6. In 1850-1851 two seminaries had been established in the Cherokee Nation, both 
near Tahlequah. The one mentioned here was for males; the other, for females, was 
at Park Hill, four miles to the south. Probably neither school was in operation in De- 
cember, 1858, for Cherokee agent George Butler in September had reported that the semi- 
naries were "still closed, and are likely to remain so for want of necessary means to keep 
them in operation." Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1858, pp. 140, 142; Okla- 
homa, a Guide . . ., op. tit., pp. 259, 260. 

7. Fort Gibson, founded in 1824, and for many years an important link in the chain 
of frontier posts, was abandoned on June 23, 1857. In September of that year it was 
turned over to the Cherokee Indians. W. B. Morrison, Military Posts and Camps in Okla- 
homa (Oklahoma City, 1936), pp. 30, 42. 

8. Fort Washita was 15 years old when these First cavalrymen arrived in December, 
1858. (Gen. Zachary Taylor chose the site in 1842, and the post was established in 1843.) 
It was some 16 miles north of the Texas border, on a hill, on the east side of the Washita, 
a mile or more from the river. (The ruins of the fort are in the extreme northwest corner 
of present Bryan county, Okla.) Over a period of several years a number of substantial 
buildings were constructed on the post, around the perimeter of a large rectangle. Estab- 
lished to protect the Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians and maintain order along the Texas 
border, by 1858 this post was not as important strategically as Fort Arbuckle (established in 
1851), some 60 miles up the Washita to the northwest. According to Morrison (op. tit., 
p. 86), Fort Washita had been abandoned temporarily in 1858 (from February 17 until 
the arrival of the First cavalrymen on December 29). But Grant Foreman (Chronicles of 
Oklahoma, v. 5, p. 382) stated that after Company K, Seventh U. S. infantry left the post 


of the 27th [29th?] of December, and it is quite a neat looking 
place, on the overland mail route 9 to California, and about two 
miles from Washita river. There are quarters for two companies of 
mounted men. The buildings are mostly of wood, one or two of 
stone, while the hospital is entirely of brick. Corn is cheap, bring- 
ing from 25 to 30 cts. per bushel. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., January 17, 1859. 

EDITORS OF DAILY TIMES: The bustle and confusion, which the 
arrival of a body of troops at a post necessarily creates, being over, 
I hasten to acquaint you according to promise, with a description 
of our march, the Indian tribes through which our road led us, and 
with the news in general, in this part of the western world: 

Our march was, in comparison to the season, an uncommonly mild 
and lenient one snow or ice 10 we never saw after we had left Fort 
Leavenworth. The road being very good, we traveled at an av- 
erage of about nineteen miles a day, and arrived here on the 29th of 
December, 1858. 

We passed through the Cherokee, the Creek, the Chickasaw and 
Choctaw Nations, and have found but very little difference in the 
manner in which farming is conducted by the whites and these 
Indian tribes. They are all mixed with whites, and seem to be 
very wealthy. They own slaves, cattle, large tracts of fertile land, 
etc., they have their villages, their manufactures, their colleges 
and even their newspapers, and seem to covet the idea of living 
with white men to which conclusion I came from an offer which 
has been made by old Indians to several of us, that if we choose to 
settle in their country, they would willingly give us a tract of land, 
help us clear it, set up a house, give the necessary implements for 
farming and a stock of cattle for a start, if now comes the condi- 
tion: we would consent to marry a squaw! 

This post has a very fine situation elevated on a hill, it com- 
mands a superb view for many miles around the country. It is 
situated about a mile from the Washita river near the Texas frontier. 

for Utah in the early part of 1858 a "small force of three companies of the Second Dra- 
goons under Captain Enoch Steen had been ordered to Fort Washita; but as this force 
was much reduced by sickness it was unable to give adequate protection to the Chickasaw 
country. . . ." No mention is made in these letters of the Second dragoon troops. 
Morrison, op. cit., p. 81; W. B. Morrison, "A Visit to Old Fort Washita," in Chronicles of 
Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, v. 7, pp. 175-179. 

9. A post office had been established at Fort Washita in November, 1844, but the fort 
received its mail through the Boggy Depot distributing office and was not on the direct 

5? e -iio5 ?^ er ?^, d 9 v ? arl ^? d i. fa ., il rr~ R - P ' and M ' B ' Conkling, The Butterfield Overland 
Mail 1857-1869 (Glendale, Calif., 1947), v. 1, pp. 275, 276. 

uS u Ap Sf rent1 ^ thi ! Cavalryman did not experience the snow-sleet-and-rain storm de- 
scribed by the writer of the first letter! Possibly the command was divided and the troops 
in the advance party were ahead of the storm. 


Of hostile Indians, not much is to fear in the immediate vicinity 
of the Fort, but we have heard of them, ( the Apache and Caman- 
che Indians,) from the Washita [Wichita] Mountains, where they 
are combined, waiting an opportunity for the ransacking of the 
country, thereabouts. 

They have not quite recovered from the shock given them by 
Major Van Dora's command of the Second Cavalry, who killed 
fifty-four of their number, but barely escaping with his own life he 
is severely wounded. 11 Van Dorn's command are encamped around 
the Washita [Wichita] mountains, observing and watching the red- 
skins, and intending to wipe them out if ever they come forth. 

From Fort Arbuckle, 12 a company of the 1st Infantry has been 
sent to his re-enforcement, and the Second Company "D" and "E" 
of the 1st Cavalry under command of Major Emory, 13 are continu- 
ally out scouting after parties of these robbing Indian rascals. I 
am in hopes that in the spring, we all will be able to give them a 
sound thrashing and bring them to terms. 

Yours truly, 
J. W. REEDER, Company "CT 1st Cavalry. 

FORT WASHITA, C. N., Feb. 2, 1859 

EDITOR OF THE TIMES: DEAR SIR: Yesterday the remains of 
Lieut. Van Camp, who was killed in the recent engagement with 
the Indians near Fort Arbuckle, were brought to this place with 
an escort en route to Fort Smith, from which place they are to be 
shipped to Philadelphia, where they will be committed to their 
final resting place. 14 

11. This refers to the surprise attack on the Comanches October 1, 1858, mentioned 
in the introduction. First reports gave the Indians' losses as 54 killed, but this figure 
later was revised upward to 70. Lt. Cornelius Van Camp, three privates of H company 
and Sergeant Garrison of F company were killed in this battle. Maj. Earl Van Dorn re- 
ceived a nearly-fatal arrow wound. (But after several weeks of leave at his home in 
Mississippi, he rejoined his command wintering at Camp Radziminski in southwestern 
Indian territory and set out on another campaign against the Comanches in the spring of 
1859. See p. 268.) Four other cavalrymen were severely wounded, and there were a 
good many with lesser injuries among the troops and Indian scouts of Van Dorn's com- 
mand. Secretary of War's Report, 1858, pp. 269-278; Report of Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, 1858, p. 132, 1859, pp. 585, 586; W. S. Nye, Carbine and Lance . . . (Nor- 
man, 1937), pp. 27-30. The site of the battle is about five miles southeast of present 
Rush Springs, Okla. Ibid., p. 27, footnote. 

12. Fort Arbuckle, only 60 miles west and a little north of Fort Washita, is men- 
tioned often in these letters. It was established in 1851 to keep order among the wild 
Indian tribes living on the Choctaw-Chickasaw lands lying between the 98-degree and 
100-degree meridians. It also served as some protection to western-bound emigrants. The 
site is on the right bank of Wild Horse creek, five miles from the Washita, on the slopes 
of the Arbuckle mountains, near present Davis, Okla. Morrison, op. cit., pp. 96, 97; Nye, 
op. cit., p. 21; Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 17, p. 318. 

13. Maj. William H. Emory, the commanding officer at Fort Arbuckle (succeeding 
Capt. W. E. Prince see introduction), is frequently mentioned in these letters. His First 
cavalry troops, Companies D and E, were the Third squadron (not the "Second Company 
. . ."). The First infantry company was Company E. 

14. Lt. Cornelius Van Camp, killed on October 1, 1858, was buried at Lancaster, Pa. 
Nye, op. cit., p. 30. 


Lieut. Van Camp was a native of Pennsylvania. He received his 
education at West Point. He received the commission of Brevet 
2d Lieutenant on the 1st of July, 1855, in the 1st Regiment of Cav- 
alry, and afterwards as 2d Lieutenant in the 2d Regiment of Cav- 
alry. He served his country faithfully up to the period of his un- 
timely death. 

The troops since their arrival at this place, have constantly been 
engaged in taking away old buildings formerly used as quarters for 
soldiers, and adding to the appearance of the Fort, making it one 
of the handsomest posts in the West. 

The penalty for selling liquor in this nation is quite severe. Not 
long since a negro was caught in the act of selling liquor and was 
taken into custody. The morning following the capture of said 
negro he received fifty lashes on his bare back, and [was] released 
with the assurance that if he was ever caught in a like scrape he 
would receive double the amount of lashes above stated. 

Horse racing is all the excitement at our camp for the present; 
giving pleasant faces to the winners, and sour ones to the losers. 
The weather is quite mild. 


[Inserted at this point in the chronology of letters is a communica- 
tion from the commanding officer at Fort Arbuckle to the command- 
ing officer at Fort Washita, regarding the Indian situation.] 

HEADQUARTERS, FORT ARBUCKLE, C. N., February 27, 1859 
CAPTAIN: The Comanches are down here in small and scattered 
parties, and your command, or part of it, say one company, could 
be of essential aid in chasing and killing these villains. My own 
command is so small, and the horses so reduced by constant scout- 
ing during the winter, I cannot cover as much ground as I desire 
to do. We have been very fortunate so far, and if I can follow 
up our success, we will soon put an end to the business. Lieutenant 
[James E.] Powell, with a cavalry command, met a party thirty 
miles west of here, killed five certain, and wounded others, with a 
loss of one cavalry man killed, and two men and two horses 
wounded. Last night the Indians attacked Mr. Moncrief s ranche, 
five miles east of here. Not being able to catch his horses, or do 
other damage, they shot three of his horses with arrows. Early 
this morning [Lt. David S.] Stanley, with D company, first cavalry, 
was sent in hot pursuit. I also sent an infantry command to the 
Wachita [Wichita] village. 

I have, therefore, respectfully to suggest, that you order one 


company at least to come immediately and occupy the east bank of 
the Wachita river, at the upper crossing, and scout the valley to 
the north of this post, with orders either to report to me, or com- 
municate and cooperate with me, as you may see fit. Wagons to 
accompany the command will be a positive nuisance. I have plenty 
of corn and pack-saddles, which will be placed at your service. 

The reduced condition of the animals of this command make it 
necessary I should make this request of you. By complying with 
it, you will secure my rear, and leave me free to operate to the 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. H. EMORY, Major, commanding. 
[To] CAPTAIN T. J. WOOD, commanding officer, Fort Wachita. 15 


An express arrived here lately with dispatches relating to a fight 
that had taken place between the United States troops and Witch- 
itas, and the Camanches. The despatches contained the follow- 
ing information. 

Lieut. Powell, of Fort Arbuckle, in command of fifty United 
States soldiers and fifty Witchitas, as guides, started on a scouting 
expedition. When within twenty miles from Fort Arbuckle, they 
came up to a large party of Camanche Indians, and a severe fight 
took place, in which 2 Camanches were killed and two soldiers 
wounded. The Camanches then withdrew, probably to await till 
night to renew the attack. The Camanches had previously sent in 
word that they were coming to take the Fort. 

On the 1st inst., Capt. [Eugene A.] Carr left his place in com- 
mand of fifty soldiers 16 for the seat of the war. The troops under 
his command are eager for a brush with the foe; they will do some 

On the 4th inst., another Express arrived here, with the intelli- 
gence that another fight had taken place between the United States 
troops, (fifty in number,) under command of Lieut. Stanley of the 
1st Cavalry, and the Camanches, in which eight Camanches were 
killed and several wounded. Uncle Sam lost one man, and two 
slightly wounded. 17 Capt. Carr arrived at Fort Arbuckle on the 

15. Published in Secretary of War's Report, 1859, p. 384. 

16. Probably these troops were from Captain Carr's own company Company I, First 
U. S. cavalry. 

17. Major Emory reported of Lieutenant Stanley's fight that he had "succeeded in over- 
hauling and beating the enemy. He left seven Comanches dead on the field. . . /* 
Emory did not mention losing a soldier in the engagement. Secretary of War's Report, 
1859, pp. 384, 385. 


2d inst., and was marching towards the Witchita Mountains, where 
another battle is anticipated. It is also stated that the Indians num- 
ber upwards of 3000. There is no knowing where the contest will 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., April 8, 1859. 

EDITOR TIMES: Since my last, peace and quiet has again been 
restored in the vicinity of Fort Arbuckle. The Indians, upon learn- 
ing that the troops now stationed at Fort Arbuckle were to be re- 
inforced by others from this place, took to their heels and fled. 
Capt. Carr, after a scout of several days among the Washita [Wich- 
ita] mountains, returned to this place, without having seen a single 
"red-skin." It is supposed that these Indians took their flight 
towards the [Butterfield] Overland Mail Route, where they are con- 
stantly committing the most atrocious depredations. 

Subsequent to the flight of the Indians, a detachment of U. S. 
troops was returning to the Fort, and while crossing a creek, be- 
held, to their astonishment, that a dog was holding on to an Indian; 
upon a closer examination it was found that the dog had him se- 
cure, but not without a hard struggle. The dog received in the 
conflict, a severe cut, from the tomahawk of the Indian, across the 
neck, nearly ending his patriotic career. The dog is now on an 
equal footing with the soldiers; rations are issued to him regularly 
every morning. Should any one hurt the dog, the person so doing is 
subject to a court-martial. 

A melancholy accident happened at this place about a week ago, 
of which the following are the particulars: A child, during the ab- 
sence of its parents, fell into a kettle of boiling water, which its 
mother had taken off the fire previous to her departure, and scalded 
itself so badly that it died in a few hours after. . . . 

The officers who have been absent on leave of furlough, have 
reported for duty. 

The train that accompanied us from Fort Leavenworth has been 
busily engaged in supplying this post with provisions, from Fort 
Arkansas [i. e., Fort Smith]. 

The weather is beautiful. The woods make quite a magnificent 
appearance, with their summer clothing. The grass is sufficiently 
large to afford good grazing for cattle. 



We left this place on the 28th ult., to escort Capt. Cabel 18 and 
lady to Fort Arbuckle. The day was a very disagreeable one; the 
rain was pouring down in perfect torrents; the roads were very 
muddy, making it hard traveling for our horses. We passed Tisho- 
mingo City, 19 the capital of the Chickasaw Nation, consisting of 
about a dozen log huts, and these put up in a slovenly style. Two 
groceries, a blacksmith's shop, one printing office, (office of the 
Chickasaw and Choctaw Herald, ) 20 a calaboose, with a gallows 
in front, to remind the offender of his doom, and a capitol edifice, 
where the National Assembly meets annually to enact laws and 
concoct schemes to bring the nation into debt beyond redemption. 

With an annual appropriation from the U. S. Government of sev- 
eral thousand dollars, they generally manage to keep up the ses- 
sion until that is spent, and $25,000 besides. 

Four miles beyond this place we halted at "Dofa Rock," where 
we partook of a hearty meal. This rock possesses a natural reservoir, 
where the wearied traveler can quench his thirst as he passes by. 
The country abounds in rocks and hills, and presents a romantic 
appearance. Now and then we passed villages where the inhab- 
itants had undoubtedly been driven out by the Indians. 

The Camanches, Apaches and other tribes, generally make this 
part of the country scenes of bloodshed and robbery. We arrived 
at Fort Arbuckle on the following day, where we found one of the 
most miserable looking places that Uncle Sam has ever erected for 
the purpose of quartering troops. The houses are constructed of 
logs, which are put together in such a manner as to give the most 
slovenly appearance. The next day, it being the thirtieth, and last 
of the month, the troops were paraded, and after passing a review, 
were mustered. 

On our return we passed by the Chickasaw Nation Seminary, 21 

18. Capt. William L. Cabell was an assistant quartermaster. 

19. Tishomingp was so named (for a Chickasaw leader) in 1856 when the Chicka- 
saws organized their own government and selected a place formerly known as Good Springs 
for their capital. A house and a couple of stores were then on the site. Tishomingo today 
is the seat of Johnston county, Okla., and the home of the Murray State School of Agricul- 
ture. Oklahoma, a Guide . . ., op. cit., p. 396. 

20. The Chickasaw and Choctaw Herald was published in 1858 and 1859. The first 
issue was in January, 1858. Ibid., p. 77; Grant Foreman, The Five Civilized Tribes (Nor- 
man, Okla., 1934), p. 144. 

21. Wapanucka Female Institute (or, Chickasaw Manual Labor Academy as it was 
later known) opened in October, 1852, in a fine new stone building, large enough for 
100 students. The school was run by the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions. In 
July, 1859, the Rev. Charles H. Wilson, superintendent, reported that more than 100 
Chickasaw girls between the ages of six and 18 had been in attendance during the year. 
The school was discontinued in July, 1860. The site is on a high ridge about five miles 
from Wapanucka in present Johnston county, Okla. Report of Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, 1858, p. 168, 1859, pp. 575, 577; M. H. Wright, "Wapanucka Academy, Chicka- 
saw Nation," in Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 12, pp. 402-431. 


a beautiful structure, situate on the road leading from Fort Wash- 
ita to Tishomingo City, 14 miles from the former, and three miles 
from the latter place. It is surrounded by an elegant grove of 
majestic oaks, and is an exceedingly romantic country. 

Lieut. [Lunsford L.] Lomax, of Fort Arbuckle, with a detach- 
ment of 20 infantry soldiers, has been out scouting for several days. 
Nothing, as yet, has been heard from him. Major Emory, in com- 
mand of the 3d squadron, is about to set out on a scout, with all 
the convalescent troops. It is said he intends to remain out 25 
days. He will march towards the Witchita mountains, where the 
Indians are said to be very troublesome, of late. Should he fall 
in with them, he will give them Jessie. 

Emigrants are daily passing Fort Arbuckle en route for Pike's 
Peak. Some are regularly organized into companies, while others 
pass by with nothing but a bundle, which contains a few days' pro- 
visions and their clothes. The other day an Irishman passed by the 
Fort with nothing but a bridle and blanket. Upon being asked 
which way he was bound, he replied, "to Pike's Peak;" and as to 
what he meant to do with bridle and blanket, he said he was going 
to trade them off with the Indians for a pony. It is our opinion that 
two-thirds of these reckless creatures will perish before they get 
sight of the much-coveted Peak. It seems to us that the Pike's Peak 
fever is the most common of all diseases of the day. 

We had a general stampede among our horses, a few days ago. 
Two ran themselves to death, and three have not been heard of 
since the occurrence. 

Corn is three inches high, and progressing finely. Potatoes are 
sprouting up rapidly, and promise an abundant crop. Oats are 
progressing finely, and cannot be beaten by anybody. Wheat is 
doing well. We saw a field of wheat which had already put forth 
its heads. All other vegetation is doing remarkably well. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., June 19th, 1859. 

[EDITOR TIMES] An amusing scene occurred not long since, be- 
tween one of Afric's sons and a daughter of the Forest. As they 
were passing the Fort on horseback, they proposed a race no 
sooner said than done the woman was in advance for a distance 
of about one hundred yards, when she gradually began to lose 
time; as the man was passing, he caught in her dress, which of 
course brought them on terra firma. After they had gathered them- 
selves up, the woman commenced pitching into the man, with all 


the activity and science of a prize-fighter, beating him almost to 
death. Such scenes are not uncommon in this out of the way part 
of the world. 

Lieut. [Walter H.] Jenifer, 2nd Cavalry, passed through here a 
short time since en route to Fort Arbuckle, in command of a de- 
tachment of recruits. He left nine of the uninitiated at this place. 
They were all assigned to Company "I," 1st Cavalry. 

Gen. D. H. Cooper, 22 Chickasaw Indian Agent, returned from 
the survey of the boundary between the Chickasaw Nation and the 
Territory of New Mexico, for which purpose he left here the latter 
part of last March. He reports that the Indians are in a rebellious 

On the 15th of May last, Major Van Dorn, 2d Cavalry, had an 
engagement with the Comanche Indians, near the Arkansas river, 
Indian Territory, in which fifty Comanches were killed, and sixty 
either wounded or taken prisoners. Capt. [E. Kirby] Smith, 2nd 
Cavalry, was slightly and Lieutenant [Fitzhugh] Lee, 2nd Cavalry, 
was mortally wounded. Two privates, who were separated from 
the main body, were killed by the Indians. 23 

To-morrow we set out for the Indian region, and from all ac- 
counts we have some hot work before us. It is reported that the In- 
dians are awaiting our arrival at Antelope Hills, where they pro- 
pose to receive us, and feed us on balls and arrows. It is our opin- 
ion that upon our arrival there, the tables will be turned. More 


At 12 o'clock, M., on the 20th of June, 1859, a hot, sultry and 
sweat-driving day, we (the 2nd Squadron of 1st Cavalry; Com- 
panies C and I, under command of Capt. Thos. J. Wood, ) left Fort 

22. Douglas H. Cooper, government agent for the Choctaws and Chickasaws, was a 
Mississippian who had served in the Mexican War. He was an ardent secessionist and a 
man of much influence among the Indians. In 1861 he became colonel of the First Choc- 
taw and Chickasaw regiment, and at the close of the Civil War he was a major general 
and commander of the Confederate forces in the Indian territory. He returned to Fort 
Washita to live after the war, died there in 1879 and was buried in the old post ceme- 
tery. M. H. Wright, "General Douglas H. Cooper, C. S. A.," in Chronicles of Oklahoma, 
v. 32, pp. 142-184. 

23. This battle occurred on May 13, 1859, not in Indian territory, but in the south- 
western part of present Ford county, Kansas, about 15 miles south of old Fort Atkinson. 
Major Van Dorn, having recovered from his Comanche-inflicted arrow wound of the pre- 
vious autumn and rejoined his troops at Camp Radziminski, set out from that place on 
April 30, 1859, on a campaign against the Comanches. His command included six com- 
panies of the Second cavalry and 58 friendly Indians as guides and scouts. Two weeks 
later, having marched nearly 200 miles northward, Van Dorn's force surprised Buffalo 
Hump's band of some 100 Comanches, stampeded the horses and forced the Indians to 
make a stand in a ravine where they fought "without giving or asking quarter until there 
was not one left to bend a bow. . . ." Fifty died in battle, 36 were taken prisoner and 
nearly all the others were wounded. Of Van Dorn's force, Pvt. Willis Burroughs was killed, 
Sgt. W. P. Leverett died later of wounds, Capt. Edmund Kirby Smith Lt. Fitzhugh Lee, 
and several others were severely wounded but recovered. Secretary of War's Report, 1859, 
pp. 365-371; J. B. Thoburn's "Indian Fight in Ford County in 1859, in Kansas Historical 
Collections, v. 12, pp. 312-329. 


Washita to proceed to Antelope Hills, 24 Indian Territory. Marched 
three miles, and camped on McLaughlin's Creek. Here wood and 
grass are plenty, but water is scarce. We are accompanied by a 
train of forty wagons, containing our provision and baggage. 

JUNE 21 Had a glorious rain last night, in consequence of which 
the weather is much cooler to-day. Left camp very early; traveled 
over a rich, fertile and picturesque country, a distance of 19 miles 
and camped on Gravel Creek; the route is lined with a goodly 
number of deserted houses; crops look well; corn, sugar-cane, sweet 
potatoes, oats and wheat seem to be the chief products, of which the 
two latter have already been harvested; we passed the Chickasaw 
Seminary, 25 where we were greeted by the applause of over a hun- 
dred pupils; there is a saw and sugar mill on the premises of the 
Seminary which gives employment to the idle vagabonds who are 
roving over the country in search of work, but their stay is gen- 
erally of short duration; we also passed through Tishomingo City; 
it seemed to have a more business-like air than when we last saw it; 
groups of Caddo Indians greeted us at intervals of two or three 
miles all along the route; they were perfectly naked with the ex- 
ception of a breech cloth. 

JUNE 22 Leave camp at 6 o'clock; the road lays in the centre of a 
narrow prairie, environed by beautiful woods on either side; cattle 
and ponies may be seen scattered all along the route in herds con- 
taining upwards of several hundred; march 15 miles and camp on 
Harris Creek; here the land is of a more rich and fertile nature. 
The weather to-day is very pleasant. After the tents were pitched, 
a party went fishing; they caught a goodly number of fish; amongst 
them was a turtle weighing upwards of 60 pounds; at supper time 
we enjoyed ourselves with a delicious dish of turtle soup. 

JUNE 23 Leave camp at 7 o'clock; travel over a picturesque 
country a distance of 12 miles; camp on Rock Creek; our camp is 
situated on an exceedingly romantic spot; deer, rabbits and par- 
tridges are in abundance all along the route. While picketing our 
horses out on grass, some of the men discovered a bee tree; after 
the tents were pitched they went to take possession of their sup- 
posed treasure, and found that it contained upwards of seventy- 
four pounds of honey. Searching after food is the chief occupa- 

24. The Antelope Hills near the 100-degree meridian and south of th Canadian river, 
are described as "six conspicuous, irregular peaks that rise out of the level plain." Okla- 
homa, a Guide, . . ., op. cit., p. 384. The War Department's General Orders No. 2 
for 1859 included this paragraph: "The four companies of the first cavalry, at Fort Smith 
and Fort Washita, leaving only small guards at those posts, will occupy a camp during the 
summer at the Antelope hills, for the protection of travel on the route from Fort Smith to 
New Mexico." Secretary of War's Report, 1859, p. 582. 

25. See Footnote 21. 


tion of the soldier after arriving in camp, not from choice, but from 
necessity. Government provides but poorly for her soldiers; 
when on a march their chief diet consists of bacon and flour, of 
which they become so utterly disgusted that they will not even look 
at it until hunger compels them to do so. 

JUNE 24 Leave camp at the usual hour; the country we marched 
over to-day is exceedingly rich and fertile, especially the Washita 
river bottom, where we would advise such as are disposed to unite 
themselves for life with the fair sex of the Choctaw Indian tribe, 
to emigrate, marry and cultivate the rich lands now lying idle from 
want of agricultural industry. March 10 miles, and camp on the 
Washita river. No person can take up a claim of this land unless 
he first marries an Indian squaw. This law holds good in all In- 
dian Territory, no matter what tribe or nation. 

JUNE 25 Remain in camp, our camp being located convenient 
to Fort Arbuckle. We took a stroll to the last mentioned place. 
The country here is exceedingly rich and fertile. Horse races were 
the topic of the day at the Fort. Yesterday the officer of that place 
came to our camp and challenged the 2d squadron for running 
stock; the challenge was accepted. Accordingly our officers se- 
lected some of our fast nags, and proceeded with them to the 
Fort. At half past 4 p. m., the horses were taken to the track. 
"Zipp," of the 2d, and "Nero," of the 3d squadron, were put on the 
course for trial, which resulted in favor of Zipp by 25 feet dis- 
tance 500 yards; time, 20 seconds. The next race was run between 
the horses of Capt. Wood and the Lieutenant of the 3d squadron, 
for a basket of champagne, which resulted in favor of the 2d squad- 
ron. The third race was run between "Jaco" of the 2d, and "Eagle" 
of the 3d squadron, and resulted in the defeat of the 3d squadron 
horse by 20 feet: time 19/2 seconds distance 500 yards. The sport 
was finally closed by trying the speed of several mules, who threw 
their riders, which occasioned a great deal of mirth. 

JUNE 26 Take up the Washita bottom. A more rich and fertile 
section of country than this can nowhere be found; march 15 miles, 
and camp at Delaware Springs. The only objection we have to this 
country is, that water is too scarce; there are creeks enough, but 
they are dry at this season of the year. Delaware Indians 26 in- 
habit this part of country; they are the most industrious tribe now 
on the face of the earth. They devote their time to agricultural pur- 

28. Black Beaver's band of some 500 Delawares lived along the Canadian river north- 
east of present Paul's Valley, Okla., in the 1850's. Black Beaver was a noted guide and 
scout. For a time these Indians occupied the abandoned log buildings at old Fort Ar- 
buckle. Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 12, p. 76, footnote; Morrison, op. ctt., p. 95. 


suits instead of roving over the country, bidding defiance to all of 
the white race who chance to come within their range. 

JUNE 27 Travel over a somewhat barren, hilly country, studded 
with hundreds of acres of wild flax, with here and there spots of 
good grass. Wild game, such as elk, antelope, turkies and prairie 
chickens are in abundance. The 1st squadron of 1st cavalry, under 
command of Capt. [Delos B.] Sacket, caught up with us to-day. 
March 15 miles; camp near old Fort Arbuckle. 27 There are a few 
old buildings left to mark this place. Here a Pay-master was at- 
tacked some years since by the Indians, who took possession of all 
the specie, of which nothing has since been heard. The Fort is 
situated in an exceedingly romantic spot, and about five miles from 
the Canadian river, Indian Territory. 

JUNE 28 Remain in camp. From what we could learn the 1st 
squadron has had a hard time of it since their departure from Fort 
Smith. They set out from that place on the 10th inst, unaccom- 
panied by a guide, and in consequence of which were lost amongst 
the mountains of the southern portion of Indian Territory, travel- 
ing over rough roads, upsetting and breaking up their wagons. 
About a week ago, while traveling over an uncommonly rough 
road, a teamster by the name of Robert Smith was accidentally 
killed by the upsetting of a wagon. 

JUNE 29 This morning Capt. Sacket assumed command of the 
1st and 2d squadrons, composed of companies B, A, I and C, of 
1st cavalry. Left camp at half past six. It commenced to rain 
early this morning. The country we passed over to-day is the most 
richly fertile and picturesque we ever saw. Wild turkies may be 
seen in flocks counting upwards of a thousand. March 18 miles, 
and camp on Scarcewater Creek. 



July 10, 1859 

JUNE 30. Mustering day. This morning the bugle notes roused 
us from sleep very early. We were mustered before the sun had 
shown its bright face above the horizon, Mustering over, we sad- 
dled our horses and marched 12 miles, over a rolling prairie; the 
soil assumes a reddish color, and is living in richness. Wild game, 
such as deer, elk, turkies, rabbits &c., are very numerous in this 
part of the country. The weather is exceeding hot to-day. 

27. Old Fort Arbuckle (Camp Arbuckle) was near present Purcell, Okla in Sec 14 
T. 5 N., R. 2 E. Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 27, p. 315. In 1851 the new site for Fort 
Arbuckle, on the Washita river, was selected. 


Evacuated Indian wigwams may be seen scattered over the 
prairie all along the route. So far we have seen no unfriendly In- 

JULY 1. Leave camp at 6 o'clock. Travel over a hilly country a 
distance of 11 miles; camp on Lylton creek. The country assumes 
a mountainous aspect. The wagons were very late getting into 
camp; bridges had to be constructed over rivers and creeks before 
they were able to proceed; our road, to-day, lay through a heavy 
timbered section of country. The trees here are not as large as 
those in Kansas. 

JULY 2. Remain in camp. Weather very beautiful. Capt. Sacket, 
last night, received leave of absence from the War Department, 
which, however, he does not accept. He intends to remain in this 
camp until the arrival of Maj. Emory, who has been ordered to take 
command of the four companies of 1st Cavalry, now under com- 
mand of Capt. Sacket. 

JULY 4. Remain in camp. This anniversary is always given to 
the soldiers as a holiday. Maj. Emory, 28 escorted by 20 men, ar- 
rived in camp at 1 o'clock. Not having any cannon with us we were 
unable to do justice to this never-to-be-forgotten day. 

JULY 5. Leave camp this morning under command of Maj. 
Emory; the escort, that accompanied him returned to Fort Arbuckle. 
A very hot day. Travel over a hilly and heavily timbered coun- 
try. Trees are very small not exceeding 30 feet in height nor 6 
inches in diameter. March 11 miles and camp on Clear creek. 
Flag creek runs into Clear creek not far from our camp. 

JULY 6. Leave camp at the usual hour; march over prairie, un- 
der a hot-boiling sun, a distance of 25 miles. Not a tree was to be 
seen all day long. Grass and vegetation have changed considerable 
to-day. We were late getting into camp. The Major stopped every 
15 minutes; dispatching men in search of water, but was not suc- 
cessful until we reached the Canadian. We struck Lieut. White's 
[Whipple's?] 29 overland route to New Mexico; it runs along the 
Canadian at distance of four miles. 

JULY 7. Leave camp at 6 o'clock. Travel over a rolling prairie, 
under a hot, scorching sun, a distance of 18 miles and camp a second 

28. Maj. William H. Emory, as previously noted, was the commanding officer at Fort 
Arbuckle. His own troops, Companies D and E of the First cavalry, were not on this 

29. Apparently a reference to Lt. Amiel W. Whipple who, in 1853-1854, had sur- 
veyed routes in the Southwest for a railroad. However, in 1858 Lt. Edward F. Beale fol- 
lowed the same route from Fort Smith, Ark., along the Canadian river in surveying a route 
for a proposed wagon road from Fort Smith to the Colorado river, so "Cato may have 
referred to Beale. Grant Foreman, ed., A Pathfinder in the Southwest (Norman, Okla., 
1941), p. 73, footnote. 






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time on Canadian river. We are now getting into buffalo country, 
the carcases of which animals are very odorous. Grass and vegeta- 
tion are of a decidedly different nature than any we have hereto- 
fore come across; now buffalo, then blue, then salt grass. 

Passed eight Indians, of what tribe we could not learn. They 
were well armed, also well supplied with provisions, which they 
carried on ponies, fastened with pack saddles. 

JULY 8. Travel over a rolling prairie, well wooded but badly 
watered, a distance of 10 miles; camp on Weepannaugh creek. This 
day was the hottest day on record for the year 1859. Water is very 
scarce in this part of the country. A detachment of 18 men was 
sent in advance to hunt up camping places convenient to water. 

JULY 9. Leave eamp at 6 o'clock. Travel over a hilly and heavily 
timbered section of country the timber chiefly consists of cedar 
and oak. Met a Mr. Brown returning from a surveying expedition 
of the one hundredth parallel, accompanied by a dozen or more of 
Shawnee Indians (from Kansas). 30 This party seemed to be in a 
destitute condition; we supplied them with twenty days rations. 
March twelve miles and camp on Red Rock creek. St. Mary's rock 
[Rock Mary] 31 is in sight of our camp; it is 50 feet in height, and 
400 feet in circumference, and of a red sand color. Some one care- 
lessly set the prairie on fire, the grass, although green, burned with 
the fury of a wild raving maniac. Water is almost inaccessible; it 
generally is from 100 to 150 feet below the surface of the prairie. 

JULY 10. Leave camp at 8 o'clock. March over a level prairie, 
studded with pyramid like mounds of countless numbers; some in 
the shape of castles, others like houses, hay stacks, &c. March 
twelve miles and camp on Mound creek. The weather is exceed- 
ingly hot; water very scarce. The country we passed over to-day 
is the most picturous that we ever saw. 


30. In the spring of 1859 Daniel G. Major, a government astronomer, established the 
initial point of the western line between present Oklahoma and Texas on the 100-degree 
meridian of west longitude (the southwestern corner of present Oklahoma, in other words). 
The line was then run north from Red river to the Canadian (a distance of 90 miles) by 
Surveyor H. M. C. Brown of the firm of Messrs. A. H. Jones and H. M. C. Brown, St. Louis, 
Mo. Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1859, p. 557. 

31. Rock Mary, described by one writer as "a singular sandstone butte with forked 
summit," was named for 17-year-old Mary Conway, of Arkansas, a popular member of 
the emigrant party Capt. R. B. Marcy's company escorted as far as Santa Fe in 1849. 
Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 12, p. 89; Grant Foreman, A Pathfinder in the Southwest, op. 
cit., p. 70, footnote. It is a few miles southeast of present Hydro, Okla. Chronicles of 
Oklahoma, v. 28, p. 276, footnote. 



August 11, 1859 

Our camp at present is on the Washita river, in North-Eastern 
Texas. To-day the thermometer was 106 in the shade. The coun- 
try is very barren, and we are forced to move our camp frequently 
to secure grass and water. 

On the 25th of July a "general call" was sounded at half -past six. 
In an hour we were mounted, and on the march. Some horses had 
been stolen during the night and the trail of the robbers discov- 
ered. A detachment was sent in pursuit, and the chase kept up for 
sixty miles. The Camanches, however, (such were the thieves) 
eluded all pursuit. 

Our present camp is situated in an exceedingly romantic spot, 
environed on the North and West by a narrow strip of timber, run- 
ning along the banks of the Washita river, which is in the shape of 
a half moon; on the South and East by a vast and luxuriant prairie. 
About tweny-five yards from the river, in a straight line, are the of- 
ficers* tents, which are decorated with arbors constructed out of 
willow bushes, with which the river is perfectly lined. Fifty yards 
in front of the officers tents are the tents of the companies, occupy- 
ing in length about a quarter of a mile; four hundred yards from 
these are the guard tents, two in number, one for the accommoda- 
tion of the guard, the other for the prisoners. About five hundred 
yards to the left of the camp the commissary train has formed its 
V-like encampment. 



August 25th, 1859. 

On the 13th inst. we left our camp on the Washita, (from which 
I wrote last) only to change it for a former one on the Canadian, 
one mile north of Antelope Hills. Here everything has the ap- 
pearance of death the grass, which, only a few weeks since, was 
bright and green, has now the appearance of a grainfield in har- 
vest time. Since our reappearance on the eastern side of the Hills, 
we have been unable to find a camp that would justify a stay of 
more than two days at a time. Consequently we were compelled to 
push toward home, much against the desire and wish of the com- 
manding officer, who otherwise would have remained in the vicinity 
of the Hills up to the latest possible moment, hoping to fall in with 

32. Evidently named to honor Lt. Cornelius Van Camp, of Van Dorn's command, 
killed by the Comanches the previous autumn. (See letter of February 2, 1859.) 


the Camanche Indians, who were all the time roving in our rear, 
running off our cattle, and when finding themselves pursued, 
abandoning them and seeking refuge among the ravines and caves 
of this desolate country. 

The best way to corner this tribe of Indians is to take it a la Van 
Dorn (abandon the wagons and resort to pack mules.) Thus 
rigged out, you are prepared to follow them wherever they go 
camp where you like, prepare your meals at any time, and be ready 
for the march at a moment's warning. 

The present Administration must be "hard up" for money. Not 
long since an order was received to discharge mechanics, wagon- 
masters and teamsters. Mechanics, at sixty dollars per month, were 
all discharged, and soldiers, at twenty-five cents per day, were put 
in their places. Out of ten wagon masters eight were discharged; 
also eight teamsters these being extra hands. Their wages saved 
from thirty to fifty dollars per month. No doubt that before long 
soldiers wages will be reduced, so as to give office holders more 
pocket money. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., Sept. 25, 1859 

MR. EDITOR: We arrived here on the 22d inst. Having put 
everything to order that had been misplaced during our absence, 
we have now a few leisure moments which we will occupy in writ- 
ing a few "hurry-graphs" to The Times. 

On the 27th ult, we moved camp from Oak Creek to the Wash- 
ita river. Here we camped on a plateau nearly destitute of grass, 
intending to remain only till morning; but during the night it 
commenced to rain, and continued incessantly for five days. Our 
tents were completely inundated, not even leaving us a dry suit of 
clothing. At the end of the fifth day it ceased to rain for some 
hours, which time we occupied in moving camp a few miles down 
the river. As the grass became trodden down, we moved camp 
from place to place, until the time came for us to resume our home- 
ward journey. The grass being very poor, would not allow us to 
remain at one place more than twenty-four hours. 

On the 5th inst., Camp Van Camp was broken up, and our home- 
ward journey commenced. The recent heavy rains had swelled the 
creeks to overflowing. Bridges which we erected on our outward 
journey had all been washed away, causing a great deal of delay to 
re-construct them. 


SEPT. 6. This morning the sky was clear for the first time for 
nearly two weeks. As the day wore on, it became so intensely hot 
that it almost burned the clothes off our backs. An T Company 
horse was found standing riderless on a sand-bar in the middle of 
the Washita river, opposite the mouth of Bonet [Comet?] creek. 
It was supposed he had run away from his rider, who belonged to 
a party that were in search of game. The horse upon noticing the 
approach of a rider who belonged to a hunting party of company C, 
swam on shore, and followed him into camp. There was nothing 
more thought of the matter until the next morning, when the man 
was still missing. Company I was accordingly sent to search for 
him. They returned to camp late in the evening, and reported 
that Martin Garner, (such was his name) had been found at the 
bottom of a deep hole, close to the sand-bar where the horse was 
found the day previous; that his face was horribly cut up. It is 
thought that the horse suddenly plunged into the river, and in so 
doing threw the rider over his head; and while the man was trying 
to swim ashore, the horse took after him and pawed him to death. 
He now lies under the sod on the banks of the Washita river. Peace 
be to his ashes. 

After the above occurrence, everything went on smoothly until 
we arrived at Red Rock Creek. Here we received orders to pro- 
ceed to the camp of Indians who have recently removed from 
Texas. This Indian camp is situated on the Washita river, ninety 
miles North of Fort Arbuckle. It contains fragments of the South- 
ern Camanches, Tonkaways, Wacoes, Caddos, and Witchita tribes, 
numbering over two thousand. 33 The Southern Camanches and 
Tonkaways cannot get along with each other. The other day a fuss 
was kicked up between them, which caused the latter tribe to 
move camp. They cannot go far away at present, as they are con- 
fined to a tract of land only ten miles square. These Indians are 
great traders. Hundreds of them may be seen in camp, offering 
lariats, moccasins, buffalo robes, &c., in exchange for tobacco, sugar, 
coffee, bread, &c. Should the article you offer them in exchange for 
some of their goods be insufficient, they would sing out, "too poketa 
no bueno." After repeating this three or four times, they would 

33. As Indian raids in Texas increased in the latter 1850's it became expedient to 
move these remnants of wild tribes from reservations in the northern part of Texas. By 
treaty, in 1855, the federal government had secured a lease to the Chickasaws' and Choc- 
taws' lands lying west of the 98-degree meridian. To this area the Texas Indians were re- 
moved in August, 1859 to a location in the Washita valley. The agency for these tribes 
was established on the north side of the Washita about four miles northeast of the present 
town of Fort Cobb, Okla., on August 16. The site (chosen in June by Elias Rector, head 
of the southern superintendency ) was near a stream later called Leeper creek. Nye, op. 
cit., PP. 33-35; M. H. Wright, "A History of Fort Cobb," in Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 34, 
pp. 53-71. 


walk away, apparently in disgust at the soldiers for not trading 
with them. 

We lay two days at the camp, at the expiration of which time we 
took up the line of march. We passed a part of the Witchita tribe, 
on their way to join the others, at the large or main encampment, a 
distance of forty miles from the latter place. The country selected 
by the Indians for their summer camp is exceedingly rich, fertile 
and picturesque, also well timbered and watered. In fact the 
Washita valley is undoubtedly the finest section of country west of 
the Mississippi river. 

On the 16th inst. John Nicholson, of Co. I, First cav., died of 
scurvy. His body was consigned to the grave at sunset the same 
day. Had it not been for the salute fired, no one except those con- 
cerned would have known that there was a funeral going on in 
camp. These are the principal incidents worthy of notice. 

On the 25th of July last an order was issued from the War Depart- 
ment for the erection of a new military post in the Washita country, 
near the reserve selected for the Texas Indians, to be called Fort 
Cobb. 34 Four companies of first infantry, from Texas, and com- 
panies E and D of first cavalry from Fort Arbuckle, are ordered to 
assist in its erection. Major Emory, first cavalry, is assigned the 
command. He will at once select the site, and make preparations 
for constructing the fort as soon as the necessary appropriation is 
made by Congress. A saw mill and other necessary preparations 
will be furnished without delay. The fort will be supplied from 
Fort Smith, Arkansas. Capt. W. L. Cabell, Assistant Quartermas- 
ter, is assigned to duty at the new post. 

The garrison at Fort Smith, (companies B and A of first cavalry) 
which will be abandoned as a station for troops, will take post at 
Fort Arbuckle. 

The limits of the department of Texas are extended northward 
between New Mexico and the State of Arkansas, to the Arkansas 
river, (including Forts Smith, Washita, Arbuckle and Cobb,) and 
the southern boundary of Arkansas, without crossing either. 

The Chickasaw Indians are about being paid their annuity. They 
are camped by hundreds in the woods around the residence of their 
Agent Gen. D. H. Cooper. 

The Fort has assumed its usual cheerfulness since our arrival. 

34. Maj. William H. Emory selected the Fort Cobb site on October 1, 1859, and re- 
ported on October 3 that it was at the junction of Pond (now Cobb) creek and the Washita 
river, distant 101 miles from Fort Arbuckle. Secretary of War's Report, 1859, p. 386. 
The site is on high ground about a mile east of the present town of Fort Cobb in Caddo 
county, Okla. M. H. Wright, "A History of Fort Cobb," loc. ctt., p. 56. The agency was 
about three miles east of the post. Ibid. 


According to accounts from those that remained behind, it is an 
awful dull place when no troops here. 

The weather is very pleasant. The corn crop is very nearly all 

gathered into cribs. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., October 18, '59 

The following marriage notice, may perhaps be of some interest 
to at least a few of your readers: 

Married at this place, on Tuesday, October llth, 1859, by the 
Rev. Mr. Burke, Army Chaplain of Fort Washita, Andrew J. 
Gunnels, of Company "C" 1st Cavaky to Mrs. Augustine Brush, 
of Fort Washita. 

In the evening, the happy couple received a grand serenade from 
the celebrated Fort Washita Band, organized for the purpose. 

Since our return from Antelope Hills, we have been kept busily 
engaged. "Leave of absence" is rarely granted. 

Crime prevails to a great extent in this part of the country. Not 
a day passes but what we hear of somebody being killed. There 
must be a band of lawless desperadoes hereabouts. Justice is 
slack and but rarely administered even if the rogues are caught. 

Corn has yielded an abundant crop this season. Farmers are 
now supplying this post with corn at the rate of one dollar per 
bushel, delivered. There is but little agricultural industry among 
the swarthy denizens of this Nation. The corn consumed at this 
post is chiefly supplied by the farmers of Texas. Other produce, 
such as potatoes, turnips, onions, &c., are chiefly grown by the In- 
dians, for which they demand enormous prices. They make such 
gross charges that the Commanding officer has deemed it neces- 
sary to establish a set price for each and every article brought to 
market: Potatoes $1.50 per bushel; Onions $1.50 per bushel; Sweet 
Potatoes 75 cts. per bushel; Butter 15 cts. per lb.; Eggs 15 cts. per 

The weather is very beautiful. The trees of the forest are still 
bedecked with their beautiful Summer foliage, and only a few, here 
and there, show signs of a fast approaching Fall. We have thus 
far had no frost. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., Nov. 2, 1859. 

On the evening of the 26th ult., a fight took place between two 
men, in which one was severely wounded by a pistol ball. The ball 
entered the fleshy part of the thigh, and passed out near the knee, 
almost entirely destroying the use of his leg. 


On the morning of the 27th ult, an express arrived at this place 
for a detachment of troops to proceed to Nail's Bridge, 35 on the 
California Overland Route, (10 miles from here,) to settle a dif- 
ficulty between a number of drovers and the bridge keeper, which 
arose from the former refusing to pay toll for crossing their stock 
over the bridge. After the arrival of the troops, and a great deal of 
unnecessary talk, the drovers determined to undergo the process 
of law before they would pay the required sum. The troops re- 
turned, and the drovers remained. 

On the night of the 30th ult., two ponies were stolen from a 
stable, belonging to Jarrison [Harrison?]. The following morning 
pursuit was instigated, and, after a diligent search of four hours, 
the ponies was found, quietly grazing on the banks of the Washita 
River, about ten miles from the Fort. The thief, evidently finding 
himself in close quarters, abandoned his ill-gotten stock to make 
good his escape, which he evidently did, as nothing has been seen 
or heard of him. 

On the morning of the 1st inst, the Sheriff of 

county, Texas, came to this place to procure assistance to bring to 
justice three persons (whose names I did not learn) who crossed 
Red River on the night of the 31st ult., and set fire to a grocery 
and shot the owner, who is not expected to live, (probably dead 
before this time). A detachment of twelve men accompanied him 
to Colbert's Ferry, 36 where it was supposed they were concealed 
in some of the houses, but all search proved in vain. 

There is at present a great flow of emigration to the State of 
Texas. While taking a ride in that direction a few days since, we 
noticed a train of wagons, nearly two miles in length, loaded with 
furniture, household goods, provisions, &c. Upon inquiry of the 
teamsters, "Where are you bound to," we received for answer, "To 
Texas." We were informed that no less than 3,000 emigrants had 
passed over the Overland Route since the 1st of September. Mis- 
souri, Arkansas and Iowa furnish the greater portion of these emi- 
grants. They seem to be in low spirits, and present a most gloomy 

The troops here are in excellent health. Since my last the 
weather has considerably changed heavy frosts in the morning and 

35. Nail's bridge, a heavy wooden structure over the Blue river, was about ten miles 
east of Fort Washita. The home (and Butterfield Overland Mail station) of Joel H. Nail, 
a Choctaw citizen, was on the east side of the bridge. The site is some eight miles west 
of present Caddo, Okla. Conkling, op. cit., v. 1, pp. 272, 273. 

36. Colbert's ferry over Red river on the Texas boundary, had been established about 
1853 by Benjamin F. Colbert, a Chickasaw citizen. In 1858 it was selected as the Over- 
land Mail crossing. The first west-bound mail arrived there on September 20, 1858. Ibid., 
pp. 279, 280. The ferry was about 15 miles south of Fort Washita. 


hot sunshine during the middle of the day. The forests are com- 
pletely dismantled. 

Gen. D. H. Cooper, Chickasaw Indian Agent, left here a few days 
since for his home in Mississippi, there to spend the winter with his 

There is an abundance of wild game here. We have frequently, 
in addition to our delicious fare, (pork and beans,) deer, turkey, 
antelope and grouse; procured by a few who delight in hunting. 

On Sunday evening last, a negro was caught in the act of selling 
liquor. He was taken to the guard house, and the following morn- 
ing was taken out and tied to a post; when, after receiving fifty 
lashes, he was released. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., Dec. 12, '59. 

On the 1st inst, Capt. T. J. Wood left here on leave of absence, 
and will probably be gone eighteen months. During his absence, 
the 2d Squadron will be under the command of Capt. E. A. Carr. 37 

Up to the present month, we had very mild and pleasant weather. 
The first of December brought with it a heavy shower of rain, 
which lasted for several hours, when it turned into hail and snow, 
continuing till the evening of the 3d inst. On the morning of the 
4th the ground was covered to the depth of five inches with hail and 
snow, hard and solid as ice. This conglomerated mass lay, undis- 
turbed, upon the ground until the 9th inst., during which time we 
suffered greatly, when a thaw occurred which left no trace of the 
winter "spell." 

The storm proved fatal to wild game in this vicinity. Not a day 
passed, while the snow lay upon the ground, but what the hunter 
returned with a well filled bag, after a few hours' hunt. Rabbits 
are as numerous here as flies about a slaughter-house in the summer 
time. There is also an abundance of deer, turkeys and prairie 
chickens, which are hunted down by the Indians, and brought to 
the post for sale. They find but few purchasers amongst the 
soldiers, who love sport too well to forego the pleasure of a few 
hours ramble through the woods with rifle or shot gun in hand. 

Crime is still prevailing hereabouts, to a great extent. Not long 
since, while a party of half-breeds were proceeding towards Tisho- 
mingo City, they were fired upon by some evil disposed persons 

37. Thomas J. Wood, Company C's captain, and head of the First cavalry's Second 
squadron (Companies C and I), had been commandant at Fort Washita since Decem- 
ber 29, 1858. Eugene A. Carr, Company I's captain, thus succeeded Wood both as com- 
mander of the squadron and of the army post. 


who lay concealed along the road behind some fallen trees. One 
of the party was mortally wounded, and the remainder saved them- 
selves by flight. Upon arriving at Tishomingo, they immediately 
gave the alarm, and pursuit was instantly instigated by a party of 
the Light Horse Troop, 38 who scoured the woods for miles around 
the city, but could find no traces of the rogues. 

We hear constantly of Indian depredations committed on the 
frontiers of New Mexico, but for which the perpetrators are severely 
chastised by the troops stationed there, often losing their best and 
ablest warriors. 

There is at present a rumor afloat that a portion of the 1st Regi- 
ment of Cavalry are to be stationed on the frontiers of New Mexico, 
to relieve the Mounted Rifles, who have constantly lived in the 
saddle since they were stationed there. But I think this rumor will 
turn out to be like many others without foundation. No such good 
luck for the 1st Cavalry. 



A few days since, Gov. La Flore, of the Choctaw Nation, 39 re- 
quested of the Commanding Officer of this post, a detachment of 
troops to assist him in removing three white persons of a renegade 
character, from Boggy Depot, the capitol of the Choctaw Nation, 40 
who had located themselves at that place without the permission of 
the Governor. White persons have no right to locate themselves 
among the Indians without the permission of the Governor of the 
Nation where they intend to settle. The trio were placed in charge 
of the troops and brought to this place for examination by the 
Agent, who, after examining them, ordered them to leave the Na- 

Lieut. [George A.] Cunningham, Second Cavalry, passed through 
here a short time since in search of deserters, who, upon leaving, 
took with them one of the Lieutenant's horses. Lieut. C. returned 
to this place yesterday, without being able to obtain tidings of the 
deserters or of his horse. 

38. The "Light Horse" were Indian law enforcement officers a mounted police main- 
tained by the Five Civilized Tribes. 

39. Basil Le Flore, was principal chief and governor of the Choctaw Nation for one 
year only. He took office in October, 1859. P. J. Hudson, "A Story of Choctaw Chiefs," 
in Chronicles of Oklahoma, v. 17, p. 193. 

40. Boggy Depot, some 15 miles northeast of Fort Washita, was in 1860 the largest 
and most important settlement on the Butterfield Overland Mail route between Fort Smith, 
Ark., and Sherman, Tex. Conkling, op. cit., v. 1, p. 269. Since 1855 (when the Chicka- 
saw and Choctaw lands were divided by treaty), Boggy Depot had been a Choctaw town. 
The Choctaw capital was Doaksville but for a time, during a factional dispute, Boggy 
Depot served as a temporary capital. Ibid.; Oklahoma, a Guide . . ., op. cit., pp. 


A detachment of troops, consisting of infantry and rifles, passed 
through here a few days since en route to New Mexico. 

Since my last the weather king has visited us in various shapes; 
at the present time we have very fine weather, with a prospect of 
having no more of the cold and dreary winter season. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., March 6, 1860 

Since my last, we have experienced a change in the weather; 
winter may be classed among the things that have been, while 
spring, with its radiant smiles, is daily working itself more and more 
into our affections. Grass, and vegetation of all kinds, are already 
sprouting up all around us, and in a few days, the grass will be 
sufficiently large to afford good grazing for the horses and mules 
of this post, which are at present nearly starved for want of hay 
and grass. 

Major Gaines, 41 of the Pay Department, and Paymaster for Forts 
Smith, Arkansas; Washita, C. N.; Arbuckle, C. N., and Cobb, C. N., 
died recently of wounds received by the upsetting of his ambulance, 
while returning from Fort Cobb, C. N., in January last, near Fort 
Smith, Arkansas. 

John Phelan, not of billiard notoriety, but a simple, halfbreed 
Indian, was recently killed at Tishomingo City, C. N., by a notori- 
ous gambler, whose name I was unable to learn. Immediately after 
committing the deed, he left for parts unknown, and nothing has 
since been heard of him. 

A detachment of sixty United States recruits, recently passed 
through here under the command of Lieut. [George D.] Bayard, 1st 
cavalry, en route for Forts Arbuckle and Cobb. There were twenty- 
two of the uninitiated left at this post, of which company "I" re- 
ceived fourteen, and the remainder were assigned to company "C." 
Five years ago the 1st and 2d regiments of cavalry were organized, 
since which time the 1st regiment has been roaming over the coun- 
try and accomplished nothing but the survey of the Southern bound- 
ary of Kansas, 42 while the 2d regiment has constantly lived in the 
saddle dealing death and destruction amongst its savage foes. 
The terms of service for old hands, expires this year, and, conse- 

41. Maj. Augustus W. Gaines, a Kentuckian, died February 19, 1860. 

42. Rover appears to have been an "old-timer" in the First cavalry perhaps serving 
since the regiment's organization in 1855. Companies C, I, F, and K, First cavalry, plus 
two companies of Sixth infantry, all commanded by Col. Joseph E. Johnston, had es- 
corted the surveyors of the southern Kansas boundary. Colonel Johnston's journal of the 
expedition (May 16-Oct. 29, 1857) was published in The Kansas Historical Quarterly, 
v. 1, pp. 104-139. 


quently Uncle Sam will need a large number of recruits to keep 
these two regiments in proper trim. 

While sitting in the Sutler's store the other day, reading the latest 
number of the Times, a certain Texas editor came in, took a seat 
with his back towards me, ( evidently not noticing me, ) drew forth 
a written circular of eight pages from one of his pockets, and com- 
menced to read its contents to the proprietor of the store. From it 
I learned there is a secret movement on foot amongst Southern 
politicians, to secure all Territory favorable to slave labor before 
the 4th of March, 1861. They propose to send agents to New Mex- 
ico, Arizona and the Indian Territory, to make arrangements with 
the inhabitants to secure all these Territories to the South. The 
circular is signed by the most prominent politicians of the South. 
One paragraph reads, as near as I can recollect, about as follows: 
"In order to secure this Territory to the South, and forestall the 
North for once, before the 4th of March, 1861, this movement 
should be kept secret. Copies of this pamphlet are sent only to 
'editors' who are considered in favor of the movement, or 'sound on 
the goose/ " Some one coming in, prevented me from learning more 
about this document. More when time permits. 


FORT WASHITA, C. N., April 5, 1860 

EDITOR TIMES: As we are about to proceed on the march for the 
frontier of Texas, I embrace this opportunity of informing you of 
the doings in this locality. 

On the 26th ult, we received orders to hold ourselves in readi- 
ness for the march at a moment's warning. The scene of the enter- 
prise is located at Camp Cooper, Texas. 43 The troops will be under 
command of Maj. G. H. Thomas, 2nd cavalry, and will consist of 
detachments from Forts Arbuckle, C. N.; Cobb, C. N.; Mason, 
Texas; and Washita, C. N., and those stationed at Camp Cooper. 
The object for the concentration of such a large force is to bring 
those devils, Comanches, to terms. In this scout the 1st cavalry 
will (to all appearances) have a fine chance to either ex or dis- 
tinguish itself. 

Eleven condemned horses were recently sold at public auction, 
at an average price of $77 per head the highest price obtained 
being $112 and the lowest $43. 

43. Camp Cooper had been established in January, 1856, by Col. Albert Sidney John- 
ston, on the north side of the Clear fork of the Brazos river, five miles east of the mouth 
of 016/8 creek, in present Throckmorton county, Texas. After the reservation Indians were 
removed from northern Texas in August, 1859, Camp Cooper was no longer an important 
post. W. P. Webb, ed., The Handbook of Texas (Austin, Tex., 1952), v. 1, p. 279. 


Gen. Douglas H. Cooper, Chickasaw Indian Agent, has returned 
and resumed his duties. During his absence, Capt. E. A. Carr per- 
formed the duties of Indian agent. 

First Lieut. [Alfred] Iverson left here on the 16th of last month, 
on two months furlough. During his absence, Company C, 1st 
Cavalry, will be under the command of 2d Lieut. John R. Church. 

There is a constant flow of emigrants from Missouri, Arkansas 
and Iowa, to Texas; in fact, the roads are literally lined with emi- 
grant trains. In the course of five years, Texas will be one of the 
most densely populated States in the Union, if the Southern fire- 
eaters don't manage to dissolve it before that time. 

Fishing is the chief topic of amusement here at present for the 
soldier. Cat fish weighing upwards of thirty pounds are considered 
small fry, when fifty pounders are daily caught and brought home. 
The fish are of such an enormous size, that they frequently pull the 
fisherman into the water. 

An affray took place, the other day, at Nail's Bridge, 44 between 
two half-breed Indians, in which one was mortally wounded with a 
pistol ball, the ball entering the right breast and breaking the bone. 
The offender in chief has left for parts unknown. He also carries 
with him a severe wound inflicted with a bowie knife. 

A general court martial, of which Capt. E. A. Carr is President, 
is at present ( March 28th ) in session, at this post. Eleven prisoners 
are to be disposed of by this tribunal. 

Last evening we received orders to proceed to Camp Cooper 
as soon as practicable. The commanding officer has appointed 
Monday next for us to leave this post. The requisition calls for one 
hundred and twenty men, from this place, to serve three months 
from date of order, then to return to winter quarters at this place. 
There will be some thirty or forty left to garrison the fort, under 
the command of Second Lieut. E. Ingraham. 

We have fine weather, abundance of grass, wood and water, with 
an occasional hurricane. Yours truly, 


44. Nail's bridge. See Footnote 35. 

[To Be Concluded in the Winter, 1958, Issue.] 

The Mudge Ranch 


This account of the famous Mudge ranch in Hodgeman 
county was prepared for publication by Mrs. Raymond H. 
Millbrook, formerly of Ness county, Kansas, and now of De- 
troit, Mich. The story of its high-living, free-spending 
owner is a fantastic part of the early history of western Kan- 
sas, when the rancher thought himself destined to be king 
in that country. If fact herein has sometimes been slightly 
embroidered by rumor and hearsay, that is but a part of the 
process by which such history is transformed into legend. 
To strip this story of every detail that cannot be backed by a 
supporting reference would be to tamper with a folk tale 
which deserves preservation. Mrs. Caldwell collected the 
story mainly from the neighbors and employees of the 
Mudge ranch, and in 1931 wrote it up for the Hodgeman 
County Historical Society. 

coming of Henry S. Mudge and his brief stay in Kansas 
-L was like the flash of a meteor against the poverty-ridden back- 
ground of early Hodgeman county history. Unlike most of the 
pioneers who arrived here in covered wagons and who remained 
because they were too poor to leave, Mudge came with money to 
burn, spent it more lavishly than wisely and then stepped on grace- 
fully to other fields. 

Harry Mudge, as his name has come down to us, was the son of 
a millionaire woolen manufacturer of Boston. 1 His ancestral man- 
sion stood on historic Beacon Hill 2 near the Statehouse and was 
separated from the Boston Common by Beacon street, the aristo- 
cratic residential avenue of Boston. Around the corner of the 
Common stands Park Street church of which Mudge's father was a 
staunch member and in which he served many years as an elder. 
Two of Mudge's sisters, 3 hearing of their brother's excesses, once 
came out here and tried to persuade him to sell out and return to 

MRS. MARGARET EVANS CALDWELL, native of Hodgeman county, is a teacher of English 
in the Hanston High School. 

1. Alfred Mudge. Memorials . . . (Boston, 1868), pp. 257-259. In this family 
genealogy considerable space is devoted to the career of Enoch R. Mudge, father of 
Henry S. He was in 1868 a manufacturer's agent selling the entire product of a number 
of woolen mills. These sales amounted to eight or nine million dollars annually. 

2. Ibid. The Mudge home was at 118 Beacon street. Lew Horn, employed by Harry 
Mudge on his Kansas ranch, was taken to Boston to help reroof and paint this mansion. He 
described the house as one of a long row, all with rounded windows in front. 

3. Henry S. Mudge was the youngest of a family of seven children. His only brother, 
a young man of great promise, was killed in 1863 in the Civil War. Ibid. By 1880 only 
three of the children were living, Henry and his two sisters. 



Boston. They even offered to buy his whole outfit if he would 
return with them. They were ladies of refinement and culture 
true Bostonians. Needless to say their brother would have none 
of their advice or persuasion. 4 

It was about 1880 5 when young Mudge, accompanied by a 
woman then supposed to be Mrs. Mudge, and a friend, Gus Ye- 
sogee, came to the frontier town of Larned looking for adventure. 6 
He established quarters in Larned for about six months while he 
scouted around to find the ideal place to try out ranching. Larned 
houses were small so he rented two, one to sleep in and one to eat 
in. He also hired servants. The houses stood in the same block 
about two blocks north and one west of the railroad station. One 
faced Broadway and the other was on the west side of the same 
block. Larned was unused to so much money and servants so the 
Bostonians caused quite a stir. The lady was tall and fair and wore 
clothes that made western Kansas gasp. Mudge was described 
variously as fine-looking, handsome, and a swell dresser. He was 
brown-haired, blue-eyed, of medium height, and of rotund build; 
his age was estimated from 30 to 45 years. 7 

Larned soon knew that the Bostonian had money, wanted a good 
time and was looking for land to start a big ranch which was to be 
an experiment rather than a serious investment. An Englishman, 
Dell Rugg, who ran a feed store and coal yard in Larned, told 
Mudge of the land in Hodgeman county and brought him out to 
see it. They came first to a place where a Rev. Switzer lived. 
Switzer knew of a man named Mellaney, who wanted to sell his 
relinquishment to the NW X, Sec. 6, T. 22 S, R. 22 W, a fine place 
for a ranch. When Mudge saw the springs, then running full 
strength on this quarter, he was ready to buy immediately. Mel- 
laney wanted $200 but Rugg and Switzer decided that to cover 
their services too, the price quoted to Mudge should be $500. 8 

4. C. E. Roughton, one time county attorney, postmaster and early citizen of Jetmore, 
visited at the ranch. He is responsible for this story of the two sisters. He also said of 
Mud^e, "When under the influence of rum he was wild as an Arab he was as bad as he 
could be some ways and in others too good." 

5. There has been some difference of opinion about this date. The first items in the 
local newspapers concerning Mudge appeared in 1880. 

6. Kansas Cowboy, Dodge City, October 18, 1884. (This newspaper will henceforth 
be cited simply as Cowboy. ) "He [Mudge] came to the plains of Kansas because he had 
grown weary of city life and longed for the freedom and unrestraint of the wild west." 
As a matter of fact Mudge was probably undertaking his first independent project, as he 
had left Harvard in 1878 and then traveled for a year or so in Europe. 

7. Henry S. Mudge was born July 1, 1852, and was therefore not more than 28 years 
old when he came to Kansas. This birth date is given in both the Mudge genealogy and the 
obituary in the Kinsley Mercury, January 24, 1908. 

8. At this time a relinquishment was worth very little in western Kansas. Hundreds of 
settlers of 1878 and 1879 had simply abandoned the land on which they had filed pre- 
emptions or homestead applications since the drought of 1879 had made it impossible 
for them to stay. As this place had a house and a well and running springs it was perhaps 
worth $200 but even that was a good price in those times. Mudge had yet to pay the 
U. S. government for the land, $1.25 an acre or $200 a quarter. 


After all, Mudge had let it be known he just wanted to experiment 
and didn't care about making money. So he paid the price cheer- 
fully, filed his papers on the place and made it the beginning of the 
Mudge ranch. When some time later he discovered that he had 
paid more than double for the land he started a law suit. But other 
affairs intervened the woman known as Mrs. Mudge left and the 
suit never came to trial. 9 Mudge proved up on this quarter May 
18, 1881. 

Roy Lang and his father had worked for Rugg and they were the 
first men the new ranch owner hired to work on his ranch. 10 They 
began right away to build corrals and to wall an old well which was 
already on the place. There was also a small stone house there in 
which Mudge lived while the big ranch house was being built on 
the quarter of land just north, which had been bought from a man 
named Stone. The building spot was located on Dry creek where 
the corners of the four townships Valley, Center, Marena and 
North Marena meet. Roads have been changed and section lines 
surveyed since, but originally the ranch buildings stood on at least 
three different quarters of different sections in different townships. 

The chief stone contractor was Mr. Butts, but Mr. Eberly, John 
and George Bradshaw, and many others helped quarry the stones, 
haul them, dress them, and put them up into buildings. George 
Bradshaw said he did his first stone work there. 11 Stop and think 
how much work and time it must have taken to build the walls of 
the stone corral 200 by 500 feet, the stable 83 by 22 feet, the ram- 
bling old ranch house and the miles of wire fence with stone 
posts. Besides all this stone work there was lumber to haul the 
long distances from some railroad town, for all the buildings had 
shingle roofs. 12 There was also a big two-story frame bunk house 
in which the cowboys slept and ate at times. 18 In the blacksmith 

9. The folk-say was in error here. The case did come into court and was reported 
in the Larned Optic, July 30, 1880: "The manner in which Mr. J. W. Van Winkle con- 
ducted the defense in the case of Mudge vs. Rugg last week won him the golden opinion 
from everybody. . . . The case . . . was decided in favor of [Rugg]. . . . 
There can be no question that Mr. Rugg violated the obligations of friendship if any ex- 
isted, but that he committed any criminal offense we do not believe." Mudge immedi- 
ately entered another complaint and it was this latter suit that never came to trial. 

10. Buckner Independent, Jetmore, July 29, 1880. "Mr. Long has moved his family 
upon the ranch belonging to H. Mudge and becomes a citizen of Hodgeman county." 

11. George Bradshaw, one of a group of negroes, who made the exodus from the South 
after the War and settled in Hodgeman county, learned the masonry trade from the con- 
tractors imported to build the Mudge ranch house. Thereafter he and his sons built many 
of the early stone houses and bams of Hodgeman county. 

12. Kinsley on the Santa Fe, 32 miles from the ranch, seems to have been the nearest 
railroad town. Shingle roofs were almost nonexistent in western Kansas at this time The 
people lived in dugouts, soddies, and shanties. Even small houses of native stone were 
apt to have sod roofs because shingles were too expensive. 

13. Cowboy, tec. cit. The editor of this newspaper visited the Mudge ranch in 1884 
and wrote a Jong and kudatory description of it and its owner for his paper. At the time 
of the visit the bunk house was m the process of building. It was described as being 
22 x 55, with a cellar underneath the whole structure. "It will contain sleeping apartments, 
a sitting-room, dining hall, lavatory, kitchen and everything requisite for the comfort of its 


all the ranch machinery was repaired and all the driving and riding 
horses were shod. There were various other sheds and buildings, 
a race track, polo court, tennis court, and dog kennels. Those who 
remember the old ranch say the place looked like a young town 14 
in the early days and was a landmark for miles around. Three 
fourths of a mile west was an ice house dug out in the creek bank 
where ice was kept the year around for the needs of the ranch. A 
plank slide was built down to the edge of the pond so the ice could 
be slid along up to the ice house. An ice house was so rare a thing 
in those days that the pond became known as Ice House Pond 
a name it still bears. 

Mudge hired lots of help. Everyone agreed that he did more 
for the early settlers of Hodgeman county than any other man who 
ever came to the county. 15 His vast ranching project gave work 
to many and he always had plenty of money to pay the highest 
wages. It is safe to say that hardly a settler living within a 20-mile 
radius of the ranch but eked out his scanty living by working at the 
Mudge ranch. Many families who were pioneered out and ready to 
leave, were able to stay because of this work. Once when the 
rancher had hired as many men as he could find work for, still 
another one came with a hard luck story. Loath to turn the man 
away, he looked around until a pile of rocks on the south side of 
the road caught his eye. "Do you see that pile of rocks?" he asked. 
"I want them moved over to this side of the road and stacked up." 
When the man finished and came asking for another assignment, 
Mudge decided that he really preferred the stones where they had 
been originally. "Take them back." And the man received full 
pay for his time. 

No one will ever know how much free medicine was handed out 
or how many dollars were given to the poor in reckless charity. 
One story is told of a boy who worked at the ranch. His widowed 
mother had mortgaged their team and was about to lose it. Mudge 
heard of this, sent the boy home with a check to cover the mort- 

14. Ibid. "On approaching this place one thinks he is advancing upon a town on ac- 
count of the buildings thereon in close proximity." 

15. The local newspaper, The Buckner Independent, Jetmore, was enthusiastic about 
the Mudge development throughout the fall of 1880, mentioning it in almost every issue: 

July 29, 1880. "Mr. H. Mudge is building one of the finest stone residences in Hodge- 
man county. It would be a boss thing ... if there were several such men in the 
county. It would beat the aid business all out hollow." 

September 16, 1880. "We started for Mr. Mudge's sheep ranche, and arrived there 
just in time to partake of a good square dinner with Mr. Lang. . . . Hands were busy 
putting up millet, etc." 

September 30, 1880. "Mr. Mudge has rented Mr. Blunt's place near Marena, which 
he intends to stock with . . . sheep. ... He has also purchased the crops and 
set a merry lot of hands to work harvesting them." 

December 31, 1880. "Mr. H. S. Mudge gave a splendid dinner to his hands on Christ- 
mas day, for all of which they desire to return their kindest regards to that gentleman 
through these columns." 

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Plan of the Mudge 
ranch house. 

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Middle limhch. 

Ranch on Dry creek, 
Hufkner and Paw net 

flrand on left tide ot 
both piden, with a 
diamond rut tn right 
on right hip. 

Cattle brand of the Mudge ranch as published in 
the Kansas Cowboy, Dodge City. 


gage and brusquely told him to hurry back and get to work. 16 It 
is said that Bill Ward, who worked with his team at the ranch was 
often handed a check for $100 when $50 was all he expected. 

Some of the stories however indicate that the young ranchman's 
charity was not always selfless. On his way to Kinsley he usually 
stopped at the Gleason home to water his horses. There was at 
that place then only a rope and bucket well. Mudge was not al- 
ways disposed to get out, draw the water and unrein his horses to 
drink. He thought there should be better accommodations, such 
as a tank and windmill would afford and asked why they were not 
provided. The answer was, "I haven't the $150." Mudge wrote 
out the check, saying he would be back in ten days and there must 
be a high tank to drink from as he did not want to unrein his 
horses. "Bedad," was the answer, "and your wishes will be granted/' 

Mudge's first venture in experimental ranching was sheep. 17 Soon 
after locating his ranch and starting men to work on the buildings, 
he went, accompanied by Rugg, to Texas where he bought between 
2,000 and 3,000 sheep and had them brought to his ranch in 
Hodgeman county. As soon as the sheep came, Roy Lang and 
Frank Owens went to herding and it is hard to say which the 
young shepherds had more difficulty in understanding, their woolly 
charges or their employer. Mudge himself was not any too well ac- 
quainted with sheep culture. 

The immense corral had been built from stone to shelter the 
sheep. It was 200 feet wide and 300 feet long with a shed roof of 
lumber about 18 feet wide, extending around the entire interior 
of the wall. The sheep thrived fairly well during the summer. But 
the next fall while Mudge was away, the foreman, either Mr. Mack 
or Mr. Switzer, discovered that the sheep had a skin disease known 
as the scab. No one knew what to do as Mudge had left no orders 
and since he was expected home any time, the hands just waited 
for him. About midwinter he returned, bringing with him a gay 
party of friends from Boston. Deciding that the proper thing to do 
with the sheep was to dip them, he put the hands to work building 
a vat and dripping floor. The dip was prepared and the sheep 

16. It is impossible to name everyone who contributed recollections to this account of 
the Mudge ranch, or which person remembered which story. Some specific credits are 
given throughout the manuscript. Others were W. G. Billings, Florence Linely Holtzberg, 
Peter Hoehn, John A. Hoehn, Margaret Haun Raser, and Mrs. Emma Perry. 

17. While there were at this time a number of sheep ranches in Hodgeman county, 
Mudge possibly went into the sheep business because of some slight acquaintance with it 
in his own family. His brother-in-law, James Lawrence, a gentleman farmer at Groton, 
Conn., kept pure bred sheep on his farm. According to the Buckner Independent, Septem- 
ber 16, 1880, Mudge had 1,600 sheep to which he intended to add about 70 fine rams and 
ewes from Vermont. 



driven into it, but when they reached the dripping floor, instead 
of dripping off, the dip froze on the fleece. Mudge then decided 
that the only thing to do was to build a bonfire in the middle of 
the corral and drive the sheep around and around the fire so they 
would not freeze to death. Mudge and his New England friends 
stayed up all night to help in the effort to save the sheep. When an 
animal was utterly exhausted from the cold and the burden of his 
icy fleece, warm milk would be brought out and the sheep drenched. 
When results proved unsatisfactory, rum was substituted for milk 
and two gallons of this precious liquid used up in trying to revive 
the cold, dip-soaked sheep. The hands worked all night to keep 
up the fire and keep the sheep moving around it, but in spite of 
everything or perhaps because of it all the sheep that had been 
doctored with milk or rum died. 

Sometimes when snow thickly blanketed the ground Mudge 
would insist that the sheep be taken out of the corral and herded. 
Remonstrance was useless. Since they were well paid, the hands 
always tried to please him, even though they laughed and joked 
about his radical notions. 18 His whole ranching project, as one of 
the former ranch hands said, "was foolishness, all foolishness." 
Most of the time his herders rode horses and when a lamb played 
out, would tie it across the saddle and carry it home. Mr. Lang 
said he used to take as many as three lambs home on his horse at 
one time. But sometimes Mudge made up his mind that the proper 
way to herd sheep was on foot and then the shepherds brought the 
weary ones home in their arms. As the wildest of the sheep stories 
run, the sheep often got away from the herders and crossed into 
forbidden fields. Their owner saw no reason for this and he pro- 
posed to train them. An arbitrary deadline was set and whenever 
a sheep crossed the line, it was shot. Rumor says 500 sheep were 
educated in this manner. 

When the sheep failed to bring in the expected returns from 
the market, Mudge got rid of the whole lot and turned his place 
into a cattle and horse ranch. 19 About 15 or 18 hands were kept 
at the ranch during the sheep regime. Enough cows to furnish 
milk and butter for these and for the dashing visitors from the East 
and surrounding towns, had always been kept. There had always 

18. It should be remembered that in these early days no one knew just how to raise 
crops or stock in western Kansas. Many things were done in all earnestness and sobriety 
that seem foolish in the light of later knowledge. Mudge's errors were magnified by the 
size of his operation, his inexperience, and haphazard attention. 

19. The sheep experiment seems to have lasted until the spring of 1883, as Mudge was 
not mentioned in the newspapers as a cattle man until that time. It is possible that the 
blizzard of February, 1883, brought losses to ths Mudge ranch as it did to the other sheep 
men of that area. 


been horses, too thoroughbred driving horses, saddle horses, well- 
trained cow ponies, strong work horses, and tough-skinned mules. 20 
In haying time when there was extra work to be done, 25 or 30 men 
would be employed. Two or three good teams were kept continu- 
ally on the road to freight supplies from Kinsley, Larned, or Dodge. 
Some farming was done on the ranch; hay, rye, oats, millet, and 
barley were grown. 

A horse stable of stone 83 by 22 feet had been built in the south 
bank of Dry creek. And in the sheds of the big corral there were 
stalls for horses boxed off, some of which had plank floors a 
luxury almost unknown in Hodgeman county houses of that time. 
The north wall of the stable was stone, while the south side was 
dug into the bank with a row of windows above, through which feed 
from the adjoining feed yard could be pushed down into the 
mangers. In this stable one room was partitioned off and known 
as the harness room. In it were two bunks on which the two 
hostlers slept. They not only cared for the horses but kept the 
harness in good repair, for Mudge delighted in good horses and fine 
driving equipment. While still living in Larned, his high-headed 
thoroughbreds in the gold-mounted harness, hitched to an expen- 
sive buggy, were counted one of the sights of the countryside. He 
always made the trip from Larned to the ranch in record-breaking 
time. 21 

The great sport of the visitors from the East was riding over the 
limitless prairies and hunting anything to be found from jack rabbits 
to antelope. Many of the early settlers tell of seeing the gay 
horse-back parties galloping over the winding trails. Beautiful 
women in elaborate riding costumes, accompanied by the men in 
cowboy outfits, more decorative than useful, rode over the muddy 
Buckner ford. Mrs. Perry said she knew of at least one duke who 
visited at the ranch in its heyday. He and Mudge stopped at the 
Andrews home one evening on their way to Burdett. His rig-out 
was the most costly and handsome she had ever seen. What tales 
of adventure he must have taken back to tell his friends in sedate 
old England! 22 

20. Cowboy, October 18, 1884. At that time there were 12 head of milk cows and 20 
head of domestic horses on the ranch. 

21. At least one newspaper reference was made to Mudge's fast horses. S. S. Prouty, 
editor of the Cowboy, had spent two days at the ranch and was driven by Mudge to Kins- 
ley to take the train. On the way they stopped at another ranch and stayed overlong. 
With 16 miles yet to go, the distance was accomplished by Mudge's flyers in Just one hour 
and 15 minutes. 

22. Jetmore Reveille, July 22, 1885. "A distinguished party consisting of Harry 
Mudge, Gross Longendyke, Franklin Rubere and Lord Rawliston an Englishman, have 
gone on a buffalo hunt. They are fully equipped for the expedition, and will go as far as 
the Colorado line and expect to be gone about two weeks." 


Harry Mudge was an excellent horseman, the handsomest rider 
in the country. He usually wore English hunting clothes, breeches 
and boots, a big white hat with a silk handkerchief for a hat band. 
One of the stories about him says that one day at Lamed, where 
he was considered a dude and a tenderfoot, a horse was brought 
out for him to ride. The horse of course pitched badly but in spite 
of all its attempts to throw him off, Mudge rode it successfully. He 
did have the misfortune to lose his watch in the fracas and could 
not find it. Later some fellows found it and were given a $25 

Mr. Gleason thought at least four of the most valuable driving 
horses at the ranch were shipped in from the East, probably from 
Boston. Among these equine aristocrats was a race horse that came 
all the way from Boston in a special car by himself. Great speed 
was expected of this horse, but a wiry little cow pony could out- 
run him, a fact that caused considerable mirth among the hands at 
the ranch. A polo field was laid out on the south side of the ranch 
house and Mudge and his guests played polo on the only polo field 
that has ever been laid out in Hodgeman county. 

When the sheep were sold, besides the 400 head of ordinary 
Durham cattle that took the place of the sheep, Mudge began 
buying horses wild mustangs from Colorado. 23 There were 14 
head in the first bunch; Charley Rupp and Roy Lang say some of 
them died. There were 75 in the next bunch for which the Gleason 
boys went to Colorado. Then Mudge began buying horses at 
home getting a bunch of mangy scrubs from George Ripple, a 
rancher south of the Buckner. 24 Of the next herd he bought, two 
thirds were locoed. When Mudge decided that something must be 
done to cure the mangy horses, he mixed up some dope which was 
to be applied by dipping a rag in the mess and rubbing it on the 
horse until its hair was thoroughly soaked. The horses were so 
wild that the hands had to rope and throw them in order to get 
close enough to doctor them. When one side was doped the horse 
had to be again thrown to dope the other side. It took several days 
to finish this job. Lang also told of a wild roan that Mudge under- 
took to train. He kept it on a picket rope and taught it to eat 
sugar out of a pan and then continued its education by accustoming 

23. According to the Cowboy, the Mudge ranch had 400 head of range cattle and 170 
head of range horses in October, 1884. There was an eager demand for horses in western 
Kansas at that time. Although the wild horses were small and difficult to break and work, 
they were readily sold. Herds of horses were also brought up from Texas and sold in 
Dodge City. 

24. Cowboy, September 8, 1883. "Maj. H. S. Mudge . . . purchased sixty head 
of horses from Ripple Bros., Tuesday last." 


it to the whip. He never stayed with it long enough to conquer it; 
the horse was given a lesson and then forgotten for several days 
or weeks. One day when the trainer cracked the whip the horse be- 
came frightened and almost broke its neck. Thereupon the horse 
was tied to a big log which would move slightly when the horse ran 
into the rope. During the next training period the horse began 
running and kicking and dragged the log all the way to the pres- 
ent site of Hanston. 

It was Mudge's dream to extend his ranch until it reached the 
Buckner on the south and the Pawnee on the north. 25 In order to 
carry out this ambition he persuaded young fellows to come here 
to file on pre-emptions. Some of them were from the East looking 
for adventure and thrills like Mudge himself and others were West- 
erners who were broke and only too glad to get enough money to 
take them out of the country. These pre-emptors were required 
to live on their places six months, then by "paying out" on the land 
they could prove up. Mudge would stand the expense of filing, 
hire the men at good wages to work on his ranch while they were 
holding down their land and then pay the $200 for the patent. As 
soon as the patent came from the government it was turned over to 
Mudge. Hence it was that Mudge had a decided penchant for 
pre-emptors but little use for homesteaders. When Peter Hoehn 
went asking for rock to wall up his well, Mudge asked him, "Have 
you a homestead or a pre-emption?" When Hoehn said he was a 
homesteader, the big rancher answered, "No, you can't have any 
rock. I don't want any homesteaders in here." 

The county records show only a little over forty quarters to which 
Mudge actually gained title. These quarters of land were scat- 
tered in checkerboard effect around the homeplace only three 
solid sections were included, and several quarters were in mile 
strips. In some places several sections lay between the holdings 
of the ranch but this in-between land was vacant in the early days 
and the ranch cattle ranged over it just the same as if it had been 
bought and paid for. 

25. Throughout 1883 Mudge was very active buying land and stocking it with cattle. 
He joined the West Central Kansas Stockgrower's Association composed of the ranchers 
of that area. The local newspaper had an item on his activities nearly every week and in 
contrast to the earlier whole-hearted approval of his venture, the tone had now become 
slightly mocking. 

Jetmore Reveitte, March 14, 1883. "Millionaire Mudge has filed petitions to have four 
sections of School land brought into the market which he intends to buy. With the excep- 
tion of a few claims, this will give him the command of a township of land." 

May 2, 1883. if C. E. Wilson has sold out his ranch in Marena township to H. S. 

June 20, 1883. "Harry Hudge [stc] the land king of Hodgeman, and W. P. Peter of 
Lamed were in town arranging . . . land business." 

August 29, 1883. "Henry S. Hudge [sic], the cattle King of Hodgeman, and his friend 
Tucker were in town last week." 


Mike Gleason proved up on a quarter of what is now known 
( 1931 ) as the Holt place and sold it to Mudge. The quarter of land 
just west of Hanston on which the high school stands was filed on 
by Bill Keys, who agreed to sell to Mudge and made arrangements 
to leave. Before closing the deal, Mudge took one of his sudden 
trips east and forgot about buying land until he came back. Then, 
sorry for keeping Keys waiting so long he gave him a check for 
$450, to pay him for waiting. Mudge also bought the place famous 
in local history as Duncan's Crossing. 26 Reports differ as to just 
what happened to the logs of this old place. But Quincy Mack 
and Mike and Dan Gleason were among those who helped tear 
down the old stockade and haul it to the ranch where the logs were 
sawed into firewood that warmed Mudge's living room. 

Not so many spectacular stories come to us about the manage- 
ment of the cattle. They were herded most of the time, but two 
sections were fenced for reserve grass near the ranch. The posts 
for this fence were of stone. 27 In order to fasten the wire to the 
posts, holes were bored in them, wooden pegs driven in the holes 
and the wire stapled to the wood. These two fenced sections lay 
just west of the ranch buildings and besides being a pasture they 
served also for a training ground. Sportsman that he was, Mudge 
sometimes brought a pugilist friend of his out to the strenuous west 
to train for the ring and the six-mile jaunt around the pasture was 
part of the training. 

Joining the pasture was a drift fence 28 extending east from the 
ranch for a number of miles, following the section line closely ex- 
cept where it wound around the buildings. Most of these posts 
were also stone. Mudge hired Maxwell, a man from Texas, for his 
boss herder. He declared feeding cattle was foolish they never 
fed them in Texas so Mudge ordered his hands to stop feeding. 
The first winter was mild and the cattle got along fairly well on the 
range; the next winter was bad, but still he would not let his 
hands feed until the last part of the winter when the cattle began 
dying for want of something to eat. Then there was so much feed 
left that he did not know what to do with it except to burn it to get 

26. Duncan's Crossing was on the old Fort Hays-Fort Dodge road where it crossed the 
Pawnee river. John O'Loughlin established a trading post there in 1869 and built a log 
bridge and stockade. In 1872 when the Santa Fe railroad was built into Dodge, O'Lough- 
lin envisioning a cessation of his trade, sold his place to George Duncan. Through the 
pioneer settlement period the place was known as Duncan's Crossing or Duncan's ranch. 
By 1880 the crossing was in bad shape, as reported in the Buckner Independent of August 
12, 1880. 

27. The stone used for these posts as well as for all the ranch buildings was the 
Greenhorn or Fence post limestone, which was quarried in blocks and used for posts all 
over that part of Kansas where the formation appears at or near the surface. 

28. Drift fences were not to keep the cattle off the neighbor's corn but rather to pre- 
vent them from drifting away before the wind in a storm. 


it out of the way. 29 When it was time to ship, Mudge took his 
cattle to Kansas City, 80 unloaded them at the stockyards but failed 
to receive any offer for them that he would accept. 81 Unwilling to 
take less than the price expected, he reloaded them and went on to 
Chicago. The long journey had not improved the condition of the 
cattle nor did it increase the chance of getting a better price. How- 
ever, he sold them and proceeded to have a good time on the money 
he did get, and the good time was not limited to the cattle money 
as excess bills began coming to the ranch long before Mudge re- 

Luckily the ranch was not required to run on its own income. 
Mudge's father had placed his son's inheritance in investments in 
large woolen mills in the hands of trustees. Harry Mudge could 
not touch the principal, but he had a yearly income that seemed 
like fabulous wealth compared to the meager subsistence his 
neighboring settlers wrung from their homesteads. Rumors vary 
as to the amount the lowest being $75,000 annually and the high- 
est, $33,000 quarterly. 82 Yet this was not too much. 

Although Harry Mudge failed as a business man and rancher, 
he did much better as a host and playboy. The extravagant tales of 
this part of his life in Kansas center about the ranch house and its 
plush appointments. The house was built in the old-fashioned 
L shape, 83 the main part running north and south facing west, 20 
feet wide and 85 feet long; the other wing, 16 by 45 was built 
east from the north end of the main building. In the corner 
formed by these two wings was a sort of lean-to addition in which 

29. During the early 1880's there was a great deal of controversy over the necessity of 
feeding cattle in western Kansas during the winter. Most cattlemen insisted that it was not 
necessary, any loss was too small a percentage to affect the profits. The argument was 
pursued constantly in the Cowboy throughout its two years or more of publication. Up 
until 1883 the weather was very dry and the cattle wintered quite well with little loss. 
But then the weather turned into its wetter cycle and in the rainy, icy springs of 1884 and 
1885 the cattle, already weakened by a winter of exposure, died by the hundreds. Many 
of the cattlemen went broke in 1885 still refusing to admit that cattle should be fed 
through the winter. Harry Mudge was only following the tenets of the stockgrower's asso- 
ciation when he tried to carry his cattle through the winter without feeding. Where he 
differed from the others, perhaps, was that he had feed and could have used ft. The 
others had none. 

30. Mudge did not always take his cattle to Kansas City. "John Glaspie has purchased 
85 calves of H. S. Mudge [at $16 a head]." Cowboy, February 9, 1884. 

31. As to prices, Mudge began his cattle venture at exactly the wrong time. Com- 
mencing in 1884, cattle prices went down steadily and for a decade afterwards there was 
little money made in the cattle business. 

32. Henry Mudge's father, Enoch Redington Mudge, died in Swampscott, Mass., Octo- 
ber 1, 1881, and his will was probated October 24, 1881, at Salem, Essex county, Mass., 
where these facts of inheritance have been verified. Most of the estate was left in a trust 
fund for the wife and three children. The widow died within a few months, early in 1882. 
Thereafter the income from the trust fund of $1,733,017 was divided between the three 
children equally. It would seem that Harry Mudge's income from this trust was some- 
what exaggerated by his Kansas neighbors, although it was substantial. 

33. Though this ranch-house style may have been old-fashioned when this story was 
written (1931), it is very much in the fashion today (1958) and its arrangement there- 
fore of some contemporary interest. 


was the bath room. A big veranda ran almost the full length of 
the front of the house, and there were other porches in the back. 
A windmill and a large supply tank furnished the house with run- 
ning water. 

The main door led into a spacious entrance hall from which the 
parlor opened on the right and the dining room on the left. While 
an attempt was made to carry out a rustic lodge-like effect in these 
rooms, the furnishings were probably the most elegant and costly 
ones ever brought to this county. In the parlor deep piled rugs 
imported from foreign lands covered the floor; paintings worth a 
small fortune hung on the wall; a Chickering grand piano, guitar 
and other musical instruments stood in one corner. 34 Add to this a 
marble center table, a full size triple mirror, lounges, easy chairs, 
soft rich velvet hangings and huge brass fire dogs before the fire- 

The dining room was in the corner of the L of the house. There 
the many guests, who came by couples and half dozens from Bos- 
ton, New York, and closer Kansas towns, ate from the daintiest 
china 35 with heavy monogrammed silver forks. Sparkling cut glass 
was reflected in the mirror and in the polished surface of the wide 
sideboard. Two book cases in this room were filled with valuable 
books, for their owner was a student of many subjects. 36 Against 
the mantle in this room leaned many a noted guest, even the English 
duke himself, as he sipped the famous Mudge cocktails and watched 

34. Along with his other accomplishments, Harry Mudge was an excellent musician and 
pianist. Mrs. Caldwell collected a number of tales of his destructive way with inferior 

S'anos when in his cups. One of these incidents took place in the Long Branch saloon 
Dodge City where the manager kept asking Mudge to play for the crowd. Angered, he 
finally got up and stomped on the piano and then wrote a check to the proprietor saying, 
"Get a good piano, if you want me to play." In another case, when urged to play in a 
hotel, he tried the instrument. When its tone did not suit him, he decided the piano 
needed greasing and finding a kerosene can he poured its whole content into the instru- 
ment. The third piano incident took place in a music store in Kinsley, where a girl was 
playing the piano while Mudge was making purchases. He asked the musician to fore- 
bear until he was out of the shop. When she paid no attention to his protest, he went on 
a rampage and tore up the piano. Then as always he wrote the compensatory check. 

35. Mudge was quite as particular about the dishes set before him as he was about the 
pianos on which he played. One time at the Galland hotel in Dodge, he was staging a 
banquet for some friends when he discovered a nicked dish on the table. He kicked the 
table over and told the management, "I'm a gentleman, don't feed me out of broken dishes." 

36. S. S. Prouty also described this dining room and its books in the Cowboy, October 
18, 1884. "The dining hall serves the purpose of a convival and social room as well as 
for gastronomic exercises. In the centre stands a heavy table, on which the viands are 
spread for festive occasions. A huge chimney with another old-fashioned fireplace, pro- 
trudes into the room at one end leaving an alcove at one side which is occupied by a 
handsome side-board liberally supplied with an assortment of the choicest fluids the earth 
produces. In one corner stands a writing desk and in another a large stand supporting 
literary publications, pipes, tobacco, and cigars. Books and reading matter are seen in 
every room. Among the publications that visit this ranch regularly are the New York Daily 
Herald, the Chicago Daily Tribune, Boston Daily Herald, Wilke's Spirit of the Times, 
London Punch, San Francisco Argonant, Puck, Harper's Weekly, Harper's Monthly, Atlantic 
Monthly, The Century. Rue des Monde, of Paris, and many local newspapers. The books 
consist of ... classical and modern literature; scientific, medical and legal works 
and poems by the most famous authors of the world. A literary man can here revel to his 
heart's content in the gratification of his intellectual taste." 


the crackling fire eat into a log that had once been part of an In- 
dian stockade. 87 

East of the dining room was the pantry, the kitchen and the 
dining room for the help. In 1883 Granville Bradshaw cooked 
for the hands and at the same time Harry Shackley from the East 
was the cook for the master and the guests. Since they both 
cooked in the same kitchen, Granville often complained that it was 
easier for Shackley to dip what he wanted out of Granville's kettles 
than to cook his own dishes. Shackley also had a tendency to skip 
out at dish washing time to take the laundry to Marena. 38 Louie 
Bigno, who lost his H's in England and never recovered them in 
Kansas, waited on the guests. 39 A funny story is told of him. One 
day while he was busy in the pantry during one of the frequent 
shooting sprees of the host and his guests, a piece of plaster torn 
loose by a stray bullet, fell on his head. He thought he was shot and 
ran to inform his employer he was killed. The only sympathy he 
got was, "Hell, you got to keep out of the way. We got to have 
some fun." 

At the extreme south end of the house was Mudge's sleeping 
chamber. The bedstead in this, as in the guest rooms, was of heavy 
iron probably the first of such style to reach Hodgeman county. 
In front of the bed lay a beautiful white polar bear rug. Stuck on 
the dresser and hung on the walls were souvenirs of every descrip- 
tion dance programs, banquet favors, a glove, a fan, et cetera. In 
this room, too, there was a fireplace. 

Among his supplies Mudge kept a miniature drug store of medi- 
cine and first-aid materials. For besides having a bachelor of arts 
degree and a diploma in music, Mudge was also a graduate physi- 
cian, having studied medicine in this country, at Paris and in Ger- 
many. 40 It was said that he would never go to see a patient, yet 

37. It must have been quite a problem to find wood for the many fireplaces of the 
house. That from Duncan's Crossing could not have gone very far. Roy Lang said that 
one year he and John Bradshaw, George Scott and Norman Stapleton hauled 150 cords 
of wood to the ranch from Walnut creek, a distance of at least 25 miles. The Mooney 
families, who homesteaded on the Walnut and had a considerable grove of trees on their 
land, supplied some of this wood. 

38. Marena was a community near the present Hanston of today. When the railroad 
came in 1887, it by-passed Marena and Hanston was built on the railroad. 

39. Cowboy, Ipc cit. S. S. Prouty was also impressed by the food served at the ranch: 
"The cuisine of this house is as elaborate and artistic as that of any of the noted restaurants 
in the east. The larder is supplied with stores of the choicest kinds, and two cooks, highly 
accomplished in their profession, prepared the food for the tables. Breakfast and dinner 
constitute the only regular meals served. The breakfast hour is 11 a. m. and dinner is served 
at 7 p. m. It is customary, however, for the occupants of the house to partake of light re- 
freshment at 7 or 8 o'clock in the morning, as their taste may elect. A guest can repair 
to the dining hall at any time he may choose, and by touching a bell a magic effect is 
producible. In response to the touch a genii appears, in the shape of a well-bred English 
male servant, with the power to summon at will nearly every article that can be con- 
ceived of for the gratification of the palate, and it is his pleasure to promptly execute the 
order of the guest." 

40. Letter from the archives of Harvard College Library: "Henry Mudge entered 
Harvard College in 1870 and is in our records as a member of the class of 1874, although 
he did not receive his degree (A. B.) until 1876. He was in the Harvard Medical School 
for three years (1875-1878) but did not graduate." 


he often sent medicine to those who were ill. Quincy Mack tells 
that when his father was foreman at the ranch and his mother was 
holding down the claim, she became so ill they sent for his father. 
When Mack asked for leave of absence to care for his wife, Mudge 
inquired about her symptoms and sent medicine along which gave 
her immediate relief. If an ill person were described to Mudge he 
would send medicine and never charge for it, but unless he came 
upon the sick by accident, he would not go near. When any of the 
hands became ill or were injured he doctored them or set broken 
bones. During a smallpox epidemic he vaccinated all his men. 

One more room of the house should be mentioned, the one at 
the extreme eastern end, which was divided from the rest of the 
house by a solid stone wall. This room was an afterthought, added 
after the major part of the house had been built. One story has it 
that when the house was almost completed Mudge suddenly ex- 
claimed, "What if one of us should die out here. We have to have 
some place to put us." Hence he gave orders for the building of 
this room which was thereafter jokingly referred to as the "dead 
man's room." It was never used as such, for it was occupied by 
Lawrence Tucker, 41 a wealthy friend of Mudge, who acted as his 
secretary and, in his absence, as his manager. 

Under the east wing of the house was the cellar, the most im- 
portant part of which was the wine cellar under the corner dining 
room. Former employees say the stock of the cellar was replenished 
constantly. Whole barrels of whiskey were stored there. Mr. 
Gleason, one of the freighters, hauled wine, whiskey, brandy, rum 
and beer from Kinsley by the wagon load. Mudge never gave his 
hands anything to drink and he expected them to stay sober while 
working at the ranch. But as the boss was often gone, the hands 
sometimes sneaked downstairs and helped themselves. Guests had 
free access to the cellar as a rule, but when one evening Gus 
Yesogee was discovered refreshing himself, Mudge facetiously 
locked the door on him and then pretended the key had been lost. 
The help thought their employer, quite as drunk as Gus, had lost 

41. Robert Means Lawrence, Descendants of Major Samuel "Lawrence (Cambridge, 
1904), pp. 80, 81. Lawrence Tucker, born 1844, whose mother was a Lawrence, enlisted 
in the U. S. army in 1861, but his father thought he was too young for army service and 
secured his dismissal. He was graduated from Harvard in 1865 and spent the next seven 
years in Europe, mostly in Paris. Returning to his native land, he again entered Harvard 
in 1872 and was graduated from a law course in 1875. He was admitted to the bar but 
never practiced law. He spent three years on a ranch in Kansas. Returning to Boston he 
was foremost in organizing the Boston Athletic Association in 1887. 

S. S. Prouty wrote: ''Mr. Lawrence Tucker, the book-keeper, and manager in the ab- 

sence of Mr. M[udge]., can hardly be considered in the light of an employee, for he is an 
old friend and confidential adviser of Mr. Mudge, and is there more for the benefit of 
health than anything else. Mr. Tucker is a grand nephew of the late Amos Lawrence, of 

Boston, the wealthy philanthropist, in honor of whom the city of Lawrence, Kansas, was 
named. He is a graduate of the law department of Harvard University, is a gentleman of 
culture and refinement, has travelled in Europe and is the owner of a fortune. 


the key. After Mudge had had his fun, he discovered the key and 
unlocked the door. 

While expecting his own cowboys to do their drinking and ca- 
rousing elsewhere, Mudge once extended his hospitality to 40 
round-up boys from the Smoky, who were camping on the creek 
watching their herds. They all got gloriously drunk and forgot 
their cattle. 42 For some years the creek bed below the ranch was 
full of pop cases, whiskey bottles, and beer kegs. While Mudge 
drank heavily, he took excellent care of his health, often living for 
several days on buttermilk after one of his wild carousals. 

Easterners who visited the ranch for the first time were initiated 
into the brotherhood of the Wild and Wooly West. Drinking and 
shooting were always a part of this ceremony, and the hands might 
be awakened at any hour of the night by shots coming from the 
house where some poor sucker was learning the ways of the West. 
After the tenderfoot was drunk, the Westerners would shoot at his 
feet to make him dance or they would shoot over his head and then 
daub pigeon blood or any red liquid on him to make him think he 
had been shot. If he were brave enough to take a hand in the 
shooting too, they would put the "blood" on another drunk and 
show the novice where he had shot a man. The bullet holes in the 
walls, ceilings, and heavy oak doors gave testimony for years after- 
ward to these wild parties. 43 

One cold snowy night, during one of these hilarious sprees, the 
victim escaped through an outside door and his tormentors were 
unable to find him. The next morning when the firewater had 
worn off, Mudge and the other guests realized what had happened 
and a grand search began. Had the fellow perished on the prairie? 
No frightened into comparative sobriety he had run into the 
"dead" room, crawled under the bed and remained there all night. 

Henry Mudge was an excellent shot and surprisingly enough 
with all the shooting that went on, no one was hurt outside of being 
scared to death. Mudge sometimes demonstrated his marksman- 
ship in odd ways. One day when he was trying to bargain with a 
colored woman for a piece of land he wanted to buy from her, their 
conversation was made difficult by the clacking of a flock of 

42. There are other stories of this sort. One night Mudge heard the Bazine band, 
tootling along in their wagon on the way home from a nolitical rally at Jetmore. He sent 
a messenger to call them in and entertained them royally. Ness County News, Ness City, 
May 31, 1930. 

43. C. W. Macy, of Hanston, who lived as a boy in the old Mudge ranch house, said 
his mother was much distressed by the bullet holes in all the doors. Many of them were 
large enough to put a finger through and therefore most undesirable particularly in bed- 
room doors. Mrs. Macy finally bought an assortment of corks and pushed into these holes. 


guinea fowls near by. Taking out his revolver, Mudge shot the 
guineas, one at a time. The good woman protested, saying she 
would not have taken a dollar a piece for her fowls. Mudge counted 
the birds, wrote the check and then proceeded with the land deal. 
On another occasion his aim was not so good. On warm nights the 
big rancher was accustomed to sleeping out, roughing it on the 
grassy prairie. One morning as the air cooled toward dawn, he 
acquired a companion that wriggled into his blankets and snuggled 
up to get warm. Leaping wildly from his bed, Mudge completely 
riddled his expensive Navaho blankets before he finally hit his rat- 
tlesnake bedfellow. 

There were always a great number of dogs at the ranch. They 
were used for hunting, and Mudge also apparently fancied himself 
in the role of country squire when he rode three times a week to 
Middle Branch post office for the mail. 44 Mounted on his thor- 
oughbred with a mail sack thrown over his shoulder, he would 
prance along with a pack of 25 dogs or so following behind. Hunt- 
ing hounds were imported from the East but dogs were also bought 
from the settlers. It was easy to persuade Mudge that a dog was 
worth from $25 to $75. Then if the canine failed to do what his 
late owner had promised, the dog would end his days as a target in 
the shooting matches. 45 Only one specific tale of the hunting 
prowess of the dogs remains. Tucker and Mudge once located a 
nest of skunks near the house but refrained from molesting them 
until the day's festivities were in full swing. Then the guests, ladies 
and all, were invited to take a walk to see the surprise planned for 
them. The dogs quickly found the skunks and soon cleaned them 
out, returning to fawn odorously on all the watching party to the 
delight of the jokers. 

Those were the days too when prairie fires scourged the Plains, 
making waste both the cattleman's grass and the settler's crops. 
When Mudge would see the telltale smoke billowing up on the 
horizon, driven by the Kansas gale, no matter how far away the 
fire or how far out of its path his own ranch might be, he would 
call his hands from whatever work they might be at and order them 
to fight the fire. Pandemonium reigned while the men rushed 
wildly about collecting the fire-fighting equipment plows, shovels, 
sacks, and barrels. While the teams were being harnessed and 

44. This post office was on the Buckner, SE *4, Sec. 31, T 22 S, R 22 W. The ranch 
received great quantities of mail. See Footnote 36 for periodicals that came regularly. 

45. Another target used in the shooting matches when dogs or sheep were not avail- 
able, was milk pans from the kitchen. The cook was always complaining he had no pans. 
Presumably tin cans were not suitable targets for gentlemen. 


hitched to the wagons in double quick time, the advance guard, 
Mudge included, would be on its way on horseback. When the 
wagons were loaded with old whiskey barrels, hastily filled with 
water, the driver yelled "Ready/* and the rest of the hands scurried 
to clamber over the sides of the wagon boxes and cling to the lurch- 
ing, dripping barrels as the outfit lumbered over the prairie re- 
gardless of buffalo wallows or washouts. As the wheels hit a con- 
cealed rock or coyote hole, the jolt would slop the precious water 
over the yelling, joking men. But enough was left to wet the sacks 
to beat out the creeping flames. Many a settler's homestead was 
saved by Mudge and his rollicking fire fighters. 

Playboy Mudge also sought amusement in the near-by towns. 
Perhaps every hotel, saloon, and gaming alley in Dodge and Kinsley 
had the marks of the Mudge pistol or boasted damages that had 
been covered by the Mudge check. If the window in the hotel did 
not open easily, he kicked it out. He liked to rent a saloon for the 
night and entertain his friends without the aid of the management, 
no matter how high the price set to evade such an arrangement. 
If the stock of liquor was not consumed by the guests, the bottles 
and their contents were strewn on the floor. 46 With all these wild 
carousings there is only one story of Mudge coming through with 
anything more than a hang-over. While the gay dog often stayed in 
Dodge for a week at a time, he once stayed so much longer than 
usual that one of the hands went down to see what was the matter. 
Mudge was found with a black eye and a banged-up face and quite 
ready to come home but he never confided what had happened to 
him. In fact even when drinking, Mudge managed to keep his 
head pretty well. One day he drove Tom Yesogee, brother of Gus, 
to Kinsley to take the train to Boston. While waiting, they drank 
in the saloons until they were both quarrelsome and Mudge knocked 
his friend down in the street. Yesogee then perversely refused to 
get up and was in danger of missing his train. Noticing an old 
wheelbarrow near by, Mudge bundled him in and got him to the 
train in time. 

It is believed that the Mudge adventure lasted almost six years. 
Although it was in no way evident to observers, who told the tale 
of the ever-ready check book and the always generous check, the 
Mudge money began to run short as early at 1883, at the very time 
when the big rancher was buying land and cattle in quantity. On 

46. This story is told specifically about one of the Kinsley saloons. There were two 
of them at the time, Jake Smith's and Floor's. One night Jake Smith, after the Mudge 
crowd had visited and departed, decided he wanted no more of them and locked up his 
place and went home. But the celebrators were not through they came back, broke down 
the door and helped themselves. Of course, Mudge paid the damages. 


May 15 of that year, Mudge gave a mortgage for $15,000 on the 
land of the ranch to J. S. Knox of Topeka. The next year on No- 
vember 1 he gave a chattel mortgage for $7,700 to the First Na- 
tional Bank of Larned on the stock of the ranch. This mortgage 
covered 300 head of Durham cows, 110 calves, 60 head of northern 
Texas mares, 16 grade Morgan colts, four work mules, five work 
horses, six driving horses, and 12 saddle horses. The final mortgage 
was given to W. P. Peter of Larned, April 18, 1885, on the following 

All furniture and household goods now in my possession and in my house situ- 
ated on the SW& of 31-21-22 in Hodgeman County, Kansas, including piano, 
music and musical instruments; books, sewing machine, glass, china and silver- 
ware; sideboard, pictures, mirrors, and other ornaments, clothing, chest, clock, 
churn and milk pans, together with all fire arms and all other household 
effects therein, not here enumerated. 47 

In 1885 the entire ranch property passed into the hands of a re- 
ceiver, A. D. Cronk of Kinsley. 48 The local gossip was that Mudge 
had overdrawn his allowance for three or more years ahead and 
could raise no more money. He remained on the ranch while its 
appointments were being liquidated. 49 

Harry Mudge took the failure of his ranch as debonairly as he 
had its more prosperous period and his behavior remained as in- 
teresting as ever to the other settlers thereabout. A carriageful of 
people accompanied by a number of couples on horseback came a 
long distance to the sale. 50 They got there about noon and Mudge 
insisted that they stay to lunch. The extravagant luxuries were 

47. This data on the mortgages was searched out from the Hodgeman county records 
by L. W. Hubbell of Jetmore. It is to wonder what was the true valuation of this ranch. 
The agricultural census of 1885 listed the improvements as worth $56,000. The Cowboy, 
October 18, 1884, probably overestimated the investment: "The improvements on the 
ranch have cost upwards of $20,000 and the land $30,000. It would take $100,000 to 
purchase the property." 

48. The first newspaper notice of the Mudge ranch receivership was in the Kinsley Mer- 
cury, June 20, 1885: 


I have for sale at the Mudge ranch in Hodgeman county, about thirty-two miles north- 
west of Kinsley, and seven miles north-east from Jetmore, a large quantity of real estate 
and personal property, consisting of: 

140 head of high grade cows and heifers. 
50 head of horses, broke and unbroke. 

All the real estate belonging to the Henry S. Mudge ranch. 

A very large quantity and variety of household furniture. In fact, all the property 
belonging to one or the most finely equipped ranches in southwestern Kansas. 

A. D. CRONK, receiver. 

This notice ran unchanged in every issue of the paper until May, 1886. Mudge not 
only remained on the ranch throughout the summer of 1885 but also entertained Lord 
Rawlston on the buffalo hunt. Lawrence Tucker was back, too, having returned in May 
after astonishing the Bostonians with his cowboy attire. Jetmore Reveille, May 13, 1885. 

49. Other large ranches also went into receivership at this time for one, that of Gross 
Longendyke, president of the West Central Kansas Stockgrower's Association. As the Jet- 
more Reveille, December 30, 1885, remarked sourly, "The judge of the district court ap- 
pointed a Kinsley man receiver of the Mudge estate, and a Larned man receiver of the 
Longendyke ranch. Could he find no one in Hodgeman county competent for these places?" 

50. Very few mementoes of the old ranch remain in Hodgeman county. Mrs. Emma 
Perry had a monogrammed silver fork for some years; L. W. Hubbell has a champagne 
bottle and Mrs. Frank Salmans a pair of andirons. 


over; the servants were gone except perhaps one man in the kitchen, 
a region to which the host made frequent trips while entertaining 
his visitors. For lunch they had watermelon, toast, and tea which 
Mudge served with all the charm and hospitality of a prince. The 
guests all agreed that in spite of its sparseness, they had never 
enjoyed a meal more. One of the party said of the host, "He was 
the most interesting person I ever met." 

After lunch was over the younger people in the group wanted to 
play tennis. They had never seen a game and although the sun 
was boiling that afternoon Mudge endeavored to instruct them as 
long as they chose to prance around. When driven indoors by the 
heat, Mudge supplied them all with fans. One of the girls hit her 
eye with her fan and it swelled alarmingly. Mudge insisted on 
putting some medicine into the eye, having first tactfully dropped a 
little in his own eye to demonstrate its harmlessness. 

Late in the afternoon when the party took their departure, Mudge 
decided he would ride along to get a sack of feed corn from an old 
house east of the ranch. As they rode down the Buckner valley the 
sun set and the air became chilly. Having started without a coat 
Mudge decided he needed a wrap more than he needed corn. 
Alighting at a big cottonwood tree he had one of the party measure 
to see if the sack would reach around his portliness. It just reached, 
so he cut out the corners and a hole for his head. With the help 
of the others he managed to squeeze into the sack. Then laughing 
at the wrinkled tightness of this waistcoat, he rode away into the 
sunset. His ranching experiment might be over but the adventure 
and reckless gaiety for which he had come West were still his. 

When the mortgages on the ranch were foreclosed many of the 
hands had pay coming to them. They had been hired by Mudge 
and the succeeding management did not pay them. But none of 
the old ranch hands felt greatly cheated, for they had received top 
pay and good treatment while the venture was solvent. Mrs. Hann, 
who had always laundered the fine linen of the ranch, was also left 
with an unpaid bill. Mudge paid at the rate of one dollar a dozen 
for the towels and napkins and there was at the last $750 owing. 
When asked what she would take in settlement of this debt, she 
mentioned a certain quarter of land. Sometime after the crash, 
Mudge sent her the deed which her descendants still hold. Hanston 
was partially laid out on this 'laundry" quarter early in 1886. 

When Harry Mudge finally left Hodgeman county he did not 
entirely relinquish his interest in the West. 51 One or another of 

51. Lawrence Tucker, living at the Somerset club in Boston, continued to take the 
Jrtmore paper. Jetmore Reveille, June 9, 1886. 


the Hodgeman county folk had the word that Mudge was later in 
Australia and again in South America. In 1903 L. W. Hubbell re- 
ceived a letter from him at Bristol, Conn., asking about his one-time 
playhouse, the old ranch. 52 In 1908 the Kinsley Mercury reprinted a 
clipping from the Boston Transcript telling of "the death of a man 
whose memory is still green in Edwards county." Even in his obit- 
uary Mudge's ranch experiment stands out as one of the more im- 
portant ventures of his life. 

. . . he engaged for five years in ... cattle raising and established 
a ranch in Hodgeman county, Kansas. For two years he was private secretary 
to the chief engineer of the construction of the elevated railroad of Brooklyn. 
Some years later were spent in Australia and in the Far East. 53 

52. The ranch land was sold to many individuals, and probably quite readily, as 1885 
1886 were boom years in western Kansas and farmers came by the thousands to re- 
place the ranchers. The Mudge ranch house remained and was used as a dwelling for 

many years. In 1946 when the place was purchased by Frank Salmans, the present owner, 
the house was partially demolished and he removed the stones to build a house for his son 
in a different location. Now (1958) there are not enough stones left to show the founda- 
tion lines of the old house. There is however a hand-dug well, covered with a great round 
stone, six inches thick. This is quite likely the original well that supplied the water for 
the ranch house. 

53. Kinsley Mercury, January 24, 1908. The death date was not given in the obituary. 
The town clerk of Bristol, Conn., wrote Mr. Hubbell that Harry Mudge died January 
6, 1908. 

Foreigners of 1857-1865 at Schippel's Ferry, 
Saline County 


E most western foreign settlement in Kansas before 1861 l 
* was just north of the Saline river near its mouth. It was about 
three air miles northeast of Salina at Gotthart Schippel's ferry on 
the south edge of Sec. 29, T. 13, R. 2 W. Gotthart Schippel 2 held 
himself to be the oldest permanent resident of Saline county, a claim 
disputed because in February, 1858, W. A. Phillips and his party 
on the way to the first settling of Salina found empty the cabin 
occupied by Gotthart and his brother John the summer before. 
With spring they came back to reoccupy it. 

The Schippels were born in Saxe- Weimar in Central Germany, 
Gotthart in 1835. John lived from 1827 till 1885. The ties between 
the brothers were close. Gotthart 3 landed at Montreal in 1852 and 
worked successively at New York, at Blue Island, 111., and in Iowa 
county, Iowa, before setting out for Kansas in 1857, always trending 
west and south. In the new territory he determined to go on 
beyond the area of conflict over free soil. This motivation affected 
other foreigners in choosing their points of settlement. 4 

DR. J. NEALE CARMAN, author of several papers on foreign settlements in Kansas, is 
a professor in the department of romance languages at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

1. In "Continental Europeans in Rural Kansas, 1854-1861," Territorial Kansas, Uni- 
versity of Kansas Social Science Studies (Lawrence, 1954), pp. 164-196, I asserted that 
the German Baptist settlement near present Elmo was the most westerly foreign settlement 
in territorial days. The statement above is a correction. The material for the present 
article has as its written sources, besides others specified later: A. T. Andreas and W. G. 
Cutler, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883); Wm. E. Connelley, A Standard 
History of Kansas and Kansans (Chicago, 1918), 5 vols.; John P. Edwards, Edwards Atlas 
of Saline Co., Kans. (Philadelphia, 1884); Portrait and Biographical Record of Dickinson, 
Saline, McPherson and Marion Counties, Kansas (Chicago, Chapman Bros., 1893), referred 
to as the Chapman album; census records for 1865, 1870, 1875, 1880, 1885, 1895, and 
1905 as preserved by the Kansas State Historical Society at Topeka. The 1860 census 
neglected the settlement in question; everything west of the sixth principal meridian was 
Arapahoe county, but the census takers worked only in that part of the county that 
became Colorado. 

Much of the essential information was furnished by the sons and daughters of the first 
settlers, to whom the author gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness, though taking full 
responsibility for all statements made; information was notably provided by John Giersch, 
his wife, Emily Serault Giersch, Sister Ferdinand Giersch, Mrs. John (Rose Wessling) 
Schippel, Charles F. Tressin and his sisters, Ernestine Tressin and Pauline Tressin. 

2. The names appearing in this article are in Saline county currently pronounced as 
follows: Gotthart as if written Goodheart; Schippel rhymes with tipple and alliterates with 
ship; Giersch has the same vowel as in girl; Tressin the last syllable is identical with 
seen; Wary like the synonym of cautious; Itzen's first syllable is like the pronoun it, and 
Donmyer, first syllable like done. 

3. Notices on Gotthart Schippel appear in Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 709; Chapman 
album pp. 352-355; Connelley, op. cit., v. 5, p. 2718. 

4. This motivation is fully implied in the 1918 Connelley, v. 5, p. 2718. A declared 
case of similar motivation is that of the Lyon creek Germans. See Territorial Kansas, p. 



The choice of Schippel's exact point of settlement doubtless re- 
sulted not only from finding rich land with wood and water but 
also from the existence of ready made shelter. The brothers took 
over the cabin abandoned by "the government engineers who had 
just completed a rough bridge across the Saline river." 5 That sum- 
mer they put up hay and traded with the Indians, but in the fall 
abandoned their outpost not only because they needed further pro- 
visions, but more importantly because the Cheyennes, who were 
warring upon the Pottawatomies, were a threat to anyone in the 
area. The next year upon their return there were floods and the 
bridge across the Saline was washed out. Gotthart Schippel estab- 
lished a ferry and operated it for nine years, until the coming of 
the railroad. It was a prosperous enterprise. The fee was one 
dollar, and even that early, because of the gold strike in Colorado 
in 1859, there were many very busy days, as many as 200 transports 
a day. Indeed, the possession of riches became a source of fear. A 
hollow tree served as a bank and the frugal brothers were never 

The two bachelors soon had neighbors, the Giersches. Peter 
Giersch, senior, Nicholas Giersch, presumably a brother, and Peter's 
sons, Peter, Jr., called "Big Pete," Stephen, Michael and John Peter 
called "Little Pete" the first three were grown all arrived in 
1859 or 1860. There was rich land for all the family to pre-empt, 
and Peter, senior, a blacksmith, could profit from the traffic across 
the river. Like the Schippels, the Giersches spoke German. Peter, 
senior, bom 1805, was a Luxemburger; 6 his wife, Cecelia, born 
1814, was French by nationality, born in the city of Metz. That 
area was bilingual, so she spoke her husband's dialect, and her 
children learned no French from her. Between 1870 and 1875 she 
died, and the wife, Mary, whom Peter had in 1875, was Irish. The 
Giersches immigrated to Washington county, Wisconsin, a few 
miles northwest of Milwaukee about 1846, where John Peter, "Little 
Pete," was born in 1848. At least part of the family, including 
Stephen, made a sojourn of a year in Kansas City where news of 
the characteristics of the country at the mouth of the Saline could 
easily reach them. 

5. Connelley, op. cit., v. 5, p. 2718; W. Turrentine Jackson, "The Army Engineers as 
Road Surveyors and Builders in Kansas and Nebraska, 1854-1858," The Kansas Historical 
Quarterly, v. 17 (February, 1949), pp. 42, 43. 

6. The Giersches through several censuses gave themselves as Belgian, presumably 
because Luxemburg was part of the nation of the Low Countries when Peter, Sr., was 
born. Stephen called himself German in the census of 1905, presumably because of his 
language and the general acceptance of the lower Meuse as German. The Luxemburg 
identification is made by John and Emily Giersch. 


The farm of Peter Giersch, Sr., was next west from Schippels; 
Stephen Giersch lived a little farther west still, one mile from the 
ferry. Stephen remained there the rest of his life, instead of going 
farther afield like his brothers, and so has something more than 
passing interest for us. He was born abroad in 1840, and in 1865 
was the husband of Amanda, born in 1841 or 1847 in Kentucky. In 
the next five years she bore him three children, and then died. He 
shortly took himself another wife, Josephine Poelma, born in 1850 
in Holland, and coming to Kansas from Beloit, Wis. Her first born 
arrived in 1872. This Dutch wife spoke German with her Luxem- 
btirger husband while their older children were small, but not 
habitually after the youngest arrived in the 1880's. 

On the other side of the river some two miles down stream from 
the ferry another German family settled a little before the Giersches; 
the Lincks. 7 Catherine Linck was born in Wurtemburg in 1820. 
She and her husband came to America between 1844 and 1853, 
and lived in Indiana before coming to Kansas. She appears to 
have been a widow upon her arrival in Saline county, with a son 
Jacob born in 1844 and at least five daughters, of whom the young- 
est, Elizabeth, born in 1855, was only four or five years old. 

Her motives for choosing the Saline-Smoky Hill junction as a 
point of settlement are not easy to guess. She was evidently a 
woman of physical vigor and forceful will, for after Jacob's de- 
parture between 1865 and 1870 she stayed on her farm with her 
two youngest daughters and is said to have ended her days there. 
The census of 1880 does not include her in the proper township, 
but in 1875 she was qualified a "farmer" and her place valued at 
$10,000. Only four other estates in the township were worth more. 
The Edwards Atlas of 1884 still showed her name upon the land. 
She was well known, but seems to have had few intimate friends. 
The marriages made by her daughters were with men of solid 
qualities, but none of the families remained in the immediate neigh- 
borhood; rather they are connected with the early history of Ottawa 
county to the north. As an example, her daughter Mary, born in 
1841, married in 1860 a young Englishman named Israel Markley, 
"a man of good business tact and a great deal of energy." 8 Markley, 
born 1834 in Cambridgeshire, came to Illinois, north of Chicago in 

7. "Mrs. Link" is included by Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 700, in the list of those 
arriving before 1860. 

8. The quotation is from Andreas-Cutler, op. cit., p. 698. It has greater value than 
such words of praise usually have in Andreas, for it occurs in the write-up of Saline county 

d S P 0tt disintere sted informant, while Markley's purchased biography is to be found 


1856, to Kansas in 1857, and after residences in Franklin and Jack- 
son counties, appeared in newly founded Salina in 1859. His capital 
was that gained by peddling, but he built houses in the new town 
and took Mary for his wife the next year. He was one of the ap- 
pointed commissioners at the county's organization in 1859; his 
name does not appear, however, among the county officers elected 
in 1861, when Gotthart Schippel became a commissioner, and Peter 
Giersch a justice of the peace. 9 

In 1863 Israel Markley deserted the Smoky Hill and Saline rivers 
for the Solomon, on which he built a mill at Minneapolis, before 
the town was really founded; a little later the Markley interests 
also had another mill at Bennington. Sometimes his former neigh- 
bors at the mouth of the Saline hauled their grain over the hilly 
ridge between the rivers to be ground. Linguistically the Lincks 
seem to have been Anglicized early. The Markley marriage indi- 
cates as much, and while some of the other sisters married men with 
German names, Geissen, Fischer their descendants indicate that 
German was not the language of the family. Thus, Catherine Linck 
and her family, though in the background of the settlement around 
Schippel's ford, was not precisely part of it. This was partly be- 
cause Mrs. Linck, though not particularly ardent religiously, was 
sufficiently Protestant to become one of the charter members of 
the New Cambria English Lutheran Church in 1873. 10 

John Itzen, born 1820 in Baden, who, undeterred by the drought 
of 1860 settled a mile and a half east of SchippeFs the next year ( ac- 
cording to the 1884 Edwards Atlas), was more indifferent to de- 
nominations than Mrs. Linck. His wife and her parents were born 
in Arkansas, and John therefore did not use German at home. His 
six children attended with the Giersches and the Schippels the dis- 
trict school (No. 3), here as elsewhere a great amalgamating force 
in the community. 

The Giersches were faithful Catholics, and though Gotthart 
Schippel was a Lutheran, still declaring himself such in 1893, 11 he 
went along with the Giersches. In those days all Kansas west of 
St. Mary's Mission (upstream from Topeka) was served by Jesuits 
from the mission, in particular by Father Louis Dumortier. Records 
quoted by Father Peter Beckman 12 show that the missionary did 

9. Ibid, p. 698. 

10. H. A. Ott, D. D., A History of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Kansas (To- 
peka, 1907), p. 128. 

11. Chapman album, p. 355. 

12. Peter Beckman, O. S. B., The Catholic Church on the Kansas Frontier, 1850-1877 
(Washington, 1943), pp. 68, 84. 


not go before 1861 to the Saline mouth settlement, which first ap- 
pears on the map of Kansas showing Father Dumortier's activities 
in 1866. 18 Then he recorded 75 Catholics at this point. Part of 
these were Irish. Dumortier locates his station definitely north of 
the Saline, since the few Germans in town were Lutherans. Mass 
was first said at the home of Peter Giersch senior. With the com- 
ing of the Kansas Pacific in 1867 the town became definitely the 
center of Catholic activities, though there was no church or resident 
pastor for some time. John, son of Stephen Giersch, was baptized 
in the courthouse in 1872. Beckman records no resident pastor 
before 1876. 

The Catholic cemetery at Salina contains the grave of Daniel 
Humbarger, 1840-1899, whose name suggests that he is of Penn- 
sylvania-German origin, and indeed his parents were born in Penn- 
sylvania. Like many other Penn-Germans in Kansas he himself was 
born in Ohio, in Richland county, halfway between Cleveland and 
Columbus, where the Pennsylvania stock is numerous. He was in 
Saline county with his parents in 1857 but the Indian troubles drove 
them out. Kansas, however, remained the area of his activities 
and in 1863 he married Anne Giersch, born 1845, the daughter of 
Peter, senior. 14 In the same year he took land just south of Schip- 
pel's ferry, but he did not begin to occupy it till 1865. In the mean- 
time he had been a second lieutenant in the Kansas militia. Daniel 
was evidently quite Anglicized linguistically, although this was by 
no means true of all Penn-Germans in Kansas at the time, and Ger- 
man played little part in his family life. 

The Lutherans were no prompter in reaching the field at Salina 
than the Catholics. The Swedish Lutherans were organized in 
1870 and the Kansas Synod Lutheran Church, St. John's, was or- 
ganized in 1873. It was an "English Lutheran Church," but the 
Germans joined it. Of the six families furnishing charter mem- 
bers, 15 two were made up of Germans who arrived before 1865, 
the families of Robert H. Dihle, born 1838, a harness maker, and 
Chas. W. Tressin (1833-1879), a hardware dealer. Dihle came to 
Salina in 1863, Tressin in 1862. The only other Germans or non- 
English-speaking foreign-born for that matter present in Salina 
in 1865 were Nicholas Giersch, established in town as a blacksmith, 

13. Gilbert J. Garraghan, S. J., The Jesuits of the Middle United States (New York, 
1938), v. 3, p. 42. See, also, Sister M. Evangeline Thomas, "The Rev. Louis Dumortier, 
S. J., Itinerant Missionary to Central Kansas, 1859-1867," The Kansas Historical Quarterly, 
v. 20 (November, 1952), pp. 253, 254, between 264, 265. 

14. A biography of Daniel Humbarger appears in Andreas-Cutler, op. eft., p. 708. 
The Humbargers also became related to the Bells and Commerfords, Tipperary Irish. 

15. Ott, op. cit., p. 146. 


like his brother at the ford (Nicholas died that year), Bernhardt 
Blau, a Saxon born 1830, and Tressin's brother-in-law, Adolphus 
Huebner who died young at Ogden. Blau was Gotthart Schippel's 
partner in a saw and grist mill, but it seems to have had a short 
history, for Blau does not appear in censuses after 1865. 

Charles Tressin 16 is of more interest to us than the others; besides 
his hardware store which failed in 1873, year of the panic he had 
a farm four miles northeast of Salina on the south side of the Saline, 
near the Schippel ferry. His wife, nee Minnie Huebner, born 1839 
in Prussia like her husband had made the farm her special care, 
and it remained so when Charles, senior, died in 1879, leaving her 
with a son and five daughters. The son, Charles F., was ten at 
the time. He took on responsibilities early and learned German 
better than his sisters because he associated so much with the 
hired men, who were usually young Germans preparing to estab- 
lish themselves. For many years they were a reliable lot and the 
farm was sufficiently prosperous so that in 1893, when most of Kan- 
sas was suffering a very bad year, Mrs. Tressin could afford a bio- 
graphical notice for her dead husband in the Chapman album for 
the area. Still, the help problem was sometimes pressing, and the 
Tressins occasionally called upon their neighbors across the Saline 
for assistance. At any rate, Mrs. John Giersch one year drove a 
horse rake across a fordable point in the river so as to aid them in 
putting up a threatened hay crop. 

Gotthart Schippel was probably not attracted into the Lutheran 
congregation, because in 1871 he, like Dan Humbarger, took a 
Catholic wife, Clara Wary, born 1853. Clara was French. The 
records are contradictory as to whether her father Nicholas (1819- 
1871) was Belgian or French; his wife Catherine (1827-1896), was 
Belgian, and his oldest son Leon (1852-1913) was born in Belgium, 
but both Clara Wary and her younger brother Eugene, born 1861, 
were born in Paris, France. Nicholas and his family do not appear 
in the Saline county census of 1865 not until that of 1870 and 
so they could not have arrived earlier than 1865. Peter Giersch, 
senior, was an uncle, at least by marriage, of Catherine Wary, and 
Nicholas Giersch and his wife, Mary C., 1837-1860, are buried on 
the Wary lot, indicating that she, too, was of the family. Nicholas 
Wary took a claim just above Giersch's, and Clara and Gotthart 
Schippel, the "rich''* bachelor in his 30's were therefore neighbors. 
The death of Clara's father in the very year of her marriage with 

16. A notice on Chas. W. Tressin appears in the Chapman album, pp. 452, 455. 


Gotthart tended for economic reasons to bind the new son-in-law 
firmly to the family. But Clara also contributed to the family 
finances, for, like her mother, 17 she became a midwife of sufficient 
skill to be recalled into the same homes time after time. 

Gotthart Schippel continued to prosper. After he married, he 
and his brother John no longer had holdings in common. The 
1875 census ascribes 280 acres to John and only 160 acres to Gott- 
hart. Gotthart's lands had increased to 500 acres by the time of 
the census of 1885. Indeed, the Edwards Atlas of 1884 puts his 
name on 760 acres, and John's on 600 more. The Chapman album 
of 1893 attributed to him 3,000 acres, and his family recorded in 
Connelley's 1918 History of Kansas (v. 5, p. 2718) that in March, 
1906, when he died, he had about 6,000 acres. By then, John's 
property had become his by inheritance, but he clearly had pros- 
pered even during the hard times of the 1890's. 

In those days one could walk along the Saline from Salina to 
New Cambria, a good six miles away, without leaving his prop- 
erty. He also had important real estate holdings in Salina and 
Topeka. Apparently, because of his property in town, he was re- 
garded as one of the citizens of Salina; the Andreas-Cutler History 
of 1883 (p. 709) recorded that he had been a member of the city 
council for six years. He remained true to the old ferry location, 
however. Less than a decade after his arrival, the log cabin of 
the government engineers was replaced by a sturdy stone house. 
Any additions made to it until 1893 were temporary structures; in 
that year the "new part" was added, and Gotthart's "place" as- 
sumed manorial proportions. Well it might, for he and Clara were 
the parents of nine children. The names of the daughters' husbands, 
White, Nelson, reveal abandonment of German and French con- 

John, the second son, born in 1874, occupied the old place till 
his death in 1948; his widow, Rose Wessling Schippel still lived 
there in 1957. Rose, born 1879, is the product of a marriage show- 
ing how the interests of the group shifted to include Salina and 
territory beyond it. Her father, Michael Wessling, settled about 
1870 on a farm across the river from Schippel's, toward town. In 
the same year, Peter Schwarz was taking a soldier's claim south- 
west of town, and following the first marriage (1876) in the newly 
established Catholic parish, Peter's daughter Catherine became 

17. The mother figures in the 1875 census as a "physician." 


Mrs. Wessling, and the mother of Rose. The parish has since been 
the focus of their interest. 

A scion of the Giersch family, Stephen's son John will illustrate 
how the activities of the people in the Schippel's ferry area ex- 
tended to the northeast. Two miles north and four miles east of 
the original Schippel place, two Serault families settled about 1871. 
An early generation was represented by John, who was born in 
France about 1810 and who died about 1885, and by his wife 
Victoria, born in Normandy in 1827. Their son Charles, born in 
Paris in 1847, was their neighbor. His wife, Emma, was born in 
Champagne in 1850. They had at least five children who were 
brought into the world by their fellow Parisians, the Wary mid- 
wives, to the accompaniment of chatter in French. Charles' fourth 
child was Emily, born in 1878, who became John Giersch's wife. 
The Serault farms were 80-acre affairs "back in the hills," and to 
eke out a living, Charles hired himself out to the hide works in 
Salina, walking the ten miles each way every day. 

This is a rather isolated example of close connection between 
the people at Schippel's ferry and those to the east and northeast. 
Though Gotthart Schippel acquired one farm to the east of John 
Itzen, Itzen himself might be regarded as rather of the New 
Cambria community his land came within one half mile of the 
town. All others as far east as he was or farther definitely belonged 
to New Cambria, and the Seraults and the Callabresis (a French- 
speaking family of Swiss origin) were somewhat stranded in it. 
It was composed of Penn-Germans (notably the Donmyers) and 
Germans (Shank, Juengel) and developed somewhat after the 
Civil War. They were Lutherans and established a church in 
1873 at New Cambria. 18 With the town so near, the settlement at 
the ferry could not remain as self-contained as many foreign settle- 

The group at the ferry tended to spread up the Saline valley to a 
greater degree than down. The Warys spread modestly on the 
western edge of the neighborhood. The name Giersch has dis- 
appeared from present day landowner maps at the original point 
of settlement, but it appears repeatedly in the township to the 
west and even in the township beyond that. The dissemination 
began early 19 and soon passed beyond Saline county. Stephen 

18. Ott, op. cit., p. 128. 

19. As might be expected, the early settlers were hunters, often going on expeditions. 
Stephen Giersch is reputed to have killed the last buffalo in Saline county in 1871. 


Giersch's brother "Little Pete" moved up the river near Tescott and 
Michael went on into Lincoln county. 

To the north there were other German families that settled not 
too long after the Civil War, notably the Hahns, who arrived as 
the war closed. 20 

The point at which settlement started remained a sort of center, 
though practically forgotten, as the neighboring city became more 
and more thriving. 

20. Chas. Christian Hahn (Chapman album, p. 374), born in 1839 in Illinois, home- 
steaded in 1865 on section 28, one and one half miles northeast of the ferry. He was 
one of the charter members of the New Cambria Lutheran Church (Ott, op. cit., p. 128) 
and so may be regarded as of the New Cambria group. 

"Creative Evolution": 

The Philosophy of Elisha Wesley McComas, 
Fort Scott 


THE thinking of three Kansas philosophers, published in book 
form in 1871, has been described briefly in another essay. 1 They 
were T. B. Taylor, Joel Moody, and Edward Schiller. Now a fourth, 
Elisha Wesley McComas, is added to the list. In 1880 his system 
of philosophy matured in book form. These four men were subject 
to similar immediate influences, but each was a unique person, 
with a different background, and each developed his individual 
preferences about the answers given to the most insistent private 
problem of that generation the impact of science upon philosophy 
and theology. The challenge was presented in several forms, but 
particularly by scientifically oriented inquiry into the history of the 
universe ( astronomy ) , of the earth ( historical geology and paleon- 
tology), of all life upon the planet (the biological sciences in the 
developmental sense), of man as a specialized form of life (anthro- 
pology, ethnology, and history based upon archaeology, including 
the development of language), and of philosophy and religion in 
the perspective of all these. 

The extreme materialists insisted that science "proved" that man 
was merely an animal, that life was no more than a temporary chem- 
ical phenomena, that the soul, immortality, and God were myths 
invented by superstitions associated with the childhood of the race. 
If this view were true, were the ethical concepts of good and evil 
no more than social customs? What about the nature of human 
destiny without God? Four years of American Civil War had be- 
come enmeshed in the assumption that human freedom was sacred. 
Was all that a farce? That was a public question, or at any rate a 
public aspect of the question did life have meaning? Each indi- 
vidual must live with himself, and sooner or later, he faces the 
most private of all questions and insists upon answers; does his own 
life have meaning? Is there a life hereafter? A God? 

DR. JAMES C. MALIN, associate editor of The Kansas Historical Quarterly, is professor of 
history at the University of Kansas, 'Lawrence, and is author of books and articles relating to 
Kansas and the West. 

1. James C. Malin, "Three Kansas Phttosophers, 1871 . . .," Kansas Historical Quar- 
terly, v. 24 (Summer, 1958), pp. 168-197. 



E. W. McComas brought to the consideration of this mystery 
a personal background somewhat different from the other three 
philosophers reviewed. In the antebellum days of the Old Do- 
minion, the McComas family was prominent. William McComas 
of Cabell county, Virginia, later West Virginia, raised a large family. 
Two of his sons, William W. and Benjamin J. McComas, chose the 
side of the Confederate States in the American Civil War. Two 
others are of particular concern here: Hamilton Calhoun (1831- 
1883), and Elisha Wesley McComas (1822-1890). 


Judge H. C. McComas was born November 9, 1831; served in 
the llth Virginia infantry, of which his brother, Elisha Wesley Mc- 
Comas, was captain, in the Mexican War; was admitted to the Vir- 
ginia bar soon after attaining his majority, and about 1855 moved 
to Monticello, Piatt county, 111. There he became county judge, 
and during the American Civil War was a lieutenant colonel in an 
Illinois volunteer regiment. In 1868 he arrived in Fort Scott, where 
he became partner in a law firm with J. E. McKeighan, which 
moved to St. Louis in 1876 and was dissolved in 1880 when Judge 
McComas became interested in mines in New Mexico, and, with 
another brother, Rufus McComas, of Nebraska City, Neb., settled 
in Silver City, N. M. 

In 1869 Judge McComas married Juniatta (Junie) Maria Ware 
(1846-1883), sister of Eugene Ware. For a time, prior to opening 
his own law office, Eugene Ware was a clerk with the law firm of 
McComas and McKeighan. In 1872 Judge McComas was nom- 
inated for the office of chief justice of the Kansas supreme court 
as a Democrat on the fusion Liberal Republican-Democratic ticket. 
On March 28, 1883, near Lordsburg, N. M., Judge and Mrs. Mc- 
Comas were murdered by Apache Indians, and their son, Charles, 
was taken captive and presumably killed. Judge McComas left 
two sons, David and William, by an earlier marriage, and two 
daughters, Ada (born December 25, 1870) and Mary (born May, 
1873), who were first taken into the home of Mr. and Mrs. Eugene 
Ware, and later were reared by their grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. 
H. B. Ware. 2 

2. Obituary and funeral notices, Fort Scott Daily Monitor, March 30, April 8, 10, 1883; 
Fort Scott Banner, April 5, 12, 1883. Rumors about the fate of Charles McComas, Daily 
Monitor, April 15, 21, 1883; Banner, May 17, September 20, November 8, 1883; Fort Scott 
Daily Tribune, April 18, 22, 1892. Temporary law partnerships are noted with Sen. M. V. 
Yulo' w . eek1 V Monitor, March 17, 1869; with A. Danford, Daily Monitor, December 28, 
1869. U. S. census, 1870 (Ms.), Fort Scott city, Bourbon county, Kansas, p. 15; Kansas 
State census, 1875 (Ms.), Fort Scott, Bourbon county, Kansas, p. 50. Marriage of Junie 


III. E. W. MCCOMAS, 1822-1890 

When E. W. McComas died, March 11, 1890, at Fort Scott, al- 
though he had lived an active life there for 20 years, little appears 
to have been known about his early life, even by his children. An 
obituary notice was hastily and imperfectly compiled from scrap- 
books, by J. B. Chapman, editor of the Democratic Daily Tribune. 
At first, even his birth date could not be determined. The Monitor 
explained that: "Governor McComas, during his life of nearly 70 
years, wrote nothing concerning himself and deplored any effort 
to obtain a knowledge of his active, useful life/' The present 
writer has not had the benefit of the scrapbooks, and Chapman did 
not see fit to reconstruct in any detail the aspects of the governor's 
early life recorded there. 

E. W. McComas was born in Cabell county, Virginia (since 1863, 
West Virginia), presumably on January 21, 1822. Mrs. McComas 
was born Ariana P. Holderby on January 22, 1823, at Guyandotte, 
Va., daughter of James Holderby. She was married at Huntington, 
Va., September 8, 1842, died at Fort Scott, March 11, 1885, and was 
buried according to the rites of the Episcopal church. For many 
years an invalid, her husband shaped his later life in part out of 
consideration for her care. Upon her passing the comment was 
made: "Her decline had been a protracted one, but her physical 
sufferings were wonderfully light and her death most painless and 
peaceful." Beyond that, the nature of her illness was not explained. 
She left five children, three sons, Henry, Walter, and Gordon, and 
two daughters, Alice (Mrs. W. R. Reed) and Ella (Mrs. E. Upjohn). 

E. W. McComas was educated at Ohio University, Athens, 
Ohio, admitted to the bar in Cabell county, Virginia, in 1842, served 
as captain of the llth Virginia infantry in the Mexican War, was 
wounded and captured, and was discharged July 20, 1848. Drawn 
into politics, he was elected to the Virginia senate, and in 1855 
was elected lieutenant governor of Virginia as running mate of Gov. 
Henry A. Wise, the terms running 1856-1860. In 1857 McComas 
resigned and moved to Chicago and a successful law practice. No 
explanation of his resignation has been discovered. That document, 
addressed to the governor, read: "I hereby tender my resignation 

Ware, Weekly Monitor, March 17, 1869. Candidacy of 1872, D. W. Wilder, Annals of Kan- 
sas (1886), pp. 580, 587. Letter: Mrs. George W. Johnson, Charles Town, W. Va., to 
James C. Malin, April 25, 1956. She is Mary M. McKendrie, daughter of Irene McComas, a 
sister of H. C. and E. W. McComas. For a short time, Irene McComas, aged 27, was a 
teacher in Fort Scott. U. S. census (Ms.), 1870, Bourbon county, city of Fort Scott, third 
ward, p. 12. The Kansas census, 1885 (Ms.), Bourbon county, city of Fort Scott, listed Ada 
and Mary McComas, aged 13 and 11 respectively, as making their home with Mr. and Mrs. 
H. B. Ware, aged 68 and 70. Ada McComas was married at the Eugene Ware home, April 
4, 1890, to Grant Hazelton. Fort Scott Daily Tribune, April 5, 1890; Fort Scott Daily 
News, April 5, 1890. 


of the office of Lt. Governor of Virginia/' Endorsed upon the let- 
ter, however, Governor Wise recorded its receipt, March 21, and 
this explanation: "The above is accompanied by a letter of a pri- 
vate character. . . ." The private letter itself, however, is miss- 
ing from the files. Probably, in the society to which they belonged, 
the code applicable to what was public and what was private pre- 
vailed, and such a confidential note, having served its purpose, was 
destroyed. Wise acknowledged the resignation and accepted it on 
the day of its receipt: "I regret that it leaves me no discretion or 
election about its acceptance. It is positive and immediate and 
will take effect at once. . . ." The press does not seem to have 
commented upon the reasons for McComas' departure. 

At Chicago, just turned 35, this young Virginian quickly gained a 
prominent position in the legal profession, and when Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, purchased control, February 17, 1860, of the Chicago 
Daily Herald, McComas was made political editor, a position he 
continued to hold when McCormick acquired the Daily Times and 
combined the two papers as the Times and Herald, July 31, 1860. 
The HeralcFs political policy, under the purchase agreement of 
February 17, 1860, was to unify the Democratic party, but, after the 
conventions at Charleston in April and in Baltimore in June failed 
to achieve agreement upon one candidate, the Herald, and later 
the Times and Herald, supported Douglas. 

The focus of the strategy was the defeat of Lincoln in the elec- 
toral college by throwing the decision into the Democratic house 
of representatives, or, if that body could not agree, into the senate. 
In the first instance, the choice was expected to fall to Breckinridge, 
but failing that, to Joseph Lane at the hands of the senate. The 
preference of McCormick and his editor, McComas, was Breckin- 
ridge, but the latter's support in Illinois was too slight to make 
headway against Lincoln hence the Times-Herald support of 
Douglas in the stop-Lincoln strategy. After the election in No- 
vember, 1860, the Times-Herald co-operated with Douglas in seek- 
ing a compromise solution of the secession crisis. By May, 1861, 
McCormick was ready to sell the paper, and did sell it as of June 1, 
1861, to Wilbur F. Storey, the transfer occurring June 8. McComas 
retired from the editorship. 

For present purposes, scarcely anything is known about Mc- 
Comas' activities in Chicago during the war years 1861-1865. Ap- 
parently he continued to be adversely critical of Lincoln and the 
conduct of the war. In 1864 General George B. McClellan was 
the Democratic nominee for president on a platform which de- 


clared the war a failure and called for an immediate peace. Me- 
Cormick was the Democratic candidate for congress. Organized 
labor, in which the Germans were conspicuous, launched a Gen- 
eral Trades Assembly in Chicago to co-ordinate the activities of the 
several local labor unions. McComas was influential in the activi- 
ties of the assembly which encouraged the formation of a labor 
party, but in this instance he supported McCormick as the prolabor 
candidate for congress, losing again to Republican John Went- 
worth. 3 

McComas returned to his old home area, now West Virginia, but 
not to Cabell county. He took up residence at Charles Town, 
Kanawha county, by that time the home of the Holderbys, Mrs. 
McComas' family, and of Judge David McComas, an uncle, with 
whom he practiced law. After the death of his father in 1868, he 
moved to Nebraska where his brother Rufus lived, and then, in 
1870 or 1871 to Fort Scott, Kan., where his elder brother, H. C. 
McComas, was established. In Fort Scott the governor avoided 
politics and journalism. In fact, he lived a life of relative retirement, 
devoting himself to his family, farm, and studies. But he found 
time to promote the interests of the city of Fort Scott. 4 

Very quickly Governor McComas impressed the people of his 
new home with his intellectual attainments. During the winter of 
1874-1875, a home-talent lecture series included him, February 1, 
1875, with the subject: "Enfranchisement of Women, Involving the 
Whole Question of the Proper Social and Political Relations and 
Equality of the Sexes." As the issue of the Daily Monitor for 
February 2, which should have reported the lecture, is missing from 

3. Bessie Pierce, A History of Chicago, 3 vols. (New York, 1937, 1940, 1957), v. 2, pp. 
168, 169. In addition to the Pierce book which touches only incidentally upon McComas in 
1864, the Chicago period of McComas' career has been compiled from a number of sources, 
primary and secondary, which disagree in some instances even on dates. The Virginia His- 
torical Society (Richmond) and the West Virginia Department of Archives and History 
(Charleston) do not have pertinent material about E. W. McComas. Letters to present 
writer, March 23, 1956, and April 9, 1956, respectively. The Virginia State Library (Rich- 
mond) has the McComas letter of resignation bearing the endorsement referred to, and a 
copy of Wise's acceptance, but no comment upon the resignation was found in the press of 
the time. Letter to author, April 3, 1956. Mrs. George W. Johnson (see previous note), 
Charles Town, W. Va., to author, April 26, 1956, provided data from family records. Two 
biographical circulars were filed with the Kansas State Historical Society by members of the 
McComas family at Fort Scott, one dated September 13, 1892. The McComas obituary 
notice, compiled by J. B. Chapman, appeared in the Fort Scott Daily Tribune, March 11, 
1890, and in the Daily Monitor, March 12, 1890. The assumption in this obituary, that 
McComas was an intimate friend of Stephen A. Douglas, is probably an error. In the shift- 
ing political scene, McComas was opponent and advocate of Douglas as strategy required. 
No direct evidence of private friendship is available. Chapman made a number of errors 
of fact in his hasty sketch. Not only the activities of E. W. McComas during his sojourn in 
Chicago, 1857-1865, but a fresh evaluation of the whole Chicago political situation in that 
period is needed as an intensive local study, oriented to the national perspective. Among 
other things, as an advocate of the candidacy of Douglas, after the nomination at Baltimore, 
in June, 1860, McComas, as editor of the Times-Herald, was caught in the vicious, nativist, 
anti-Catholic drive of Lincoln's Chicago mouthpiece, the Tribune. 

4. The biographical circulars, referred to in an earlier note, gave 1871 as tibe date of 
removal to Kansas, but the other sources cited gave the date as 1870. 


the files, all that is known about its contents is the "teaser" printed 
the day before its delivery: 

The lecturer holds to what is known as "The development theory of society." 
According to this theory mankind is constantly not only progressing intellec- 
tually and morally, but steadily improving and destined in the course of time 
to arrive at a state nearly akin to moral, intellectual and social perfection. The 
enfranchisement of women is a thing not only right in itself, but it is demanded 
now, by this unrepealable law of progress and development, which cannot be 
resisted, and must therefore, sooner or later, be obeyed. Mr. McComas, as 
has been heretofore stated, is an old man, a student and a thinker. Many of 
his audience will doubtless disagree with his views, but they cannot fail to be 
entertained and instructed by his lecture, as it will be the result of close ob- 
servation, and much reading and reflection. 

This "old man," as the editor deprecatingly referred to the 
governor, was just 11 days past 53 years of age, but in partial ex- 
tenuation of the brash young journalist, the point may be made 
that the average life expectancy in 1875 was much less than in 1958. 
Men and women past 45 were frequently, if not usually, referred 
to as "old." McComas had not yet reached his maturity in philo- 
sophical thought if this paragraph were even approximately ac- 
curate. Later he repudiated expressly the "Idea of Progress." Such 
belief as he may have held in it was probably only a passing stage 
in his intellectual development. 

The following winter, 1875-1876, McComas again participated 
in the lecture series, offering, March 2, 1876, "The Origin and 
Development of Religion." The Monitor editor's cautious comment, 
in announcing the event, read: "He will present in the most forci- 
ble, as well as courteous, manner the advanced theories concerning 
the doctrines of the Christian religion." No direct summary of the 
lecture was reported, but something of its impact was revealed in 
contrast with a discourse on "The Evolution Theory as Related 
to the Origin of the Christian Religion," delivered by the Rev. P. F. 
Warner, on Sunday, March 26, at the Congregational church. War- 
ner had presided at the Opera House when Governor McComas 
had delivered his lecture and the public was interested in his views 
on the same subject. 5 

After the event, the Conservative Republican Monitor, March 28, 
said only that many persons spoke in highly complimentary terms 
of Warner's effort. It was left to the Democratic Pioneer, March 30, 
an economic Radical paper to report, with obvious unspoken res- 
ervations, upon both McComas and Warner: 

5. Warner and another of his discourses has been discussed in another context in James 
C. Malin, The Contriving Brain and the Skilful Hand (Lawrence, The Author, 1955), p. 422. 


The Governor attempted to explain all religious creeds and doctrines as 
the natural result of man's development and growth, or rather the outgrowth 
of man's own nature; and the nature of that religion was a sure indication of 
the degree of his intellectual advancement. 

Evidently Warner's strategy had been first to criticize McComas' 
lecture, adversely, and then to urge the case for traditional religion: 

From Mr. Warner's lecture Sunday morning, we judge he saw fully and 
forcibly the tendency and necessary result of that doctrine. He saw that it 
aimed a death blow to what is termed revealed religion. It necessarily took 
from it everything supernatural; accounting for all its phases and even doc- 
trines as the result of natural growth of man's mind, the same as the potato 
is the growth of the potato vine. 

On what seems to have been the positive side of the debate, the 
summary stated that: 

Mr. Warner made a very able defense of revealed, supernatural religion. 
He was at times very eloquent, and interesting throughout. He did not hesi- 
tate to attack the philosophy of the scientists, and show up the seeming weak 
points in the theory of evolution. 

Whether or not for editorial strategy's sake, or because he was 
unsure in his own mind, the Pioneer editor concluded: 

While it is not for us to determine who is right in this argument we cer- 
tainly admire the man who has the ability and courage to defend his position, 
and to do it in a manly way, as did Mr. Warner. We would now like to hear 
Gov. McComas again. 

Within the week the Pioneer editor did talk to McComas about 
the subject and announced in his next weekly issue that the gov- 
ernor had another lecture on evolution and might deliver it soon. 
The lecture series was being poorly supported, or other reasons 
may have intervened, but in any case, the proposal for an additional 
lecture was dropped. The following year the suggestion was made 
again, the Monitor saying that McComas had lectured twice to Fort 
Scott people, "and instructed them too. We are entirely convinced 
that the conclusion of his favorite system of philosophy is erroneous, 
but is always thoughtful and deeply interesting." 6 

In the press notices the McComas philosophy was described as 
representing the developmental theory of society, but Warner used 
in his title the term "evolution theory." During the decade of the 
1870's, the words "development" and "evolution" were sometimes 
used interchangeably, but they were not equivalents. "Develop- 
ment" was the more comprehensive term, which had been popu- 
larized by Herbert Spencer from the time of the original publica- 

6. Daily Monitor, February 21, 1877. 


tion of his book Social Statics in early 1851 the universe and life 
upon earth were the product of change and development. Charles 
Darwin's Origin of Species, published in 1859, is usually credited 
with launching the theory of evolution, but he did not use the 
term evolution. His emphasis was upon modification by "natural 
selection." The general use of the term evolution spread slowly, 
and so far as applied to Darwin's ideas emphasized organic evolu- 
tion, rather than the larger and earlier concept of development of 
society as used by Spencer. In the Kansas setting, Darwin was 
seldom mentioned until after the publication of his Descent of Man, 
in 1871, and even then relatively infrequently during the 1870's. 
When McComas took over the term "evolution" in his book pub- 
lications, his concept was primarily that of Spencer. These chang- 
ing usages of language are important to history and should not be 
confused by the prepossessions of the 20th century reader. 

The thinking that Governor McComas was doing was more com- 
prehensive by far than anything indicated by the press reports of 
his lectures. The Fort Scott Herald, September 4, 1879, reported 
his return from New York where he had arranged for the publica- 
tion of two books on a system of theology: "He has worked a long 
time on them, and the theories which he lays down will startle the 
people everywhere." Their preparation represented a significantly 
wide range of reading and criticism of the literature of science, phi- 
losophy, and theology. The constructive thinking and the organi- 
zation of abstract ideas required time. This creative operation was 
in active progress during the decade of the 1870's. Early in 1880 
the two books were published in New York City: A Rational View 
of Jesus and Religion (706 pages), and The Divine Problem (491 
pages ) . 7 The first review, written from advance sheets, was printed 
in the Daily Monitor, February 22, 1880, and the Herald, March 11, 
1880, said the books were currently available at the local bookstores. 


The person who reads through the whole of the descriptive title 
of the first of McComas' books to be reviewed here was left no 
illusions about its nature and major conclusions: A Rational View 
of Jesus and Religion, Embracing an Examination of the Origin and 
Rationale of Religious Beliefs and of the Claims of Super-naturalism 
and Revealed Religions; and a Solution of the Mysteries Enshroud- 
ing the Christian Faith, and the Birth, Life, Character, and Sup- 

7. The publisher was John Wurtele Lovell. 


posed Miracles and Resurrection of Its Founder. McComas was 
as candid and unassuming as Edward Schiller had been in 1871: 
"The work has no pretentions to erudition or literary merit," he 
confessed, the information as such was abundantly available and 
if it possessed any merit it was in the employment of direct, rational, 
and candid methods to aid the reader "to an insight into the 'true 
inwardness* of facts already accessible/' He insisted that truth 
was not palatable, especially "on subjects upon which men's bias, 
partisanship and prejudice are so extreme as in matters of religion. 
. . . Men are rarely so interested in right thinking as in agree- 
able thinking . . . new facts and fine writing." The latter 
would only divert attention from the requirements of the case, 
correct thinking, which were "antagonistic to fine writing." 

Religious beliefs had their origin and development "in man's 
imperishable love of life and his aspirations for a higher, a har- 
monious, and an assured individual existence. . . . No amount 
of education can eradicate it." McComas credited Herbert Spencer 
with demonstrating this basic fact, but McComas went further. For 
him the immortal soul and God were fundamental, only human 
notions about them changed, but not the basic idea as fact. He 
recognized that skepticism performed a limited function inasmuch 
as "Reason is first destructive, before it is reconstructive," but: 
"The human soul cannot live upon negation. Its natural life food 
is affirmative belief." McComas traced the development of religion 
from primitive man's blind fear, through Fetishism, Shamanism, 
anthropomorphism, to the Egyptian idea of oneness "ultimate 
Essential Existence" which, in merging with Israelitic polytheism, 
became the Judaic monotheism. Christianity had nothing new to 
offer in theology and ethics, but according to McComas, it did 
afford "a new and higher assurance a practical proof of a future 
life, and a sure mode of their escaping the consequences of earthly 
. . . sins and securing endless beatitude," in other words: 
"The fact is, men's hells, like their heavens, are but reflexes of their 
own natures." Christianity provided the new assurance of things 
already believed: "What was needed was a case of unquestioned 
actual death, and . . . a self-resurrection. . . ." 

Was the case of resurrection claimed by Christianity genuine? 
McComas examined the evidence according to the canons of 
historical criticism and arrived at a devastating negative verdict, 
following particularly the path blazed by David Frederick Strauss 
( 1808-1874 ) , and Ernest Renan ( 1823-1892 ) . He used Henry Ward 


Beecher's work, also, so far as it had gone when, according to 
McComas, Beecher's courage and integrity failed him. 

McComas decided that credulity was the primary criterion upon 
which Jesus selected his disciples, and the evidence of death and 
resurrection was promulgated by oral tradition for the first century 
before the conflicting accounts were written. In the fifth century 
the selection was made from these accounts, which then for the first 
time came to be accepted as the inspired word in spite of their 
contradictions, which incidentally, aided in the reconstruction of 
historical reality. 

According to McComas, it was the resurrection myth that en- 
dowed Christianity with peculiar significance, and that he insisted 
was clearly an afterthought: "We should judge Jesus as a man as 
a man of the time, country, religion and social class to which he 
belonged as a man subject to the conditions, influences, errors 
and frailties incident to his humanity." McComas maintained that 
only the social and political views of Jesus were new or singular, 
not his religious or moral ideas. This conclusion focused attention 
on the economic and social status of Jesus, a carpenter, born to 
poverty: "The socialistic notions of Jesus were very pronounced 
and fixed. . . . He repeatedly and serially denounced every 
class of the Jewish people, save the simple and credulous poor who 
believed in him. ... he uniformly proposed, not merely to de- 
stroy distinctions, but to reverse conditions. . . ." He was no 
equalitarian. At this point, in an aside, McComas exclaimed: "But, 
How could a divine or perfect being proclaim such utterly imprac- 
ticable doctrines?" And what had Christians done about it? "They 
dare not defend the doctrines . . ."he taught and practiced. 
As a social and political agitator, Jesus was dangerous to the Jewish 
leaders, but not to Rome. Thus in sequence, following Beecher, 
Jesus had first been a healer; then an adventist preaching the com- 
ing of the "Kingdom of God"; and finally he became convinced that 
he was himself the Messiah. At that stage in the exposition Mc- 
Comas took over where he insisted Beecher would not follow the 
evidence, and McComas interpreted the "miracles" as fictitious a 
last desperate effort on the part of a deluded Jesus, by fraud, to 
convince the public of his supernatural nature. McComas ad- 
monished his readers: "Judge him leniently thenceforth." 

Pontius Pilate was represented by McComas as trying to save 
Jesus from the vengeance of the Jewish leaders, yielding to the 
crucifixion only under pressure, and even then secretly and sue- 


cessfully plotting to have the centurion and Joseph of Aramathea 
to so manage the crucifixion as to prevent his death. After re- 
covery from the ordeal he did not die on the cross, according to 
McComas Jesus did actually present himself to his disciples, and 
then disappeared from history. Myth-making did the rest. It was 
this fictitious "Resurrection," as McComas represented it, that be- 
came the taproot and foundation of Christianity as a religion the 
response to the demands of men for assurance of immortality and 
of rewards and punishments adequate to compensate for the suffer- 
ing and apparent meaninglessness of earthly existence. People be- 
lieved, as he put it, only what they wanted so desperately to believe 
resurrection as the proof, absolutely, of immortality. 


In his preface to The Divine Problem, McComas took his text 
from Louis Agassiz: "We have reached a point where the results 
of Science touch the problem of existence, and all thoughtful men 
are listening for the verdict which solves the great mystery." The 
existential mystery was described by McComas in the starkest 
terms of realism, opening in these words: 

Human life and destiny, as well, indeed, as the course and conditions of all 
mundane life, are profoundly unsatisfactory to the human mind. The perpetual 
and self-devouring war which Nature seems to wage within herself, . . . 
the dreadful struggle for life . . ., and the universal reign of sin, de- 
formity and death, constitute a standing mystery to the human mind, and have 
never ceased to excite both the wonder and fear of man, and to call forth the 
profoundest protest of both his moral and intellectual nature. 

To all the explanations offered: "Reason has never ceased to enter 
its final protest, and to flatly reject the very possibility of a perpetual 
strife and misery ... in the creations of an infinite and ab- 
solute God. . . ." Man insisted upon asking: Why are things 
as they are? To the question: "Was it blind Chance?" McComas 
answered, no. If it was the work of an uncreated malignant Spirit, 
then the unanswerable question was: "Why should any uncreated 
Spirit be malignant?" If it was the work of a created Spirit: "Why 
should God create such a spirit?'' Attempted answers only added 
to the irrationality of the mystery. 

What men had done nevertheless had been "to shield God from 
what they supposed to be so odious a responsibility." Hence they 
represented God as a wronged Creator whom "nothing short of di- 
vine agony and blood could finally appease and atone. ... To 
avoid blasphemy they rushed into the most direct and concentrated 
of all blasphemies; and so misdirected human thought by their well- 


intentioned, but really blasphemous explanations. . . ." Only 
when this superstition and its fear were eradicated could there be 
any "approach to the real solution. . . ." 

But McComas was not vindictive, and neither did he indulge in 
malicious accusations: "If the Fathers failed, they failed earnestly, 
and with sufficient apology. If we fail, either in earnest effort or 
in success, our apology will be immeasurably less. What we now 
need, and feel that we need, is an utterly new and untrammelled 
rational interpretation of Nature and of her methods and designs, 
under the lights of modern science/' But McComas asserted that 
scientists "seem to have . . . clearly evaded" the opportunity 
or the responsibility, although they had "clearly laid the foundation" 
for this task. The reason alleged for this default was "a bitter Ex- 
perience of the power and proclivities of Superstition [which] has 

driven Science to fence itself off from Philosophy and Theology. 

McComas insisted that, as intellectual enterprise, the mystery of 
existence was soluble, and that it was possible 

to reconcile the reason of a developing and rising Humanity to the divine cre- 
ative purposes and methods, by demonstrating that natural evolution is also 
a Divine Evolution, and that it is, in its totality and in all its parts, just what 
it should be and must have been, namely: divinely wise and beneficient. In 
short, we need a rational theory of Universal Being which shall at once ne- 
cessitate and account for all the known phenomena of the Universe in con- 
formity with the agency and designs of a Beneficent Intelligence, with the 
existence of an immortal soul in all self-conscious and suffering mortals, and 
with the fundamental aspirations of the human soul itself. This is what I 
intend to supply is what I hope and believe I have supplied. 

On one aspect of the problem McComas was devoid of illusions: 
"it is quite beyond hope that the method and style of its presenta- 
tion should encourage or entertain the Reader." But he was 
fortified by a resignation born of "prolonged suffering and pros- 
tration" and the philosophical humility of a man who had achieved 
nevertheless a private sense of peace with God: "The Theory is 
in no hurry. Being ingrained and registered in the very warp and 
woof of Nature, and ready for man whenever man is ready for it, 
there is no fear of its being lost, even if I fail to win for it appre- 
ciation and success." 

A bare outline statement of the McComas system might make it 
appear deceptively simple and naive, when, in fact it was nothing 
of the kind. It represented the mastery of a vast amount of scien- 
tific philosophical and theological literature, and was no more 
naive than the works it was refuting. Furthermore, it was not 


negative, and in its positive aspects offered a conception of "Crea- 
tive Evolution" in an "Unfinished Universe" not clearly formulated 
elsewhere at that date. 

Largely, McComas used Herbert Spencer's Principles of Psy- 
chology and Principles of Biology as foils. McComas admired 
Spencer, but insisted that his materialism fell short of a sound 
philosophy; life, consciousness, and persistent identity of self were 
not explained, nor was the ethical chaos of relativism surmounted. 8 

McComas started with three problems about which, generally, 
men of all ages were concerned in some form, however much they 
differed in explanations: the soul, a self-conscious self; the mind, 
somehow related to the brain; and the body, through which the 
others operated. The psychicalists insisted that the soul existed 
without extension, and independently of matter, time, and space. 
Among other things, this view broke down over the problem of 
dualism, the relation between soul and matter. The scientific ma- 
terialists discarded soul, and concentrated upon mind as localized 
in the brain, invoking unknowable cosmic force having its source 
in one unknowable substance. This was Spencer's view, and the 
most competent in the materialist camp, so McComas argued that 
if Spencer was refuted the whole materialist case broke down. 
Spencer's weakest point, in McComas' estimation, was the dis- 
carding of soul which made impossible an accounting, among other 
things, for the persistent self-conscious self, individuality, and the 
surmounting of relativism. 

The McComas system was a monism, based upon the concept of 
atoms, which might be differently organized and related in order 
to account respectively for spirit and for matter. The soul and the 

8. A distinction should be made between the two types of relativism then in vogue, the 
English utilitarian tradition, an expediency philosophy, especially in the form given it by Wil- 
liam Paley (1743-1805). Spencer denounced the expediency philosophy of Paley in particu- 
lar. In his concept of Social Statics, Spencer insisted that ethical principles were absolutes, 
but they presupposed a perfect man in a perfect world. In the existing imperfection of both, 
Spencer stressed the point that man did not face a choice between absolute good and evil, but 
must live in the world as he found it, and what he faced was a practical choice of the lesser 
evil among possible courses all of which were evil. In this unhappy situation Spencer specified 
that his guide should be the greatest freedom for himself coupled inseparably with responsi- 
bility for an equal freedom for others. 

This principle of correlative responsibility in Spencer's ethics is the aspect which is usually 
minimized or ignored altogether, and upon which he has been most unjustly misrepresented, 
especially by those historians of ideas who generalize about what is miscalled Social Dar- 
winism. These differentiations are essential to an understanding of Spencer. He maintained 
that man had developed through untold thousands of years to reach his present condition, but 
would be required to strive for yet unknown thousands of years before attaining the condition 
where the absolute principles of social statics were practicable. In the meantime he must 
make the best possible use of the relativism of Social Dynamics and the choice of the lesser 
of evils. Consult particularly Spencer's Social Statics (authorized American edition, 1865). 
The preface to the American edition and the final chapter clarify his position on the differ- 
entiation between Social Statics and Social Dynamics. In his later writings, Spencer made 
this differentiation more explicit, but they came after McComas had written his books. Mc- 
Comas attacked Spencer's relativism from a different angle, and struck at a fatal defect, but 
nevertheless was not altogether fair to Spencer on the matter of relativism. 


physical organs of intelligence, both atom-structured, were found 
in mortal man in one phase of "an illimitable and endless career 
of psychical education and development first in mortal chrysalis 
forms, and finally as a free spirit." 

Atoms were in motion according to general laws; time and space 
were derivatives of motion, absolute and relative, so-called real 
objects "are various, formal areas of motion. . . . Some phase 
of psychical change or motion, as perceived, must be the mental 
object. . . . There can be nothing but Being, and its motions 
and the feeling and knowledge of them/' Also, he stated that "in- 
telligent motion or self-evolution is the sole manifestation and end- 
less life-mode of Infinite Being." In other words: that the uni- 
verse is "an Infinite Being in intelligent motion a self-evolving, 
intelligent Infinite!" 

When McComas asserted absolutely that "I regard the Universe 
as a unique whole, existing in a process of law-governed and di- 
vinely intelligent self-evolution," he posed a problem of reconciling 
such a law-governed system with the individual persistent self-con- 
scious self, the immortal soul. He denied free will in the conven- 
tional sense as "arbitrary and capricious mental action," which was 
incompatible with a law-governed universe. But until the minds of 
men were freed from this false sense of freedom "there can be [no] 
hope of securing ultimate conceptions or a possibility of a rational 
or final solution of the profounder problems of Existence. That 
which is, is always of necessity. The Future is as definitely certain 
as the Past or Present. . . ." He had no illusions about the 
immediate liberation of the mind education, habit, time, and the- 
ology were formidable but he would bide his time and reverse 
Jefferson's aphorism by saying: "Truth cannot be dangerous so 
long as error is left free to combat it." 

Having based his system upon the atom, law-governed, as the 
unit, individuality was introduced and McComas insisted that 
variety was insured absolutely, in unique complex combinations, 
and no two organisms could possibly be exactly alike: "If an in- 
complete organism which is still developing and constantly chang- 
ing, and which is subjected to constantly changing states, condi- 
tions and influences, should act with the mechanical completeness 
and precision of an atom ... it would be acting capriciously 
and lawlessly. To be law-governed is not to act in any particular 
mode, or always in the same mode, but to always act in some defi- 
nite and natural mode, according to the inducements, causes and 
conditions then existing." Thus, in emphasizing uniqueness within 


a law-governed universe, McComas was running directly against 
the tide of 18th and 19th century concepts of equality and uniformity 
both in their natural science and social science aspects: 

There must be adequacy, inevitability and consistency, and not equality and 
uniformity. To be law-governed, therefore, we should expect an incomplete, 
growing and changing structure like the psychical organism, especially when 
acting through such an organism as the human body and brain and under 
. . . circumstances of human life, to exhibit corresponding changes in its 
own action and greater or less difference from the action of other organisms 
differently circumstanced, and in different stages of growth and culture. 

McComas insisted that: "The recognition of the atomic composi- 
tion of Matter, of its indestructibility, and of its persistent and con- 
structive activities, rendered the recognition of some theory of 
Evolution only a question of time/' Also he recognized that such a 
revolutionary concept would arouse violent hostility, but even that, 
he pointed out, was valuable: "Doubtless, it was well that a theory 
so all-embracing and so revolutionary in its results should estab- 
lish itself under the most exacting and vigorous conditions and 
tests. . . ." 

Spencer's definition of life was rejected as inadequate in favor 
of F. W. J. Schelling's (1775-1854) view that life is a "tendency to 
individuation." Whether viewed from either aspect, the atomic 
units or the Infinite Intelligence, "one homogeneous Being" was 
involved and the process as applied to both, man or the Infinite, was 
one of "creative evolution" McComas' own term, but: "During 
these evolutions, there is neither loss nor increase of essential Sub- 
stance, but only continual unions, dissolutions and re-unions con- 
tinual transformations and reformations of existing forms and ma- 
terials, resulting in the progressive evolution of forms and struc- 
tures of greater complexity, definiteness and unity. . . ." 

The scientific materialists objected to all nonmaterialistic systems 
as man centered: 

Indeed, it seems to have become fashionable ... to speak with a fine 
disinterestedness and contempt of the pretensions and pretentiousness of man. 
. . . It is the cant of the day to speak of man as a mere ephemeral speck 
upon the unpretentious little orb which he inhabits as without significance 
among the mighty worlds and world-evolutions environing him. But, if man be 
indeed but an insignificant speck among these more stupendous . . . 
worlds where shall we hope to find the true, or any significance in the Uni- 
verse? Man, as viewed by the materialists, is indeed an Insignificance, but 
his being so, leaves the world a soulless Stupidity. 9 

9. In his book, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth Century Philosophers (1932), Carl 
Becker made fashionable again among students of the theory of history this type of cynical 
characterization of man "a chance deposit," a helpless "foundling in the cosmos" abandoned 
by the forces that created him to flounder in a neutral universe of relativism. Even without 


At this point, certain aspects of the McComas argument may be 
recapitulated. Atoms, law-governed, enter into variant combina- 
tions. This assumption, that atoms may be organized into different 
combinations, opened the way for resulting structures to assume 
different properties. Thus was resolved the problem of matter and 
spirit, both atom-structured. Assuming that life is a tendency to 
individuation, and that all life is conscious, but not necessarily self- 
conscious, the point critical to the development of life into a self- 
conscious self is when it becomes self-conscious. With that transi- 
tion, a new order of magnitude, continuity of life begins the soul 
and its immortality. The breakthrough is achieved by means of 
the operation of unpredictable, unique combinations of atomed 
structures. The number of combinations being mathematically 
unlimited, although law-governed, were unpredictable in their pos- 
sibilities. Creativity is the consequence of these two principles 
unlimited number and variety of combinations of atoms, and the 
consequent unpredictability of the particular individual combina- 
tions which guarantee that each self-conscious self must be unique, 
absolutely, although acquiring continuity of life. 

McComas could not accept the materialists' mode of assessing 
compensations within the ruthlessness of evolution, 
the few, fleeting and unsatisfying pleasures which accompany them ere Death 
has swept his victims away . . ., and yet, we are told that the individuals 
who toiled and suffered to win human progress are to be personally rewarded 
with annihilation; while those who enjoy that progress will receive it as an 
unearned gratuity. And even these undeserving heirs of progress can only 
taste and perish. ... If these be indeed the only results of evolution, it 
may well be said "there is no God;" however impossible it might be to divest 
ourselves of the conviction of demoniac agency. 

This view of the universe was totally unacceptable to McComas, 
this demoniac concept: 

When we reflect upon the countless ages past and the countless ages yet to 
come during which innumerable myriads of human beings and a still more 
innumerable tide of lower conscious and suffering animals have drifted, and 
must continue to drift, into Time, in vast successive shoals like on-coming sea 
waves upon a shoreless sea, [it was inconceivable that they had] only to hope, 
toil, suffer, despair, and finally end their fleeting, delusive and disappointing 
lives in annihilation! . . . 

One of the major tasks undertaken by McComas was to resolve 
the difficulty of reconciling the finite and the Infinite the relative 

referring back to the ancient Greek Sophists, in the modern context the idea was so old that it 
was new to the generation for whom Becker was writing. 

For consideration of 20th century usage of the idea by Carl Becker and others, see James 
C. Malin, On the Nature of History (1954), chs. 1, 3, and 8, and The Contriving Brain and 
the SkiUful Hand (1955), ch. 11. 


and the absolute in all their manifold aspects. He represented 
Spencer as regarding "our entire knowledge as relative, and as 
merely representative of unknown modes of an unknowable Realty. 
. . ." Yet, in Spencers own words "its universal presence is the 
absolute fact without which there can be no relative facts." 
Spencer's concept of mind was no more than an aggregate of states 
of consciousness; in other words, there was no "persistent conscious 
self to provide continuity of development. McComas denied "in- 
nate or intuitive ideas, but insisted upon "instinctive or developed 
aptitudes which produce very similar results." Furthermore, he 
posited that there was no limit to developed aptitudes. For the 
orientation of the reader, he offered a preliminary formulation of his 
conception of the individual and the universe: 

. . . I regard the Universe as a unique whole, existing in a process of law- 
governed and divinely intelligent self-evolution; that the organization of the 
germinal Soul or Self is the controlling event in the course of prior physical 
evolution the goal of one provisional cycle of physical progress and the 
initiation of an endless psychical progression; that, as the first and only in- 
destructible organism and the first self-sustained vitality and conscious personal 
Intelligence, and one destined to an endless development, the soul itself must 
constitute the solution or demonstration of a Divine Conception, and that this 
germ of personal intelligence is inherently possessed of the necessary attributes 
or capacities for progressively acquiring a true knowledge of the Universe from 
the experiences won from its various environments and imposed by prede- 
termined conditions and causes. I conceive, that this germ of an immortal 
Intelligence or Spirit commences its career in a bodily organism, with a direct 
and conscious knowledge of its own vital individuality ... as will enable 
it ... to progressively develop its own organization and powers, and 
to form more . . . exact and truer conceptions of the objects of knowl- 
edge . . .; and that, while neither . . . necessarily true or complete 
similitudes of the real objects, yet that the fully-developed conception becomes 
complete and true. . . . 

McComas conceived of a "progressively developed harmony be- 
tween" the subjective and objective worlds: 

So that, although the Soul is seemingly compelled to experimentally work its 
way up through countless delusive perceptions and false provisional conceptions, 
these conceptions can never permanently register their false influences in its 
organism, or misdirect the necessary steps in its progressive growth and in- 
telligence; and consequently, that the Soul will continue to investigate facts 
and attack problems with ever higher experiences and apter powers for forming 
and organizing truer and broader conceptions of objective facts and truths, 
until it successively masters them. 

The bodily organ of the Soul, ... is ever growing up [in] power 
which we denominate Reason. ... So that our knowledge grows ever 
more coherent, symmetrical, consistent, congruous and harmonious, and so 
becomes true. 


Having arrived at the conclusion (chapter ten) "that the Uni- 
verse of Being is self-conscious in its totality and unity, and that 
it constitutes a vital and individual or personal intelligence" Mc- 
Comas insisted that: "A God must mean something." Furthermore, 
"not only are the special systems of evolution [finite personalities] 
solving their own several problems, but they are, all, the interde- 
pendent and inter-influencing parts of a Universal Evolution. They 
constitute parts of a unique whole." Although moral, as well as 
physical and intellectual development were "progressive and in- 
complete," in other words relative, it had "won certain principles 
and truths, of a moral nature, which are axiomatic in their cer- 
tainty and universal in their applicability." Because Infinite bene- 
ficence was a corallary of Infinite being, intelligence and power: 
"Evil can only exist to the finite mind under finite relations and 
conditions, and then only by reason of mortal needs, desires and 
sufferings, and as a misapprehended process or agency of good." 
McComas insisted that "we must elevate our moral conceptions to 
a standard more commensurate with Infinite Beneficence. . . . 
Whatever is absolutely greatest and best, that also will God do, 
and is doing. . . ." 

What then was the role of finite man? "It is manifest that God, 
as the Infinite Sum of Being, must necessarily embrace within his 
essential and unoriginated being, the infinite sum of all possible 
original, inherent and absolute intelligence, happiness and satis- 
faction. It is equally manifest that this sum can neither be in- 
creased, diminished nor changed; since they are the inherent at- 
tributes of his very being, and there is neither room nor possibility 
for other Being. . . . How, then, is it possible for him to em- 
brace more intelligence or more happiness?" The only possibility 
McComas could discover was "by the Infinite Personality finitely 
flowing into finite personalities, and thus winning knowledge and 
happiness, . . . and of progressively acquiring relative knowl- 
edge and happiness through experience and development. . . ." 
This led McComas to his final definition of the divine problem: 

The creation (in addition to the fixed sum of absolute intelligence and 
happiness) of the greatest possible amount of finite and relative intelligence 
and happiness with the least possible expenditure of time and suffering, by 
means of endlessly-repeated systems of evolution throughout Infinite Being, 
which shall continuously and endlessly evolve, and develop into self-sustaining 
maturity, an ever increasing . . . number or tide of indestructible vital 
organisms or finite psychical personalities, out of the ultimate components 
of Being, which shall be at once intuitively self-conscious in their primal 


organic lives and personalities and satisfied in their persistent and self-sus- 
tained organic relations and activities, and yet capable of an endlessly-pro- 
gressive relative and rational knowledge [,] happiness, and development; and 
which, by the combined and continued conditions and influences to which 
they are subjected and the experiences resulting from their associations and 
relations with other finite forms and beings, as well as from their own motions 
and activities, however induced, are necessitated to an endless career of pro- 
gressive psychical life and development and to the acquisition of ever broader, 
higher and truer relative and rational knowledge and a more and more exalted 
relative happiness. 

If this were true, then McComas recognized that further answers 
were required about "the necessity, appropriateness, adequacy, 
wisdom, or justice of the means and methods actually used to 
effectuate the divine purposes. . . ." Accepting this challenge, 
he admitted that: "Our attention, therefore, must, henceforth be 
directed chiefly to this moral aspect of evolution. . . ." This 
answer was broken down into replies to two specific questions: If 
God is Infinite; (1) Why the delay, (2) Why the toil, suffering, evil, 
and death? His case rested upon an assumption, most complexly 
elaborated, "that the facts so exist" and "that all existence implies a 
right reason for existing. . . . McComas admitted candidly 
that this argument "would be appreciated only by a few. . . ." 
More suggestive however was his argument about the difference 
between completed and incompleted beings. 

Popular creeds assumed that creation was a completed process 
and that created beings were completed beings. McComas in- 
sisted that there was an immeasurable difference between a "crea- 
tion of completion" and a self -evolving being: "It is manifest, in- 
deed, that an eternal progression towards the Infinite is the highest 
possible finite approach towards the Infinite. Progress, therefore, 
is the necessary law of finite creations/' Otherwise souls could not 
have been created as components of a self-evolving Infinite. Ca- 
pacities and conscious relative knowledge could not be bestowed, 
he argued: "They are, in their nature, either experiences or the 
products of them. . . ." Furthermore, "all periods of time are 
viewed in relation to the life and motions of the observer" and the 
time necessary to the evolution of an immortal soul renders finite 
time insignificant. 

Pursuing explicitly then the problem of evil, sin, and death, Mc- 
Comas defined the existential character of man's situation in the 
world: man had no choice or agency in his own creation "he is 
born between an agony and a wail" and having thus been born 


without his own consent could not avoid the vicissitudes of life; he 
could know happiness only through experience of opposites; he was 
forbidden absolutely to be satisfied; his enjoyments were mostly 
anticipatory; and he could not find a reasoned standard of justice 
in the apparent assignments of rewards and punishments. But the 
turning point of the argument appeared at this juncture, McComas 
pointing to what he thought was the crux of traditional error the 
assumption that each person's mortal existence involved essentially 
a completed and compensated career in this world, the other world 
serving only as a device for a final balancing of the scales of re- 
wards and punishments. Instead, finite existence was to McComas 
only a preparation and a stage in a continuously evolving system. 
But the materialistic evolutionist's answer which terminated per- 
sonal experience with this world was no answer. It was a resort 
to individual despair: "The defense aggravates the offense." Mc- 
Comas' answer insisted upon the persistent evolving self-conscious 
self the immortal soul: "The only unalloyed pleasures and pure 
happiness man can enjoy, are those experiences which are purely 
intellectual and those which arise out of purely spiritual sympathies 
and relations." However, after reviewing the history of the doc- 
trine of transmigration of souls and related spiritualistic ideas, Mc- 
Comas repudiated all such thought. His concept of the evolving 
soul, he insisted, possessed no kinship with such doctrines, and 
their only value in relation to his own thought was that they illus- 
trated the persistence throughout human evolution on this earth, 
from the earliest primitive man to the present, of the imminent fact 
of a soul, which he insisted was significant, regardless of how er- 
roneous the particular explanations. 

Although in an absolute sense McComas denied the existence 
of evil, yet the idea of good and evil was necessary to finite evolu- 
tion, but was "wholly relative to human notions. . . ." Accord- 
ingly: "God treats the body as a mere provisional shelter and in- 
strument for the early growth and education of the soul." 

The Divine moral standard is specific, fixed and perfect. The human stand- 
ard advances with the progress of mental development and presents a pro- 
gressive moral "sliding scale/' . . . the things in nature which seem 
to be evil are only seemingly so from our ignorant and relative standpoint. 
. . . A full and true knowledge always shows the true to be the Good. As 
positive knowledge has increased, and Science has thrown its fuller light upon 
the real facts and true principles of Nature, the propriety, beneficence and 
necessity of them have become even more apparent. . . . We may fairly 
conclude that the general truth is inductively established; while, from an 
a priori standpoint, the whole matter is, and always has been, simply conclu- 


sive. ... In short, the nearer we grasp and comprehend Nature in her 
entirety, the more conspicuous become the necessity and beneficence of her 
methods and results even those which seemed most unaccountable and cruel. 

The groundwork was laid thus for McComas' approach to his- 
tory and to valuations of particular men in history. The "Hero" 
was one whose insights and successes in meeting fundamental needs 
most fully met the requirements of his particular time. The virtu- 
ous were those in the vanguard of their time; the rank and file were 
simply good; and the laggards were the low and vicious. A man 
ahead of his age was "a Dreamer," and "destined only to posthumous 

Probably the crux of all of McComas' thinking was to be found 
in the concept of continuous self-realization as the only and highest 
good, whether applied to finite men or to Infinite Being. The only 
glimpse of the Infinite which was vouchsafed to the finite mind was 
by means of analogy based upon the most significant thought avail- 
able about its own highest aspirations. The commitment to the 
atomic theory, to a concept of time and space as functions of mo- 
tion, ruled out absolutely any acceptance of an idea of completion 
or of being-at-rest. Absence of motion, like vacuum was unthink- 
able to McComas. Perfection meant completion, in other words, to 
achieve perfection in the popular sense of either the 18th century 
idea of progress or of the Christian idea of heavenly perfection, 
meant for any perfect thing, finite or infinite, to stop dead if such 
a status could be thinkable it would be a condition of annihilation 
or nothingness. But the insistent demand of all life was to con- 
tinue to live, in other words, to maintain motion. If this complex 
of thought is kept sharply focused, the logic of the McComas argu- 
ment was clear: "The greatest mystery has ever been, not only why 
Nature was cruel and imperfect, but still more, why she is always 
imperfect." The answer lies in purpose the concept of continuous 
self-realization, self -evolution, as the only and highest good. 

In his own elaborations of his ideas McComas suffered semantic 
difficulties. In undertaking to explain a new system of thought he 
could not find adequate old words to apply to the new conceptions, 
so he often used the accustomed terminology with two meanings, 
the old and the new. Thus it is necessary, although sometimes dif- 
ficult, to discriminate his usage in different contexts, in order not to 
attribute to him gross self-contradiction. Peculiarly difficult is the 
example that follows his use of the word perfection the tradi- 
tional usage meaning static completion, and his own concept of 


dynamic self-evolution that is the denial absolutely that com- 
pletion is possible. 

These ideas McComas elaborated in dealing with nature in the 
physical sense and in the process of psychical development. Thus 
finite man exhibited the characteristic of working for "specific and 
completed ends" and judged the "finished work" as good or bad. 
Then, by analogy "we judge Nature according to the same rule." 
The McComas philosophy challenged sharply the validity of such 
an approach to nature, both in detail and as a whole: 
We have never even conceived the ultimate achievements at which she aims. 
We only see her in the midst of her primary processes. . . . The whole 
of her supposed imperfections arise from the fact, that we look upon her struc- 
tures and forms as completed ends. . . . The perfection of Nature, even 
in her transient forms, is absolute, but that perfection is not in those forms 
and results of her evolutions as forms and results, and as ends achieved, but 
in her processes of which they constitute parts. We see nothing but her 
processes. . . .; and as means and processes, they are divinely perfect as 
the end are exactly adequate and absolutely necessary. That completeness 
which we denominate perfection, would be the death-blow to physical evolu- 
tion. To keep it going as a process, it must be kept incomplete; since com- 
pleteness would at once arrest it, even now. . . . The maintaining of this 
continuous incompleteness in the eternal and infinite rounds of primary and 
formative evolution or Soul-making, is the very sum of all mystery and divine 

So much for the one aspect of nature. The other, the intangible 
spiritual side of the finite and infinite, McComas formulated in di- 
rect sequence: 

It is thus, also, in Nature's processes of psychical development. . . . 
That which is perfectly satisfied will neither endeavor, nor change; and the 
action and effort absolutely necessary to all development would therefore be 
wanting. It is apparent, then, that it is a matter of infinite wisdom to keep 
the physical Universe in that exact state of continuous incompleteness and 
struggle for equilibrium and satisfaction, and the Soul in that continuous state 
of dissatisfaction and stimulation which in both cases, keep up a continuous 
struggle, first, for the Good against the Evil, and then, for the Higher and 
Better as against the Good, and thus result in continuous physical and psychical 
developments. If this does not involve supreme wisdom, I confess myself un- 
able to conceive what would. Here are two "perpetual motions" the included 
and the inclusive the Soul and the Universe! and all made possible by the 
means we deem so imperfect, evil and cruel. 

Of course, McComas saw the possibility of misinterpretation and 
of abuse of his ideas and hastened to establish a road block: 

But, are we to encourage evil and sin because they are necessities? On the 
contrary, they are necessary only, and are expressly provided, for the very 
purpose of exciting our dissatisfaction, dislike and active opposition. . . 


Mortal life on earth, therefore, was only one stage in the con- 
tinuity of uninterrupted self -evolution process: 

This integrating and individualizing [of?] souls from out the Infinite, and 
welding [,] hammering and tempering them for Eternity in the grim smithy of 
Mortality, amid the fires of sin, suffering and death, may seem a tedious and 
wiered [weird?] process, but it is a divine one, and the only one by which 
finite personalities and finite intelligence and happiness can be secured, and 
in which the "Divine Problem" involved in the infinite intelligence and benefi- 
cence of Being or in the nature and life of God can be unfolded and mani- 


After the publication of McComas' two major works, in 1880, no 
record has been found for a full decade of further printed exposi- 
tion of his philosophical and theological position. That long silence 
was broken during the winter of 1889-1890, when he had printed 
by the Fort Scott Tribune Job Printing Office, a 38-page pamphlet 
(n. d.) entitled A Concept of the Universe. The approximate dat- 
ing of this work is established by a reference to it in the Daily Trib- 
une, March 11, 1890, "a pamphlet of some forty pages recently 
printed by the TRIBUNE, entitled 'A Concept of the Universe/ " 

This short paper-back volume contained a drastically condensed 
version of the book, The Divine Problem. Probably it was intended 
to do that and no more, but necessarily much must be lost by such an 
operation. As an attempt at popularization he needed, even more 
than in the original, a name for his conception of the solution of 
"The Divine Problem." Although not necessarily essential to sur- 
vival, the success of any project is facilitated by the choice of a 
good name. All McComas offered in his title was: "A Concept of 
the Universe/' Assuming that he did not intend to modify his 
basic idea, the most significant omission was in terminology. He 
did not contrast explicitly, by means of the terms originally used, 
the concept of the finished and the unfinished world or universe, and 
neither did he retain the name which, so inconspicuously, he had 
given his mode of thought, "Creative Evolution/' Yet, without 
that striking terminology, he insisted as before upon an open-end 
system of continuous self-evolution and self-realization which was 
the process he had described first as "Creative Evolution," in an 

10. A list of the principal scientists and philosophers named by E. W. McComas in The 
Divine Problem. In only a few cases did he cite their works by title. The men are: Alex- 
ander Bain, 1818-1903; Claude Bernard, 1813-1878; Robert Boyle, 1627-1691; Thomas 
Carlyle, 1795-1881; E. H. DuBois-Reymond, 1818-1896; Thomas H. Huxley, 1825-1895; 
George Henry Lewes, 1817-1878; James McCosh, 1811-1894; Isaac Newton, 1642-1727; 
Emile Saigey, 1829-1872; F. W. J. Schelling, 1775-1854; Herbert Spencer, 1820-1903; John 
Tyndall, 1820-1893; Alexander Winchell, 1824-1891. Charles Darwin was not named. 
William Paley, 1743-1805, was not cited, but if not read directly, McComas was familiar with 
certain of bos views as discussed by Spencer. 


unfinished universe. He began with the assertion that: "An 
untrammeled mind . . . demands, a priori, a perfect Being. 
v , . It rejects the possibility of evil, or the tolerance of evil, by 
an absolute, uncreated being/* 

On the other hand, McComas still insisted that the concept of evil 
arose out of the limitations of finiteness of the human mind and of 
the relativity of its grasp upon the infinite whole. The atom was 
the ultimate unit in the infinite universe, and everywhere life and 
intelligence were manifested, extending from "the atoms to the 
infinite/* with an increase "in range and capacity as it ascends 
* . . through various degrees of sentience, consentience and 
instinct, to psychical and personal self-consciousness." He held 
still that: "Consciousness is the result of organic individuation and 
activity and not the cause of them/* Thus evolution or develop- 
ment required first, physical forms which were temporary or mortal, 
but once the self-conscious self, ego, or soul, was achieved, it was 
immortal. Although in its self-evolution, the soul was dependent 
temporarily upon a succession of mortal forms of increasing com- 
plexity, the ultimate goal of each unique self or soul was indepen- 
dence of the physical forms. In this context the life of a human 
being on earth was only one in a succession of these physical and 
temporary incarnations of a "Self/* Physical death was only a 
release of the "Self* to a higher form of existence elsewhere which, 
if this life was lived successfully, should be the object of optimistic 

In his conclusion, McComas insisted that there was no need for 
a higher God than "the living, self-conscious Universe itself the 
veritable 'God in whom we live and move and have our being/ A 
cult based upon this concept would seem to be the natural and 
appropriate outcome of man's religious development/' 

But Governor McComas was not himself so constituted as to 
become the founder of such a cult, and he did not have an Apostle 
Paul to fashion one by formalization of his "Creative Evolution." 


When the McComas books appeared in print, the Monitor, Febru- 
ary 22, 1880, noticed them, commenting first upon A Rational View 
of Jesus and Religion, which "purports to be an exposition and 
rational review" of the origin of religious belief, of the Christian 
movement, of the claims of Jesus to supernatural powers, and more 



especially of the claim that Jesus rose from the dead. But what 
was more significant, this conservative Republican paper insisted: 
The professed design of the work is not to weaken either the moral or religious 
element in man's nature since it recognizes these to be indestructible, and 
Christianity to be a divine instrument of human development but its effort 
is to elevate both morals and religion from the plane of superstition and super- 
naturalism to that of a rational religion. It maintains the existence of God, 
of the soul, and of a future life doctrines which are attempted to be ration- 
ally established in the second work the "Divine Problem." 

Elaborating upon the other book, the editor pointed out that 
the objective was "to demonstrate by rational methods from the 
evidences furnished by Nature herself, the existence of God and 
of immortal souls ... to substitute rational conviction for a 
blind faith." For McComas' Infinite Being, the editor explained, 
"it being forever unfolded in its natural evolution, or divine intelli- 
gent life. . . . The whole work is based upon a theory of 
universal evolution." 

Having summarized the McComas argument as best he could, 
and without passing judgment, the editor turned to the author, 
commending both books to the public "as the offspring of a masterly 
intellect, profound thought and scholarly attainment. The author 
is too well known, and his gifts too highly appreciated by our people 
to need or require praise." In the next phase of his commentary, 
the editor presumed on the part of the reader of 1880 a personal 
knowledge about McComas' private life which is denied the his- 
torian, when he continued: the work "is the storehouse of years 
of unremitting mental toil toil conceived in physical affliction and 
corresponding need, coupled with a conscientious and noble desire 
to benefit and exalt humanity." Hints of family and personal tragedy 
involve his wife's long illness and his own impaired health, details 
of which are unknown, but which the editor recognized as making 
a reconciliation of evil and suffering in the world more than an 
abstract philosophical problem. For McComas, it was as well a 
peculiarly insistent personal need. 

The Monitor concluded by saying that: 

The style ... is philosophic yet plain, profound yet attractive. While 
disclaiming all claims to fine writing, an elevated eloquence, such only as can 
be acquired by a cultivation of great natural gifts, pervades the whole work, 
lending it a beauty and force so often lacking in discussions of like character. 

"Regardless of preconceived notions and beliefs," the editor 
commended "a work of such profound thought and exhaustive erudi- 
tion" to careful reading. 


The Democratic Herald, March 11, 1880, reviewed both books: 
Under the title of "The Divine Problem" the author endeavors to demonstrate 
rationally that there is a God, and while not attempting to reconcile science 
and theology, with great force and erudition he corrects many existing errors 
and opinions which superstition has thrown around his subject, and treats in a 
plausible as well as new and pleasing manner the subjects of the soul, mind 
and kindred matter. 

In A Rational View of Jesus, the Herald called attention to the 
exposition "of the origin of all religious belief, endeavoring to show 
by well drawn comparisons that Christianity is the outgrowth of 
its surrounding circumstances." As did the Monitor, the Herald 
declined to pass judgment saying instead that "In whatever light 
anyone may view these works, everyone must admit that Gov. 
McComas fully understands his subjects, and treats them alike with 
a vast amount of learning and logic, and with his accustomed 
candor and fairness." The editor recognized the issue involved in 
these books as "this much vexed and most difficult problem of this 
or any other age," and that they would "aid many in their investiga- 
tions." In this light the books were recommended to "thinking men 
of all shades of belief. . . ." 


Attention has been called to J. B. Chapman's comments on Mc- 
Comas' reticence about his early life: "He wrote nothing about 
himself and disliked very much to be written about." As he was 
not running for public office, what claims did anyone have for in- 
vading his privacy? But public curiosity does not always respect 
such an insistence upon things private as distinguished from things 
public. On one occasion of record, McComas was reminded rather 
rudely that the vacuum is sometimes filled by the invention of ma- 
licious rumor. Probably there were other instances, but only one 
has been found where he made a public explanation. His letter 
to the editor was printed in the Daily Monitor, June 4, 1878, under 
the title: "Correction of History." "Mr. Editor: I learn that one 
of our teachers in giving the history of John Brown's execution, 
accredited me with signing the death-warrant, and I have since 
learned that such an impression has prevailed. Will you permit me, 
through your columns, to correct this scrap of history. I was not 
in Virginia during the time of the John Brown embroglio, but was 
living in Chicago, and had no connection with it in any form 
save to regret both the acts and the execution of Brown." 

The next episode involves also a Fort Scott school teacher, Mrs. 


Matthew S. Fox, and her tragic death allegedly as a victim of vicious 
public intolerance. But it is best to use the story substantially as 
Governor McComas told it at her funeral: 

Friends: We are asembled here to take our last look at the dead face of 
our neighbor and friend, Mrs. Fox. Constituted and educated as we are, 
such a service as we are here to perform must ever impress us as the saddest 
and most mournful of our duties. The customary church rites and priestly 
services on such occasions, as well as our education and inherited religious 
faith, have so tended to heighten the solemnity of death and of our funeral 
services that, whatever philosophic convictions we may have of the actual 
beneficence of death as the necessary prelude to our initiation into a new and 
higher phase of psychical life and development; we cannot escape our fear of 
death, nor divest ourselves of the awe inspired by its presence, nor repress our 
grief and tears before the still forms and open graves of those we have "loved 
and lost." 

On this occasion you stand in the presence of the more than usually solemn 
and impressive fact, while you miss the priestly presence and offices to which 
you have been accustomed. The reason for this unaccustomed course will be 
more appropriately explained and better understood after the recital of a few 
salient facts of Mrs. Fox's life. 

For the sake of brevity at this point a summary must suffice, 
mostly of the details presented by the governor, but supplemented 
from other sources. Mary A. Van Vrankin was born near Racine, 
Wis., June 12, 1859, was married in Missouri, near Fort Scott, June 
5, 1873, at the age of 14, to Mr. Fox, a shoemaker, about a dozen 
years her senior. As McComas put it: In her early girlhood, when 
penniless and untutored, she was taken charge of, cared for, sup- 
ported and finally married by Mr. Fox. . . . Her husband had 
educated her for a teacher." She felt a responsibility for repaying 
his generosity by making a success in that profession. She earned 
first class certificates, winning an enviable position in the public 
schools. Mr. Fox was an outspoken liberal, and so far as she had 
formulated religious convictions, she shared his views: "Had her 
hopeful and happy youth permitted her even to think of the bear- 
ing of such a fact upon her own secular occupation, her tolerant 
mind could have conceived of no possible connection between her 
husband's exercise of his undoubted right of 'free thought* and 'free 
speech/ with her own right to win her bread by her own toil. 
. . . How gladdening and beautiful is this sublime confidence 
of youth." As another put it: "She was kind in her disposition, of 
a sunny nature, gentle in her bearing towards everybody, greatly 
beloved by her friends and neighbors." But she received a rude 
shock by being dismissed without cause from her position. No 
charges were preferred against her, nor reasons given: "Her pa- 


trons earnestly petitioned for her reinstatement; their appeals fell 
upon deaf ears/' She suffered nervous prostration, but her final 
three month's illness was a "fever of a typhoid type": 

The real woman is no longer here. She has been transferred to a new and 
higher school, where the sole qualification for her admission will be the fact 
that she has lived, where the sole certificate required is that of her death, and 
where the sole patron and commissioner is God the All Father. 

At this point, McComas applied his generalized philosophy to 
the particular case; physical and psychical evolution the continuity 
of the life of Mary Fox: 

Beloved, respected and supported, as she was, by her husband, her friends, 
and patrons, while sheltering and growing in this now lifeless form before us, 
she will yet learn, in her upward physical [psychical] progress, to regard all 
these earthly experiences, whether of joy or sorrow, as alike indispensible 
causes and conditions in her physical [psychical] growth and development, and 
that even her despair and death were divinely beneficent both in aim and end. 

A word more. Disbelieving in the efficacy of priestly pray[er]s and inter- 
cessions, and believing that she had been the victim of religious persecution, 
Mrs. Fox declined to have any priestly ministrations whatever, either before or 
after her death. Her dying request (urgently seconded by her husband) was 
that I should speak for her at her funeral. Much as I was startled by the 
request I could not disregard such a dying request without exhibiting a 
cowardice which I was at least unwilling to confess. In the feeblest manner, 
therefore, I have now endeavored to fulfill the dead woman's wishes. May 
the flowers and grasses grow kindly above her mouldering remains, and may 
all-healing time bring consolation to the grief-stricken husband. 11 

The funeral of Mary Fox was held at the residence on Sunday 
morning, August 30. The Knights of Labor and the fire depart- 
ment each attended in a body, six of the Knights of Labor serving 
as pallbearers. Both local papers commented that the attendance 
was the largest of any funeral at Fort Scott for some time. And 
this tribute of so large a number of friends of Mary Fox was in part 
at least drawn from the regular Sunday morning attendance at the 
several churches of the city. An "In Memoriam" tribute by Mat- 
thew Fox, was Mary's own appreciation of a friend which he ap- 
plied to his wife, and included original verses, two of which are 
reprinted here: 

At twilight time, 

The musing hour, 
When the past re-lives 

And we feel the power 
Of the subtle spell that awhile calls back 
The treasures we've lost along life's track 

11. Fort Scott Daily Tribune, September 1, 1885; Daily Monitor, September 2, 1885. 
Both newspapers, the Monitor probably reprinting from the Tribune, misused the word 
"physical" instead of "psychical" in next to the final paragraph. 


We sit and dream, 

Till the present falls 
In the shadow that rises 

And sinks on the walls; 
And the old time only is living and true, 
And dreams are the things that now we do. 12 

Governor McComas acquitted himself creditably in the unusual 
role just related, but his services were in demand as well for more 
conventional tasks he was a key personality in the activities of the 
Fort Scott Board of Trade during the middle years of the decade of 
the 1880's, and in December, 1885, he was elected president. On 
account of ill-health he declined re-election, but served as trustee. 13 

In 1889 the Tribune, February 23, showed its continued confi- 
dence in McComas by proposing his name for mayor of Fort Scott: 

If Gov. McComas could be induced to accept the office of mayor, and if the 
people could be imbued with sufficient good hard sense to elect him unani- 
mously, it would be a feather in the city's cap. The influence of such a man 
at the head of the city government would be far reaching and potent for the 
public good. Gov. McComas is the "grand old man" of this community. 

The governor did not afford the city the opportunity, however, and 
a few days more than a year later he was gone. 

His passing revived the stories about his resignation as lieutenant 
governor of Virginia, the Topeka State Journal repeating the charge 
about his signing the death warrant of John Brown. The Monitor, 
March 21, 1890, came to his defense in "Justice to the Dead," re- 
porting that in Fort Scott such stories were not believed. A Vir- 
ginia-born attorney was quoted as saying that such an act would 
have been contrary to Virginia law, as executions were carried out 
on writ from a court. Thus the Monitor concluded: ". . . while 
we differed with the deceased upon almost every question upon 
which men have opinions, we believe this statement is due him and 
his family. There is absolutely no truth in the story." The tribute, 
based upon the inadequate historical evidence cited, was all the 

12. The Democratic Daily Tribune, an evening paper, printed most of the items relating 
to the Fox story one day ahead of the Daily Monitor, the conservative Republican paper, but 
neither editor commented upon the episode as such. 

Daily Tribune, August 28 (the obituary), August 31 (report of the funeral service), 
September 1 (McComas' address and "In Memoriam"); Daily Monitor, August 29 (the 
obituary, with several errors and the "Resolutions of Sympathy" by the Knights of Labor), 
August 30 (announcement of the funeral service), September 1 (the report of the funeral 
service), September 2 (McComas' address). 

The census records listed the Foxes for 1875, 1880, 1885; Kansas state census, 1875, 
Fort Scott, ages 29 and 17 respectively; United States census, 1880, 33 and 20 respectively; 
Kansas census, 1885, 38 and 23 respectively. These data are not consistent, and under the 
circumstances, the obituary notice would appear to have precedence. All the census records 
listed Matthew as a boot and shoe maker, and in 1880 Mary was listed "at school," other- 
wise only as wife. 

13. Fort Scott Dailv Monitor, January 24, 1884; Daily Tribune, December 24, 1885, 
January 17, March 11, 1890. 


more significant. Chapman's obituary sketch had given the cor- 
rect date of his resignation, 1857, two years prior to the John Brown 
episode, and that should have settled matters conclusively, but the 
meaning of dates did not seem to register upon the minds of those 
concerned. Furthermore, all seem to have forgotten that McComas 
himself had stated the facts in print, in 1878. This same tolerance 
had appeared in the obituary notice in the Tribune, March 11, and 
in the Monitor, March 12: "Without discussing the views and phi- 
losophy of these works, we desire here to earnestly commend them 
to the attention of the public as the offspring of a masterly intellect, 
profound thought and great attainments." 

The Monitors editorial of the same date, after reviewing Mc- 
Comas' political career and his loyalty to the principles under which 
he was reared, continued: 

Possessing a natural taste for the study of philosophy, he found time to turn 
his hand to the expression of his ideas in book form, and while reaping no 
pecuniary reward from his work in this respect, he earned the reputation of a 
deep thinker and a trenchant writer upon his favored themes, and in the school 
of evolution and rational thought there were few men more deeply versed or 
more ready in expression. He was a theorist, and yet had few equals in all 
that is practical. He was a student, and yet he was withal a generous com- 
panionable and public spirited gentleman. 

The Fort Scott area had not always behaved so wonderfully to 
its people as individuals, as has been recorded elsewhere. That it 
acquitted itself so well in some cases is important in order to main- 
tain perspective upon the whole situation and on what the Fort 
Scott community was capable of doing. Regardless of rumors about 
his Virginia career, his Civil War position, and knowledge of the 
fact that he was a lifelong Democrat, and that he was unorthodox 
in religion, Governor McComas was held in high esteem. The Re- 
publican Monitor, regardless of changes in editorship, always 
singled him out for kind words of personal respect. However un- 
orthodox his views on philosophy and religion, his sincerity and his 
philosophical mind were ever the subject of admiring and respect- 
ful comment, if not actual veneration. 


The essential sequel to the story of the McComas philosophy 
was the manner in which the Fort Scott community met the crisis 
of his funeral. Like many other communities, because of dissension 
and other factors, Fort Scott had failed on the long pull to actualize 
fully upon its own potential in physical advantages. On occasion, 
however, it had behaved magnificently in meeting emergency situ- 


ations. The unexpected passing of E. W. McComas, who died in 
his sleep the night of March 10-11, 1890, presented the community 
with a test of its capacity for nobility. J. B. Chapman, editor of 
the Democratic Tribune wrote that: 

During his residence here he has been our most prominent citizen. His great 
ability and advice was invoked upon every important occasion. ... He 
was always progressive, lending his indomitable energy to every public move- 
ment in the development of the city. He stood foremost in encouraging 
public improvements and his eloquent voice and powerful pen were always ac- 
tive in the effort of enterprises that inured to the welfare of the city. . . , 14 

The funeral of Governor McComas presented problems. The 
McComas family had an Episcopalian tradition, which may have 
included the governor. But the author of the book, A Rational 
View of Jesus, could not have been considered a member in good 
standing of St. Andrews parish church. The board of trade was 
in charge of arrangements, and attended in a body. The service 
was held in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and the Rev. Henry 
Mackay, rector of St. Andrews read the Episcopal service for the 
dead, and delivered the funeral discourse. Except for the Catholic 
church, the Methodist was the city's largest church building, which 
may have governed the choice of place. 

Undoubtedly the occasion required a certain elasticity in both 
theology and conscience. Rector Mackay opened his remarks: 

"Whatever is, is right." This sentence is a pivotal point for many, if not 
for nearly all, of the theories of him who lies before us in the arms of nature. 
It is a philosophic saying, and might be considered all [an ?] axiom. And it 
requires the clear, acute, incisive intellectual powers of a philosopher to com- 
prehend and analyze its avenues to any satisfactory conclusion. Such a mind 
was his such a mind knows no death. He being dead yet lives in his worth 
and works as a citizen of our world. He was an evolution of some great stock, 
because greatness must have its birth through great antecedents. There is no 
such a thing as chance. 

After surveying the conventional biographical data, Mackay re- 
turned to the difficult task of reconciliation of McComas' life and 
his heresy with a broad but ambiguous orthodoxy, which evaded 
the main issue, that McComas had treated Jesus and Christianity 
as religious fraud. Necessarily, this course required Mackay to 
focus his discourse upon the characteristics of the man as they 
were known to all his listeners, emphasizing those certainties as the 
exemplification of a truly religious life regardless of conflicts with 
theological uncertainties beyond comprehension. That life was 

14. Fort Scott Daily Tribune, March 11, 1890. 


known to all and was such that no one could condemn, except upon 
the abstractions beyond the limits of tangible proof. 

The major portion of the remainder of Mackay's tribute to 
McComas is reprinted as follows, omissions being indicated by the 
usual signs, and the text as originally printed divided into para- 
graphs 3 and 4, the headings being inserted in brackets to aid the 
reader in following the transitions from topic to topic: 


The ex-governor gave early tokens of intellectual powers. His mind proved 
to be a generalizing, speculative product. It was not satisfied with looking at 
the surface of things it must dig deep down, extend wide its reach soar 
aloft as with wings of light, that it might, as far as practicable, enter the inner- 
most chambers of the knowable. The outlook and trend of his intellect 
developed in authorship. His works are said to be ably written, clearly ex- 
pressed, and their speculations presented with confidence, ability and force. 
In appearance he was a towering pine. . . . His hair and beard, for some 
time past, were white as snow, his figure almost perpendicular. . . . He 
indeed, was a tall, noble human-tree in the forest of humanity. . . . 


But we have come to another quality of his critical, investigating mind his 
religious character. Here, too, he stands out a monument of moral principles. 
. . . His morality was as high and ennobling as his intellectuality. He was 
an honest man. Is not honesty good religion? He was a virtuous man. Is not 
virtue good religion? He was a good, kind husband and parent. Are not these 
factors of good religion? He was a generous man, open in general 'tis said, 
forward to surrender rights, lest he should not be right and rather than to 
give offense or injure. Is not this good religion? He read the scriptures many 
times, perhaps, if you will, as a critic. Is not that good religion? Most as- 
suredly these are good facts of good religion. 


But his religion was deeper, broader, better than the moralities of religion. 
He read, marked, learned, inwardly digested the scriptures, and with what 
result, think you? Did he turn away from this book and say, "There is no 
God," "there is no heaven," "this world begun and will end our being?" No 
such thing. He believed in the existence of God, and in immortality. Is not 
such a belief good religion? May my right hand forget its cunning if I ever 
should deny such a religion, or such a man. In fact, as an evolutionist in 
theory and belief he could not well be anything else. If, indeed, he ever 
endeavored, ever wished, to make merchandise of his evolution, it might have 
been thought that his faith was a sham. But, as a retired man of mind, seeking 
health and enjoying leisure, his evolution ideas were, perhaps, nothing more 
than words. Kossuth, however, did say "words are things." Indeed, men 
cannot avoid using crude thoughts. Judge him by what he is certain of 
what his life and character unfold. Do this in the late Governor McComas' 
case, and you will acknowledge that his moral religious life was a grand one. 



And as to immortality. Did he believe in immortality? Those who are 
bone of his bone, flesh of his flesh, those who knew him intimately say that he 
did. But you may like the words continuity of life, better than the term 
immortality. You are at full liberty to adopt these words, either will suit me. 
Continuity of life is immortality called by another name. He who regards 
this earthly house as perishable, but its soul tenant imperishable, must, does 
believe that "apart and behind the wall of sense, we are now and then, caught 
up through high communings into the divine sphere where are the substances 
of which the earth is only the shadow." Truly this divine particle of Plato 
this undying thing called soul, must be a substance, for what is not a substance 
is nothing. I have no doubt but that this once noble man fully believed, 
because he believed in immortality that everything about us and within us 
indicated that this existence is preliminary and preparatory a segment, so to 
speak, and not a circle. We want to believe that now as the mortal surface 
has rolled off, his spirit is unfolding in flowers of the world of spirits. 
Such, it seems to, and is believed by me is man. And he whom we wish to 
honor, in this public ceremony, has left a record of which the people of the 
city should be justly proud. Do you prefer character that is golden, to a 
heaven of which but little is known, or can be known. Does character make 
heaven? Certainly. For wherever God is, is heaven, and it is his sublime char- 
acter which makes heaven what it is. May we not, then, entertain a humble 
hope that character will find its affinity there as here? We want to, we will, 
entertain the larger hope. 15 

Another tribute was printed in the Daily Tribune, March 14, 
1890 a poem by Fort Scott's young Democratic poet who was yet 
to achieve national fame, Albert Bigelow Paine: 

Calmly he lies, 
His tired eyes 

Forever closed. 
Such peaceful rest 
In that calm breast 

Never reposed. 

Worn with the strife 
And burdens of life, 

Softly he slumbers, 
Heedless that I 
Standing near by 

Murmer these numbers. 

Calmly he left us 
That which bereft us 

Came without warning 
Sleeping, they thought him 
While darkness had brought him 

Another morning. 

15. The DaUy Monitor, Fort Scott, March 14, 1890. 


Tireless, he pondered, 
While the world wondered 

At his seclusion. 
Problems that vexed him 
Long years perplexed him 

Now find solution. 


E. W. McComas' silence and even hostility toward inquiries about 
his past are understandable a son of Virginia and of a family 
identified for generations with the culture of the Old Dominion, 
with two brothers in the Confederate army and one, H. C. Mc- 
Comas, in the Union army, and with a Democratic affiliation in 
Chicago during the Civil War which would lay him open to the 
charge by intolerant nationalists of being a "Copperhead," what- 
ever that might mean to different people. Apparently still at heart 
an unreconstructed state-rights Democrat, as pertained to constitu- 
tional theory, he did not confess his "error" in public as did Gen. 
John H. Stringfellow, a fellow Virginian, and Judge Samuel D. Le- 
compte, a Marylander, in 1868, who endorsed General Grant, the 
Republican party, and adjustment to the new centralized nationalist 
order. He did not, as they did, accept the national revolution as de- 
cided upon the battlefield, to the effect that the constitution placed 
no limitation, beyond the principle of expediency, upon centralized 
power. 16 During the years following 1865, Republican Kansas was 
a good place for Democrats who wished to escape even the tempta- 
tion to run for office. And not having invited investigation into his 
past by hostile political opponents, McComas had avoided the more 
vicious forms of partisan abuse to which candidates of that day 
were subjected. 

Whatever his views about the past, McComas was concerned in 
a different manner about the future the individual and the uni- 
verse evolving through "creative evolution." Probably relatively 
few people in Fort Scott understood this facet of his personality 
the philosopher and recluse. But there was still another side. In 
his quiet way he identified himself with the community and the 
promotion of its future. People who did not accept his politics or 
his philosophy, did appreciate his work with the board of trade. 
The several facets of his personality appealed to different people, 
and there appears to be no good reason to challenge the Tribune's 
compliment on the occasion of its attempt to persuade him to run 

16. James C. Malin, On the Nature of History (Lawrence, The Author, 1954), ch. 6, 
"On the Nature of the American Civil War: The Verdict of Three Kansas Democrats." 


for Mayor "Gov. McComas is the 'grand old man' of this com- 

Generalization by classification under labels of liberal and con- 
servative, radical or progressive and reactionary, is misleading or 
worse in most any case, even when the bases of definition are 
limited to innovation versus status quo. Governor McComas is an 
object lesson in the dangers inherent in such procedures. Super- 
ficially, his position during the preliminaries and during the course 
of the American Civil War, and on the issues of antislaveryism and 
abolition would appear to set him down as conservative or even 
reactionary in defense of state rights. But he did not defend slav- 
ery, nor join in secession as did two of his brothers. By the same 
standard, they would have been even more conservative. How- 
ever, even during that conflict, and its several types of crusades 
and intolerances, he was an advanced advocate of the program 
for organized labor in Chicago not a mere liberal on that issue 
he was a radical. In philosophy and religion, McComas was among 
the advanced thinkers, but not an extremist. By this is meant that 
extreme scientific materialism, agnostic or even atheistic, was radi- 
cal, while a defense of traditional revealed or supernatural religion 
was conservative. As related to those two extremes, the governor 
was somewhere between, and in the unenviable position of those 
who undertake to hold a straight middle-of-the-road course in the 
midst of the turmoil produced by crusading extremists of both the 
right and the left. He was unclassifiable because he was a unique 
person. The only generalization that is really permissible in this 
connection is that all persons are unique, although most become 
anonymous for want of records of their complexities. 

Academic philosophers of the 20th century may consider it pre- 
sumptuous to mention McComas, the Kansas Prairie Philosopher 
of Virginia origins, in the same sentence with the French philoso- 
pher, Henri Bergson (1859-1941), but both reacted in part at least 
to the same stimuli, to Herbert Spencer immediately, and to F. W. J. 
Schelling (1775-1854), more remotely, and both used the term 
"Creative Evolution" to describe their respective philosophies. 17 
Although different as systems, important similarities did not end 
with that descriptive term. Both began with Herbert Spencer, 
repudiating his materialism and setting themselves the task of 
improving upon Spencer. McComas' book was published in 1880, 
and Bergson's in 1907. If adverse critics of McComas maintain 

17. Henri Bergson, Creative Evolution (1907), authorized translation from the French 
by Arthur Mitchell, the University of Kansas (New York, 1911). 


that his thinking was defective, they may be reminded that adverse 
critics of Bergson insisted not only that he had nothing new to 
say but that he was guilty of plagiarism. 18 

Bergson appealed to intuition as an avenue of escape from science 
and rationalism. Some interpreted this as a form of mysticism, or 
as anti-intellectualism. McComas rejected innate or intuitive ideas, 
insisting upon instinctive or developed aptitudes. The critical point 
in considering both men is that in several respects they were in the 
same tradition and that many minds were exploring the implica- 
tions of evolutionary thought to the foundations of Western cul- 
ture. Contrary to what appears to be popular belief, Charles Dar- 
win was not among those who participated in these larger philo- 
sophical quests. Furthermore, among the many who did attempt 
the formidable task, few indeed succeeded in achieving the break- 
through from the concept of completion or the finished universe, to 
the philosophy of incompletion or unfinished universe. Whatever 
the defects of the McComas philosophy, the remarkable aspect of 
his undertaking is that as early as 1880 he had achieved so large a 
measure of success. 

To be sure, McComas made certain important, even critical as- 
sumptions, unverified and unverifiable so do all philosophers but 
if they are taken at their face value for the purpose at hand, he 
constructed out of them an articulated system. Indeed, within this 
context, it gave life and the universe a meaning, stoical or existential 
in character, but balanced slightly in favor of optimism. The only 
valid basis of criticism of his or other systems of philosophy, either 
favorable or adverse, is to concede for the sake of analysis the 
unverifiable aspects, and to examine the structure of the thought 
in terms of adequacy and consistency of development. The final 
acceptance or rejection of the system and its tendencies and impli- 
cations depends upon personal value judgments of the critic. 

So far as identifiable> McComas' inspiration came not from the 
18th century French philosophers, unless by reaction against them, 
but, by direct acknowledgment, primarily from English science 
and philosophy and German philosophy. He made an explicit 
commitment to a concept of progress, but not to the 18th century 
systems of Priestley, Condorcet, or Godwin. For them the goal 
of progress was the achievement of perfection, which means corn- 
is. Ben-Ami Scharfstein, Roots of Bergson's Philosophy (New York, 1943); Hugh S. R. 
Elliot, Modern Science and the Illusions of Professor Bergson (London, 19JL&); Charles 
Nordmann, The Tyranny of Time: Einstein or Bergson? Translated from the French by 
E. E. Foumier D'Albe (London, 1925). 


pletion in the finished individual and the finished universe. Mo 
Comas paid no tribute to New England transcendentalists, nor to 
Millennialism. 19 When he used the terms progress and perfection, 
he meant perpetual incompletion. In creative evolution, happiness 
consisted in pursuit, not possession. What sets McComas apart from 
the several systems of evolutionary philosophy of his time was his 
complete break with the traditional idea of progress or millenary 
variants. He belonged to a new dispensation. 

The system formulated by McComas did not impose upon man 
a finished soul in the ennui of the traditional or Christian Heaven, 
and, of course, he had no use for a Hell as a place of punishment. 
Rewards and punishments were not a part of his system. The very 
concept of the Christian Heaven was impossible to his thinking 
because it was static. The 18th century idea of progress was a 
variant of this type of "creation of completion," only "adjusted" 
partially to the new religion of science. For McComas, the highest 
concept of being was one of dynamics, self-realization through cre- 
ative change, and nothing less than that would satisfy his sense of 
the highest good and happiness to a self-conscious individual in- 
cluded in a self-conscious universe. 

To Spencer, and to Darwin, the organic development ( evolution ) 
of the human species was terminal, and death of the material body 
of the individual man thus evolved closed his life span. In both 
respects, the species and the individual, the developmental hypoth- 
esis was man-centered. If these assumptions were valid, then 
indeed the individual man must despair of a diabolical creation 
such a man would be "a mere ephemeral speck," as McComas put 
it, created only to die in a completely meaningless sequence im- 
mortality was a necessity to McComas' philosophy. Consistency 
in his system required an evolutionary view of the soul and of the 
biological organism, the association being temporary until the self- 
conscious and continuously self-evolving personality was freed from 
physical and mortal forms to enjoy further self-evolution as a free 
spirit always incomplete, unfinished, unique, and unpredictable, 
although law-governed. To the extent that McComas assumed 
that a state-of-being continued self-evolution beyond the man- 
spirit stage, he had liberated his philosophy from the traditional 
view that the human species is terminal. But the true happiness 
of this free spirit, as of man, depended upon an anticipation of a 
unique, unpredictable, unfinished creative evolution. 

19. Francis Ellingwood Abbott formulated a development philosophy of self-realization, 
but apparently within the framework of traditional concepts: Stowe Persons, Free Religion* 
An American Faith (New Haven, 1947), p. 35. 

Letters of Daniel R. Anthony, 1857-1862 


PART THREE, OCTOBER 1, 1861-JuNE 7, 1862 

DANIEL R. ANTHONTS participation in the Civil War, al- 
though of short duration, was productive of as much contro- 
versy as the other facets of his career. He was commissioned in 
the Seventh Kansas cavalry, originally called the First Kansas, and 
was mustered in as a major on September 29, 1861. One month 
later to the day he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, serving in 
that rank until his resignation was accepted on September 3, 1862. 

The Seventh Kansas was the famous "Jayhawker" regiment, orig- 
inally recruited by Dr. Charles R. Jennison under authority granted 
by Gov. Charles Robinson. Jennison received a colonel's commis- 
sion from Robinson on September 4, 1861, but it was not until 
October 28 that he and the regiment were officially mustered into 
federal service. In the interim, Anthony was in command of the 
companies as they were organized. 

Jennison was widely known notorious, in fact as a guerrilla 
leader during the border warfare of the territorial period. He had 
taken vast quantities of loot, it is said, from Missourians, Proslavery 
and otherwise, including so many horses that it has been suggested 
Kansas equine pedigrees should be recorded as "out of Missouri by 
Jennison/' l 

Anthony's letters, and accounts from other hands, make it ap- 
parent that Jennison spent little time with his troops. He has been 
criticized as "too busy playing poker ... to take the field in 
person," 2 but there was a certain glamour about him, a prestige, 
that, as Anthony writes, was "worth a great deal." In any event the 

EDGAR LANGSDORF is assistant secretary and ROBERT W. RICHMOND is the state archivist 
of the Kansas State Historical Society. 

1. Simeon M. Fox, "The Story of the Seventh Kansas," in The Kansas Historical Col- 
lections, v. 8, p. 16. Fox served with the regiment from 1861 to 1865, first as an enlisted 
man in Co. C, then as regimental sergeant major, and finally as first lieutenant and regi- 
mental adjutant. He was later adjutant general of Kansas, 1895-1901. 

2. Ibid., p. 28. According to Fox, the regiment "led the strenuous life" while Anthony 
was in charge. See, also, S. M. Fox, "The Early History of the Seventh Kansas Cavalry," in 
ibid., v. 11, p. 240. In this article Fox wrote (p. 243) that Anthony "superintended the 
organization of the regiment and was the god of the machine. He was in active command of 
the regiment during the brief time it served in Missouri, and to him should be given all 
credit or blame that justly belongs to this organization growing out of its service along the 
border.^ This service began about November 10, 1861, and ended January 31, 1862. 



actual command was largely in Anthony's hands, and reports indi- 
cate that he exercised his authority capably and vigorously. 

On September 18-20 Confederate troops under Gen. Sterling Price 
won a victory at Lexington, Mo., and it was feared that Price would 
shortly launch an attack against Kansas City. The Seventh Kansas 
at this time was in process of recruiting. Only three companies, 
A, B, and C, had been organized, and these were rushed, under the 
command of Anthony, to aid in the defense. Other companies were 
sent up as they were organized, until by October 1 a reasonably 
respectable force had been assembled, though the men lacked uni- 
forms and mounts. For several weeks these troops served as provost 
guards at Kansas City and Anthony was provost marshal. 

During the remainder of 1861, and through January, 1862, the 
regiment was stationed at various points in the vicinity of Kansas 
City, engaged chiefly in scouting and patrolling as well as in some 
guerilla activity. The Historical Society has a copy of a letter writ- 
ten by John Brown, Jr., who was captain of Co. K, in which he says 
that during this time the regiment seized enough horses belonging 
to rebels in Missouri to outfit the entire command. 

It then proceeded to deprive the rebels of every means by which they had 
successfully carried on the War against the United States. Their wagons were 
loaded with such household stuff as would be especially needed to set their 
slaves up in housekeeping in Kansas. ... Of the property seized, the 
principal part was turned over to the U. S. Quarter Master. . . . Before 
our regiment left Missouri more than two thousand slaves were by us restored 
to the possession of themselves, were "Jayhawked" m t o freedom. This es- 
pecially secured for us the title of "Jayhawkers" which ever since we have borne 
without blushing. The chief difficulty we had to confront from first to last, 
has been the persistent efforts of those higher in authority to make us yield 
to the demands of slavery. . . . 3 

These raids and seizures of rebel property constituted the "Mis- 
souri Policy" referred to by Anthony in his letter of April 25, 
1862, which resulted in sweeping changes in the regiment's higher 

The only real battle of this period, and the only one in which 
Anthony was ever a participant, occurred on November 11, 1861. 
This was the Battle of the Little Blue, on which Anthony comments 
in his letter of November 24. Early in February, 1862, the regiment 
went into camp at Humboldt, moving in late March to Lawrence. 
Thereafter it received orders and counterorders until late May, 
when it left Fort Leavenworth for Southern battlefields. 

3. John Brown, Jr., to Parker Pfllsbury, July 18, 1862. 




KANSAS CITY Mo Ocr 1, 1861 

From present appearances I shall be obliged to march with our 
forces east towards Lexington I now have six companies in all 
400 men and more expected we have not yet got our horses 
but hope to soon Our men are all in good spirits they are 
quartered in good brick stores & dwellings The officers Head 
Quarters are in a fine 1& story brick dwelling close by. we live 
well have to sleep on the floor 

If you are well enough to come I wish you would See Capt 
M H Insley of the Mansion House 4 He will furnish you with a 
good horse, saddle Revolver Sabre and all the equipment com- 
plete for me I have one horse here but want two we shall 
be gone say two weeks You can come with horse on the boat 
they will pass you to Kansas City Write me how matters pro- 
gress in Leavenworth We shall have a fine army to start with 
and hope to do some good before we return 

Say to Alex to pay out no money except on an order from me 5 
he can write the companies saying I have gone on a trip comd'g 
a Regiment to see P. R. J. & Co at Lexington 6 

You had best write home also saying to them when I have 
gone I have little time to write and shall have less soon 

Lanes command is here they look like fighting men Genl 
Sturgis and Lane will act in concert 7 

Yours &c 


4. Captain Insley was a quartermaster officer for Lane's brigade, which consisted of 
the Third and Fourth Kansas volunteers and the Fifth Kansas cavalry. At this time he was 
apparently acting as a supply officer for the Seventh (First) Kansas cavalry also. 

5. Alex D. Niemann, an employee in Anthony's office, was in charge of his insurance 
business during most of his absence. 

6. P. R. J. & Co. is probably a reference to Generals Price, Rains, and Jackson, Confed- 
erate commanders at Lexington. 

7. Samuel D. Sturgis, 1822-1889, a West Point graduate and regular army officer, was 
appointed a brigadier general of volunteers August 10, 1861. Sturgis and Lane did not 
"act in concert" as Anthony presumed but disagreed violently on how the Missouri border 
residents should be treated. Lane, also a brigadier general, was seldom concerned with any 
orders other than his own and believed that the property of Southern sympathizers was due 
no protection. 

In this controversy Sturgis typified the regular army officer who was trained to carry out 
the policies of his superiors regardless of his personal feelings. In August, General Fremont, 
commanding the Department of the West, had declared all slaves held by Missourians who 
were in arms against the federal government to be free. President Lincoln had disapproved 
Fremont's order. The President's policy was directed solely toward restoration of the Union 
and he did not want to antagonize the border states by any move toward freeing their slaves 
or depriving loyal citizens of their property. 

The association of Sturgis and Lane was later mentioned by General Grant, who wrote to 
Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton on October 14, 1865, referring to a defeat of a Union 



Nov 5th 1861 

We expect to leave here within two or three days for Sedalia 
the terminus of the Pacific Rail Road I shall be in command as 
Col Jennison will remain here to perfect the organization of the 
regiment The distance from here is 130 miles we go to escort 
500 six Yoke ox teams (miles of waggons) for transportation 
for Genl Freemonts army we expect then to either join the 
"Grand Army" of the South west or pass into the Cherokee 
Nation and put down the rebellion there then proceed to Fort 
Smith in Arkansaw and effect a junction with Genl Freemont 8 
I send you a copy of my pay acct very fair pay I drew 
$244.75 Oct 31 in full to that date 

Merritt will go with me he can do much better here than 
elsewhere- Tmly 


We reed to day 329 Boxes equipments & clothing 950 saddles 
and a complete horse equipments also 950 over coats &c 3 
companies have Sharps Carbines Navy Revolvers & Sabres 
3 cos pistol carbines Sabres & revolvers balance minnie rifles 
Sabre Bayonets & revolvers DRA 


KANSAS CITY Nov 24, 1861 

Here we are again after a trip of one week to Pleasant Hill in 
Cass County Mo with 8 companies under my command 

We were surrounded by rebels who were concealed in the 
brush Had no fight with them although our pickets were 
chasing in theirs all the time Eleven of their pickets were 
killed by our men and only one of ours wounded Four of 

force under Sturgis in 1864, as follows: "Notwithstanding his failure at Guntown, Miss., I 
know him to be a good and efficient officer. . . . From the beginning of the war he 
has suffered from having served in Kansas, and coming in contact with, and in opposition 
to, civilians, Senator Lane probably in the lead." Dictionary of American Biography (New 
York, 1928-1958, 22 vols.), v. 18, pp. 182, 183. 

8. Maj. Gen. John C. Fremont was the commanding general of the Department of the 
West with headquarters at St. Louis. On November 2, 1861, three days before Anthony 
wrote this letter, Fremont, then at Springfield, was relieved of his command by President 
Lincoln and replaced by Maj. Gen. David Hunter. 

Anthony's mention of the "Grand Army" here and in succeeding letters probably means 
the "Army of the Southwest" or the "Army of the West," terms which are used in most of 
the standard sources to mean Union troops operating in the Missouri-Arkansas area during 
1861-1862. However, he may have been referring to a large-scale expedition which was to 
move through the Indian territory and into the South a plan advocated by Lane. (See 
letter of January 8, 1862.) Fremont had wanted to march an army through southwestern 
Missouri and northwestern Arkansas to the valley of the Arkansas river and then down that 
stream to the Mississippi. Had these plans worked out the two forces presumably could have 
effected a meeting in Arkansas. For additional information on the abandonment of the Lane- 
supported plan see Footnote 19. 


our men who were acting as flankers strayed away from their posi- 
tion so far that they were taken prisoners we sent a company 
of men after them and retook them 

We recovered 470 of the 500 oxen 27 of the 50 waggons which 
were stolen by the rebels while they were on their way from Ft. 
Leavenworth to Sedalia without an armed escort 

I go this morning with 8 companies to take up Head Quarters 
at Independence Mo 12 miles east from here I go again in 
command My side is now nearly well for 8 or 10 days I 
could not get in the Saddle then commenced by having my leg 
thrown over. 

Have been in the field constantly Last night one of our men 
was shot by a Lieutenant who was out on patrol the man drew 
his revolver on the Lieut and the officer shot him dead no com- 
plaints Last night one of our men stole some property and he 
is to be shot this morning at 9 a.m. 

Merritt has been very sick with the measles he is now much 
better so that he sets up he will be out in a few days Al- 
though I doubt whether he will be fit for work this winter And 
I regret it very much as there never was a time when I needed 
him or some trusty man so much as now and I could give him a 
chance to make money fast . . . 

I doubt whether any battle has been fought which was more 
desperate than the one on the Little Blue some three weeks ago 
we lost 9 men killed and 8 or 9 wounded the enemy lost 15 killed 
& a large number wounded 9 

I was only struck on the hilt of my sabre by a colt revolver bul- 
lett one of our men who was wounded and a prisoner reports 
that there were several men who recognized me and say they fired 
over a hundred shots at me and thought I was killed but I 
come out safely While in the vicinity of Pleasant Hill 12 miles 
from the battle ground they said if it had not been for me the 
battle would have been lost they all heard my commands 

Merritt remains here with Doct. Thorne 10 I hope to be back 

within a week or two _ , 


D R Anthony 

9. The first recorded engagement of the regiment was fought November 11 by companies 
A, B, and H, under the command of Anthony. A Confederate force said to be four times 
larger was attacked and driven from its camp. The rebels then took up a strong position in 
the hills along the Little Blue river. Anthony's men were unable to dislodge them, but de- 
stroyed their camp and captured their horses. Official reports state that the three companies 
lost nine men killed and 32 wounded. Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kan- 
sas, 1861 -'65, Military History of Kansas Regiments . . . (Topeka, 1896), p. 93. 

10. Dr. Joshua Thorne, a surgeon with a volunteer reserve battalion at Kansas City, Mo., 
was in charge of the military hospital in that city. Carrie W. Whitney, Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, Its History and Its People . . . (Chicago, 1908, 3 vols.), v. 1, pp. 193, 194. 


LEAVENWORTH Dec 3, 1861 

I am here on a short leave of absence the first time since my 
connection with the regiment Our regiment has been ordered to 
move from Westport & Kansas City Mo to some place 5 to 20 miles 
south from here on the west bank of the Missouri in Kansas 

From appearances we shall make our Head Quarters near the 
Mo & Leavenworth this winter for the purpose of crossing over into 
Platte county Mo and annoying them as much as possible this 

I have sold my paper to Webb at a loss of $2376.00 n 

I have taken a Secesh Stallion worth 1,000, and a Grey horse 
worth 200. I now have three tip top horses 

Dont you want a captaincy or a majorship in the army or dont 
you want to come out here and speculate in cattle horses and 
mules there is a good chance to buy cheap and stock a large 
farm here at little expense 

There is money in it to any one who will attend to it I would 
advise you to come out and try it. Why wont you come? 

Merritt is still at Kansas City I have sent for him to day 



Dec 22 1861 

Here we are again after a trip of six days to Kansas City Inde- 
pendence Harrisonville to this place 

On our route we had several skirmishes with the enemy mostly 
with our picket guards our force was only 250. we took 150 
mules & 40 Horses 129 Negroes and gave the negroes 60 Horses 
& mules a lot of oxen, 10 waggons & two carriages and all loaded 
down with Household Furniture The negroes train into Kansas 
was over a mile long 

In one skirmish we killed Col Hurst of the 3rd Mo and 6 or 7 
of his men (rebels) 

We will not remain here long but will move further into Missouri 
to get forage and Beef 

Col Jennison hopes to be promoted to a Brig Genl in that 
case I hope to fill his place 

11. Anthony announced the sale of the Conservative to D. W. Wilder, who had been 
editor since the paper was established, in an editorial note on November 8, 1861. 


I took a fine Secesh flag at Harrisonville also a Secesh com- 
mission which I will send you if I can 

The weather has been beautiful until this morning there is 6 
inches of snow tis not cold 

How did Merritt stand the ride home! Truly 


MORRISTOWN Mo Dec 26, 1861 

Well here I am again in command of the camp. 

Our regiment of 900 cavalry 3 companies of the 7th Missouri 
2 cos 8 Iowa and Capt Howard with 3 pieces artillery and Lieut 
Col Martin with 2 Cos 8th Kansas 12 in all 1500 men quite a 
handsome command Col Jennison gone to Mound City he will 
return on Saturday 

I have selected a fine house for my Head Quarters the owner 
is in the Secesh army (This letter is written on Secesh paper taken 
at Harrisonville Mo ) My house contains 3 rooms is unplastered 

Our Adjutant Lieut Hoyt (of Boston) [of] John Brown Jrs. 
Company R J Hinton and my orderly Robt Pierce (one of the 
best boys in the world) occupy the House with me 13 then I 
have four colored individuals for servants one to take care of 
House one body servant one cook and one waiter To day was 
our first dinner here as we had none Christmas we called it our 
Christmas Dinner We had splendid biscuit coffee roast 
goose & chickens & Butter & Molasses with plenty of secesh 
crockery What we failed in food was made up in dishes What 
we did have was gotten up in the very best of Style I never ate a 
better dinner anywhere 

Tomorrow Lon says he will give us the same with apple dump- 
lings and pies 

12. Lt. Col. John A. Martin of the Eighth Kansas infantry was mustered into service 
October 27, 1861. He was promoted to colonel and regimental commander November 1, 
1862, serving until his discharge November 16, 1864. Martin lived at Atchison, where he 
published the Freedom's Champion, and was active throughout his life in Kansas politics. 
He served as governor, 1885-1889. 

13. The regimental adjutant was John T. Snoddy of Mound City. George H. Hoyt of 
Boston, Mass., was mustered in as second lieutenant of Co. K on December 11, 1861, pro- 
moted to captain of the company on May 27, 1862, and resigned because of disability on 
September 3, 1862. This was a rifle company raised by John Brown, Jr., in Ohio, which 
was mustered into the regiment on November 12. Brown himself was mustered in as captain 
of the company on January 10, 1862, serving until his resignation because of ill health on 
May 27, 1862. Richard J. Hinton, widely known for his work in behalf of the Free-State 
cause during the territorial period, was employed at this time as a newspaper correspondent. 
In 1862 he was commissioned a first lieutenant to recruit and train Negro troops, reportedly 
the first man in the United States to receive such a commission. Robert H. Pierce of Chicago, 
a pnvate in Co. E, became a first lieutenant in the 21st Illinois infantry, April 21, 1862. 


The 4 colored individuals are playing the Fiddle in the Kitchen 
and the boys are playing Euchre in the front room 

Our sleeping room up stairs is carpeted but unplastered I 
have a mattrass & Feather bed on a good French bedstead but no 

Hinton sets close by reading the Chicago Tribune I put 17 men 
on police duty to day for leaving camp without permission The 
men all sleep in tents snow 6 inches deep and quite cold 
They have plenty of straw 

We expect to remain here some two months but will probably 
move south on a scouting expedition with a strong force to feel 
after Price 

Ever Truly 



MORRISTOWN Mo Dec 28, 1861 

Dont you want a Captain's Commission in the 1st Kansas Cav- 
alry If so I think I can give you a place Capt McLean worth 
150 $ per month and plenty of hard wet cold riding & sleeping 
in tent to do 

The news is the enemy have gone south 150 miles and we have 
no fighting to do unless we move down to them 

I may go Leavenworth again first of Jany The weather has 
moderated freezing nights and thawing days 

Our (My) Quarters are in good shape 

I fear my body Servant Griff has gone to his long home ten 
days ago I sent him from Independence Mo with a long train of 
waggons and one hundred twenty negroes to Leavenworth He 
arrived safely but must have lost his way or been captured on 
his return through Missouri I would hate to lose him as he 
is invaluable A good servant is rare to be found Griff would 
take good care of trunk clothing &c 

Col Jennison & Lady arrived in Camp today and this evening 
at 8 o'clock we complimented them with music from our Infantry 
Brass Band Also a dash of the Bugle Blast 22 strong and good 

How does Merritt get along he ought to be here at work 





MORRISTOWN Mo Jany 8th 1862 

Your letter of the 28th Ult. come last night- 
We now have a daily messenger from here to Leavenworth and 
from here south to Ft Scott 

From present prospects we shall move as the advance guard of 
the Grand Army of the West into the Cherokee Nation Arkansas 
and south until we meet an enemy in force This Grand Army 
will number about 20,000 men and will move within four or eight 
weeks While the advance is the most dangerous it is thought 
the most honorable and most of our 

[letter incomplete] 


Feby 3rd 1862 

Our command arrived here yesterday afternoon 

We march tomorrow for Humbolt 45 miles southwest from this 
place 14 We have been three days on the march from our old 
camp at Morristown which is 50 miles northeast from this point 
Our men have had to sleep out on the snow the weather has 
been cold and cutting today is sleety, freezing and wet we 
hope to reach Humbolt on the 4th and 5th inst After resting 
a few days I propose taking 500 men and taking our Mountain 
Howitzer (12 pound) and go south 100 miles into the Cherokee 
Nation 50 miles south of Humbolt there are 6000 or 7000 friendly 
Indians we are now sending them food and clothing they 
send me word they are anxiously waiting for us that they are 
ready to fight all rebeldom They seem to understand the issue 

Col Jennison is now at Leavenworth he expects to command 
a Brigade in that case I of course command the Regiment and 
the advance to the Grand Army of the southwest 

In our march we free every slave, every man of all nations. 
Kindred tongue and color, and arm or use them in such manner 
as will best aid us in putting down rebels We hope to stir up 
an insurrection among the negroes 

Many men whites and Blacks ask why dont Fred Douglass come 

14. On January 31, 1862, the regiment began a move to Humboldt, Kan., where it re- 
mained until late in March. 


out here raise a regiment of Blacks I know the reasons why. 
But if Fred could get $10,000 he could raise a regiment and our 
Maj Genl would not refuse them Blacks can soonest gain the 
confidence of the slaves, and rebels fear nothing more than the 
loss of a baby Darkie or an insurrection 

I hope to do something in my southern trip Genl Hunter told 
me to go as far south as I pleased 15 If I cant fight I can run 
We can do nothing until the weather moderates as we must 
march south without tents and luggage go with celerity and 
boldness to win 

Capt John Brown Jr is now with us I like him much he 
remembers you and seems glad to be with us 



HUMBOLT KAN Feby 22, 1862 

Here I am in this out of the world place the town the Secesh 
from Missouri & Indian Country burned some two months ago 16 

The few houses remaining stand on the Prarie about one mile 
east of the Neosho River one of the largest rivers of Southern Kan- 
sas it empties into the Arkansas Our camp is near the bank 
of the river in an Oak Grove Although the weather has been 
intensly cold our men have lived comfortably I live in a house 
about /* mile south of camp 

Col Jennison having been appointed Acting Brig Genl while he 
is so acting I shall have command of the Regiment It is hard 
work with so many restless men who have lived among rebels so 
long that it now comes hard for them to respect the person and 
property of Loyal citizens They have lived so long on chickens 
turkeys apples jellies taken from Secesh and now they have to 
come down to regular army rations 

We had a snow storm this week but the afternoons are so com- 
fortable that the snow is fast disappearing 

15. Word was received from Washington on November 12, 1861, that a new military 
command, the Department of Kansas, had been established three days before, and that Maj. 
Gen. David Hunter had been assigned as commanding officer. Headquarters of the new 
department was at Fort Leavenworth. 

16. Humboldt was raided on September 8, 1861, by a band of Missouri guerrillas, 
Cherokee Indians and Osage half-breeds. A month later, on October 14, the town was again 
attacked, this time by a Confederate cavalry force. Most of Humboldt's buildings were 
burned by this group but only one resident was killed. 


My living is not half as good as when in Mo I have good Beef 
Steaks good hot bread & Coffeevery little change I did board 
but now I have my black boys cook for me 

Our men are constantly parading in front of my quarters we 
have three hours drill in morning and two hours in the afternoon 
I comdg on the regimental drill of one hour 4 to 5 PM each day 
and on Parade Inspection & Reviews Until you have seen 700 
or 800 men mounted you will have little idea of the splendid 
appearance they make they cover nearly one half mile square 
Today we have a Review of troops and 34 guns in memory of 
Washington Also in honor of recent victories at Ft Donaldson 
& by Genl Sigel 17 

We dont know how long we remain here probably 3 or 4 weeks 

I went to Leavenworth the last time to get a leave of absence 
but our regiment was ordered to this place and I deemed it best 
not to apply 

I hope to hear of Merritts recovery I think he would like to go 
with us I hope to hear from you 

Susan is about the only one who writes much 

With love to yourself and all I am your son 


March 1, 1862 

For the past two months efforts have been made by the [Leaven- 
worth] Times paper and Judge Ewing assisted by parties who were 
disappointed applicants to oust me from the Post office. 

Upon being notified of the fact I wrote the P M Genl Genl Lane 
& Genl Pomeroy U. S. S. 

The 1st Asst P M Genl wrote me all would remain unchanged 
so long as the office was well conducted and my sureties were satis- 
fied with my deputies I forwarded their approval of my ap- 
pointment of the Deputies employed 

17. Fort Donelson, on the Cumberland river in Tennessee, fell to Union forces under 
General Grant on February 16, 1862. The victory was widely celebrated in the North as 
balancing the Confederate victory at Bull Run the year before. 

Franz Sigel, 1824-1902, organized the Third Missouri infantry regiment and became 
its colonel, May 4, 1861. He rose to the rank of major general and held several important 
commands prior to his resignation in May, 1865. He was serving in Missouri as a brigadier 
general at the time Anthony wrote this letter but the mention of a victory by Sigel is difficult 
to understand. Sigel had been at Wilson's Creek in 1861 and led a force at Pea Ridge in 
March, 1862, but no record has been found of his scoring any significant victory between 
those two major engagements. 


Genl Lane wrote to Hon Montgomery Blair P M Genl a most 
emphatic endorsement of my appointment and approval of my 
course while in the army and his desire for me to remain there 
during war 

Enclosed I hand you copy of letter reed by me from Genl S. C. 
Pomeroy U.S.S. 18 

Considering all the circumstances I think I can feel proud of 
these several prompt and decisive answers to my letters. 

We have now been here nearly four weeks Since we came 
here Actg Brig Genl Jennison has not interfered with my disci- 
plining the Regiment Heretofore he has come to the regiment 
every few days and relaxed the rigor of my orders Jennison has 
done every thing I could ask of him but then he is in reality unfit 
for any position on acct of his poor education He spells "toock" 
"Flowering Mill" "Hoit" "Shure" and "Sich" like The prestige he 
has is his name which is worth a great deal I have written 
Genl Hunter to give me orders to move my Regiment to Ft Gib- 
son I think I could capture it and I want the honor of retak- 
ing it as I have suggested how and have learned the situation of 
forces there this place is 150 [miles] north of Ft Gibson I 
think that with the aid of the friendly Indians I could retake Ft 
Smith also 

You might show this letter to the [Rochester, N. Y.] Express (I 
mean Genl Pomeroy's) not for them to publish but to say if they 
desire that all our Senators and leading men are my friends I 
have many thanks for the Express for the many kind words spoken 
by them of me I hope the time will come when I can reciprocate. 

I do not wish any thing public said of what I say of Jennison 
We are on the best of terms But we are very careful not to 
permit him to write or do any thing unless done under the super- 
vision of some of his friends who have good judgement Jen- 
nison knows his weakness and always submits to proper inspection 

There is one thing which may seem strange Col Jennison has 
been col of this regimt six months and has yet to give the first com- 
mand to them I have always commanded them Have been 
with them in all their expeditions into the enemy's country except 
one time Jennison went to Independence I speak of these things 

18. Sen. S. C. Pomeroy told Anthony, in a letter dated Washington, January 25, 1862, 
that "... I give no aid or comfort to any man who is seeking your removal because you 
are willing to serve your country. ... I have been delighted with all I have heard of 
you and of your regiment. ... I dont believe you will lose the Post Office without my 
knowing it. You certainly wont if I do. The P. M. General assured me that so long as your 
'bondsmen were satisfied' and the office was well conducted you should not be removed. 
. . ." "D. R. Anthony Collection," Manuscript division, Kansas State Historical Society. 


so as to have them on the record right I have now posted my- 
self in the Tactics so that I am posted in all the evolutions of a 
regiment and can maneuver my command better than any of- 
ficer in it - 

I learn today that Merritt is at the Post office This place is 
120 miles south of Leavenworth Write the news often From 
present appearances I shall not be able to obtain a "Leave of Ab- 
sence" to visit Leavenworth or elsewhere The Hunter, Lane em- 
broglio is not yet settled I hope it will soon for now is the time 
to strike 19 I have so written Genl Hunter that I may or they 
may know my ideas 



HUMBOLDT KAN March 8, 1862 

Here we continue to remain how the Lord only knows To- 
day we shot one man for desertion and attempting to go over to 
the enemy 20 he stole my horse a valuable Black Saddle 
Briddle Halter & Saddle Blanket I offered $200 reward and 
caught him Genl Jennison ordered a court martial and he was 
condemned to be shot I declined to have any thing to do with 
the trial for the reason I had offered a reward 

Our matters are in good condition except we all want to move 
Genl Jennison continues unwell I do wish he was well Maj Lee 
goes tomorrow to Ft. Leavenworth to see what is to be our fate or 
destination. Considering all things Jennison ought to be a Brig 
Genl I want him to have [it] because it would promote me to 
Colonel I have had full command of the regiment for most of 

19. Ill feeling between General Hunter and Lane had developed over the large-scale 
military expedition to the South. The Leavenworth Conservative published several items 
during February, 1862, indicating that Lane expected to resign his seat in the U. S. senate 
to take command of this expedition. However, Hunter on January 27 issued General Orders 
No. 2 in which he stated his intention to lead it in person. On March 11 the Department 
of Kansas was merged in a new Department of the Mississippi, under command of General 
Halleck, and Hunter was ordered to a new command comprised of the states of South Caro- 
lina, Georgia, and Florida. Talk of the expedition came to an end. Said the Conservative 
on March 14: "It was well called a 'Newspaper Expedition!' " 

20. This was Alexander Driscol, a private of Company H. According to a letter printed 
by the Leavenworth Conservative, March 20, 1862, Driscol had deserted from the English at 
Sebastopol and from Price's forces at Lexington. He had enlisted in Co. H. October 10, 
1861, since which time he had robbed a Union man in Missouri, stabbed a fellow soldier, 
and finally escaped from his guards, stole a horse, and fled toward a Confederate camp. He 
was soon captured, however, tried by court martial, and shot by a firing squad. "Col. 
Anthony addressed us upon the occasion," wrote the newspaper correspondent, "and although 
a man of iron nerve and possessed of a large amount of fortiter in re, yet still the solemnity 
of the occasion, the sad duty to be performed, the occasion and the surroundings evidently 
affected the heart of our gallant Colonel, as they did every soldier present." 


the time and now for 5 weeks have had absolute command 
When our men are out they make a big show 

I have mastered the Tactics so that I can now put them through 
all the maneuvers and evolutions 
With Love to all I am As Ever 
Merrits with me he is doing well 



Your letter recieved in due season was "right" glad to hear from 

Have been more lonesome here than at any time since I have 
been in the army for the reason I have nothing to do but to drill 
the men, and the weather has been cold windy and unpleasant 
for that Today the wind blows a perfect hurricane 

Merritt is now standing at the delivery in the Post office I could 

give him a Lieut Corns if he felt disposed to take it and thought he 

could fill it I shall pay the note you hold of $500 & interest in 

a few days and then you can have your mortgage reduced On 

the 1st July 1862 I hope to have all my debts paid My income 

this year will foot up very handsomely I shall realize as follows 

Life and Health Fires Post Office & Colonelcy and all prospering to 

Witt Post Office 2,500 

Rent of Anthony Buildings 3,000 

My pay as Lieut Col 2,652 

Interest & Insurance 1,848 

My hopes are Total $10,000 

A fair income for one year "Ten thousand a year" 

I hope you wont think I am speculating to much I haven't 
much to write about my own matters I tried for a "Leave of 
Absence" but it was not granted Dont think I shall get off until 
this campaign is over 

As ever truly your son 

Keep right on writing 


LEAVENWORTH April 23 1862 

Herewith I hand you check for $570.00 to pay my note of $502.50 
& inst Cancel the note and send it to me. I would suggest you 
apply it in payment of the Home mortgage at once. 

I dont know whether I can go east or not Our regmt is now 
at Topeka enroute to Ft Riley 21 

Merritt makes a splendid officer and you must not write any 
thing to unsettle him 22 

Col Jennison got into trouble on acct of his own foolishness Say- 
ing the regiment would disband if he resigned the officers 
resign &c The officers wouldn't and he made extravagent state- 
ments about its disolution 23 Truly D R ANTHONY 

LEAVENWORTH April 25 1862 

Your letter to Merritt reed & forwarded to him. If the war per- 
mit does not cost over $100 perhaps he had best get the permit 

Or perhaps you had best wait and see the destination of the 

Merritt makes a fine looking officer and a good one too, I think 
He is now at Ft Riley enroute for New Mexico There are some 
doubts about our regiment going or any other regiment all the 
troops are needed here 

21. On March 25 the regiment, now the Seventh, had been ordered to move from Hum- 
boldt to Lawrence. On April 22 it received new orders to proceed to Fort Riley, where it 
was to prepare for a march to New Mexico. However, this plan was later countermanded. 

22. Merritt Jacob M. Anthony was mustered in as second lieutenant of Co. A on 
April 2. He was promoted to captain of Co. I on May 16, 1863, and served until September 
29, 1865. S. M. Fox, op. cit., pp. 25, 26, describes Merritt as "molded from more plastic 
and tractable clay" than his brother Daniel. "He had courage and staying qualities, and 
made up in persistency what he lacked in aggressiveness. He was an excellent company 
commander, and I believe that he, of all the officers appointed from civil life who came to 
the regiment after it went into the field, overcame the resentment of the men and served 
through to the end." 

23. Jennison's difficulties apparently stemmed in part from his forays against Southern 
sympathizers in Missouri his "Missouri Policy" as Anthony calls it which were not ap- 
proved by his military superiors, and in part from his immoderate remarks. S. M. Fox, 
op. cit., p. 24, says that when James G. Blunt was made a brigadier general on April 8, 
Jennison, "who was an aspirant for the promotion himself, was highly wroth, and made an 
intemperate speech while in camp at Lawrence, during which he practically advised the 
men to desert." Several, principally from Co. H, took him at his word and disappeared. 
Jennison himself resigned his commission on April 11. Six days later he was arrested by 
order of General Sturgis and sent under guard to St. Louis. Charges were preferred against 
him but no official action was ever taken on them. He was released from arrest and re- 
instated in his original rank. 

A contradictory note in this affair is an explanation by Sturgis, dated April 26 and printed 
in the Leavenworth Conservative April 30, that Jennison's arrest "was the result of repre- 
sentations made by Lieut. Col. D. R. Anthony, of his own regiment, and Col. Geo. W. 
Deitzler, his immediate commanding officer, and was made at the earnest solicitation of this 
latter officer, who . . . demanded his 'immediate arrest,' and charges him with the 
most grave and serious crimes known to military law." Yet Anthony, in these letters, makes 
no mention of any implication in the arrest and indicates no serious disapproval of Jennison's 
policy. In the following letter, in fact, he states that in respect to the events in Missouri 
"we are all in the same boat." Only a few months later Anthony's own abolitionist senti- 
ments caused him to defy his own superior officers and ultimately resulted in his resignation 
from the army. 


I am trying to get leave of absence for 20 days but it is doubt- 
full if I succeed 

Col Jennison has been released is at Barnums Hotel and as- 
signed the limits of St Louis 

He talked very foolishly about the regiment disbanding &c and 
said harsh words of the officers and President which he said might 
cause his arrest If they have charges against him for his Mis- 
souri Policy we are all in the same boat 


LEAVENWORTH April 28th 1862 

Our Regmt is now at Ft Riley enroute for New Mexico 
I was detailed by Genl Sturgis to set on a General Court Martial 
at the Fort Genl Mitchell & Col Graham having been excused 
left me the President of the court 24 We got through Saturday 
and I am now waiting here for court papers to be made up by the 
Judge Advocate for my signature Also for the end of the month 
to obtain special orders from Genl Sturgis to draw my pay, and 
also to try and get a leave of absence for 20 days to go east 
Genl Halleck will hardly grant my request but I thought I would 
ask him and see 

Merritt makes a good officer and thus far is well liked I spent 
a couple of hundred dollars to outfit him 

Coat wescoat & Pants $44.00 

Saddle 32.00 

Boots 8.00 

Guantlets 3.00 

Sabre Revolver Belt 30.00 

Horse & Blankets 150.00 

And so the figures run up more than I thought but for the first 
time in his life he blacks his boots brushes his hair and tries to 
look fine 

I have high hopes of him if he is now permitted by his friends 
to do well Truly 


24. Robert B. Mitchell, a native of Ohio, was a veteran of the Mexican War. He moved 
to Kansas in 1856, participated actively in Free-State politics and served as territorial treas- 
urer from 1859 to 1861. On June 20, 1861, he was commissioned colonel of the Second 
Kansas infantry, later designated the Second Kansas volunteer cavalry, and was promoted to 
brigadier general April 8, 1862. 

In February, 1862, Col. Robert H. Graham of Leaven worth had raised four companies 
for service in New Mexico. An order issued by General Hunter on February 28, consolidated 
them with the Eighth Kansas Volunteer infantry, Colonel Graham being assigned the com- 
mand. In June he became ill and died at St. Louis on November 11. 


LEAVENWORTH May 28 1862 

Yours with canceled notes reed 

Merritt left yesterday on the "Sam Gat/' for Corinth Miss. 25 
Cos A. C. E. & part of F went today and tomorrow the balance of 
the regiment goes I go in command 

We have had blustering times, Jennison resigned Lt. Gov. Root 
commissioned Maj Blair our Col & Gov. Robinson when he re- 
turned from Washington com Maj Lee col both had command a 
few days each 26 On the 26th Genl Blunt issued an order revoking 
the one giving Lee command And as I was the Senior officer 
giving it to me and ordering "A L Lee to resume his position as 
major and report to Col D R Anthony for duty" 

Now we learn Col Jennison has been reinstated In the mean- 
time however I keep the command until the thing is settled It 
will take us 8 or 10 days to go to Corinth 

I think you had best come to Leavenworth for 4 or 6 months 
I had obtained a leave of absence for thirty days but on the 
order to Corinth thought best to go there first 



COLUMBUS KY June 6th 1862 

Here we are in the land of Dixie again 

This trip from Leavenworth was made on Steamers 700 miles 
in three days We are now camped with the 8th Kans 12th & 
13th Wis 54th IU infantry 2ond Kansas & 8th Wis Batteries 
2ond cavalry & ours 7th Kan cavalry on the ground and in the for- 
tification of the rebels Genl Quinby commands the post a very 
important one too 27 on his Staff I find Capt Barton & Lieut Erick- 

25. On May 18 the regiment received new orders to report to Fort Leavenworth and 
prepare to move south. May 27 and 28 the troops embarked on transports at the fort with 
instructions to proceed via Pittsburg Landing and report to General Halleck, then operating 
against Corinth. Fox, op. cit., p. 30, identified "The New Sam. Gaty" as the lead transport 
in this movement. 

26. Charles W. Blair, Fort Scott, was mustered in as major of the Second Regiment 
Kansas volunteers on February 28, 1862. In September, 1863, he was transferred to the 14th 
Kansas Volunteer cavalry, became its colonel in November, and served with that organization 
until he was mustered out in August, 1865. The Report of the Adjutant General does not 
show him as officially connected with the Seventh Kansas at any time. 

Lt. Gov. Joseph P. Root, a Wyandotte physician, was surgeon of the Second Kansas from 
December 28, 1861, to April 18, 1865. 

Albert L. Lee of Elwood was mustered in as major of the Seventh Kansas October 29, 
1861, promoted to colonel of the regiment May 17, 1862, according to the Report of the 
Adjutant General, and to brigadier general of volunteers on November 29, 1862. 

27. Brig. Gen. I. F. Quinby was commanding officer of the District of the Mississippi. 


son of Rochester A no 1 men and good officers & business men 
Maj Strong of 12th Wis a Granvill Washington Co [New York] man 
& capt Norton son of Reuben Norton of Easton [New York] in 
same Regt Wherever we go we find old acquaintances 

The labor and expense on these Fortifications must have been 
enormous to the Rebels over 7 miles of earth works, One of the 
strongest natural points for defense I ever saw surrounded by 
water swamp & woods 200 or 300 ft high commanding the country 
for miles around The rebels ought to have put in a years pro- 
visions and stood a siege with 20,000 men they ought to have 
held it against odds 

The mortality amongst them must have been fearfull The 
Post surgeon estimates 7,000 graves Most must have died from 
disease. We find the remains of dead rebels scattered about 

From appearances their sanitary regulations must have been 
bad Most of the troops were from Miss La & Texas Ala & 
Geo they dug holes in the ground, pitched their tents over 
them dug holes in the banks like out door cellars and built an 
endless number of log huts mudded up to make them warm 

The ground on which our camp is made was covered with 
Brick burnt logs mud old Hay Tents clothing Beef Bones 
and other Bones all half rotten and putrid for the past two 
days I have had 300 to 400 men policing the ground in & around 
camp Hauling off and burning every thing offensive And to 
day we begin to feel that we are breathing the pure air 

You know we started for Corinth at Cairo our destination was 
changed to this point Merritt went on the first boat and went 
to Pittsburg Landing the 3/2 companies with him have been or- 
dered back by Genl Halleck We expect him here to day. 

Two of our companies under Maj Herrick yesterday went to 
Moscow 28 12 miles south on the Mobile and Ohio Rail Road 
this is the terminus of this road it has not been in running order 
since the rebels evacuated Some of the bridges were destroyed 
at that time To day the 12th Wis Infantry 8th Wis Battery & 
our regiment are ordered to Union City 16 miles south east of 
Hickman on the M & O R. R. The road is to be put in running 
order at once 

Did I tell you that when Col Jennison resigned Lieut Gov Root 
appointed Maj Blair of the Kan 2ond Colonel of this regiment 

28. Thomas P. Herrick entered military service October 28, 1861, as a major in the 
Seventh Kansas. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel September 3, 1862, and on June 
11, 1863, became colonel of the regiment, serving in that capacity until the end of the war. 


that when Gov. Robinson returned from Washington he appointed 
Maj Lee Col so for a few days we had two Colonels But Genl 
Blunt Comdg Dpt of Kansas recinded the order and gave me the 
command of the regiment again. Now Col Jennison has been rein- 
stated Col of our regmt by the Secy of War. whether he will take 
command again or not is doubtful rumor says he has been as- 
signed to duty in the Indian Territory If so I shall retain com- 
mand of the Regmt 

When I left Leavenworth Thomas C Stevens of the firm of Thos 
Carney & Co put on board 2 Boxes Sparkling Catawba & Cigars 
with his compliments Tom Stevens was remembered by every 
officer on board belonging to 12th Wis & our regmt Just reed 
news that Merritt was still at Pittsburg all or Anything of in- 
terest herein you may publish 


COLUMBUS KY June 7, 1862 

Your letter from some where reached me at Leavenworth while 
I was enroute from Fort Riley to Pittsburgh 

My time here has been passed very pleasantly On the 2ond 
I invited Marcus J. Parrott to dine with me 29 I gave him Roast 
Chicken Potatoes Bread Coffee Butter & a Bottle of Sparkling 
Catawba We ha social time with some promises of future 
good friendship Which is somewhat refreshing in these times 
of unfaithfullness The next evening Genl Mitchell comd'g our 
Brigade Leut Lines & Pratt of his Staff Genl Quinby Capt Barton 
& Leut Erickson of his Staff the last three from Rochester called 
on me at my tent in camp which is about one half mile from 
town We had a pleasant chat I regaled them with Sparkling 
Catawba and it was appreciated too as no one else of the 5 or 6000 
troops here had the article 

The next day Maj Strong formerly of Granvile Washington Co 
N. Y. and Capt Norton son of Reuben Norton of Easton N. Y. and 
of the 12th Wis Volunteers dined with me And last nighft] 
Genl Quinby & Capt Barton made another social call Night 

29. Parrott, a resident of Leavenworth, had been a leader of the Free-State party during 
the territorial period and was twice territorial delegate to congress. It was he who tele- 
graphed news of the admission of Kansas to the Leavenworth Conservative. Parrott was at 
this time an assistant adjutant general of Kansas with the rank of captain. 



before last the band of the 12th Wis Vol composed of some 20 men 
with silver instrument serenaded me 

So you see I can hardly be lonesome 

Yet I desire to get out of the Army at an early day on account 
of some little differences in the Regt in reference to who shall be 
colonel Gov. Robinson wont commission me for the reason I 
have always belonged to the Lane party as its called Some 20 
of the officers are for me and some 15 for Lee 

Maj Blair has been commissioned Col by the Lt Gov Maj 
Lee has been com Col by Gov Robinson Col Jennison has been 
reinstated by order of the President I prefer to have Jennison 
and hope he will not be promoted to a Brigadiership As the 
matter now stands I am commanding the Regiment and I doubt 
whether Jennison will rejoin the regiment if not I will still con- 
tinue to command Two of our companies are at Moscow 12 
miles south on the Mobile and Ohio R. R Under Maj Herrick 
One Co is acting body Guard for Genl Mitchell Seven Com- 
panies are in Camp with me Col Jennison is absent Maj Lee 
just arrived Merritt come in last night Merritt says his trip 
to Pittsburgh was a pleasant one he is well, doing well & liked 
well I never was so well pleased with him as since he come 
into the service he makes a good officer and attends to his 

Marrying nearly ruined him Let every one at home let him 
rest refrain from writing him about his wife or himself as 
regards old matters or as regards future prospects Dont be 

We expect to move South in a few days As we now are well 
supplied with arms. In good fighting order 

All letters of a visiting nature send to me 

7th Regt Kan Vol 
Mitchells Kan Brigade 
Via Cairo 


(Part Four, the D. R. Anthony Letters of June 20- 

September 14, 1862, Will Appear in the 

Winter, 1958, Issue.) 

Bypaths of Kansas History 


From the Leavenworth Times, August 28, 1858. 

The last question which came before the Leavenworth Debating Club was: 
"Which is the most beautiful production; a girl or a strawberry?" After con- 
tinuing the argument two nights the meeting adjourned without coming to a 
conclusion; the old ones going for the strawberries, and the young ones for 
the girls. ^ 


From the Marysville Locomotive, August 27, 1870. 

A woman from this locality who left her husband's "bed and board" a few 
days ago, and took the "responsibilities" with her, dispatched the following 
consoling message to him: "You needn't worry any about the children 
none of 'em is yours." 


From the Washington Weekly Republican, May 30, 1873. 

An Atchison youth just fresh from college is about to bring suit against his 
sweet heart for breach of promise. He has learned that two negatives make 
an affirmative and is going to test it in the courts, as the idol of his heart has 
replied in the negative twice to his popping the question. 


From the Ellis County Star, Hays City, June 15, 1876. 

We learn from Mr. H. C. Allen of this city the following facts concerning a 
rough and tumble fight between W. N. Morphy, late of this city, and a nearly 
full grown buffalo calf, which for cool daring beats anything we have as yet 
heard of. On Tuesday last, while Messrs. Allen and Morphy were driving along 
the prairie between Buckner and the Saw Log a